Carbon sequestration in dryland soils Carbon sequestration ... ?· Carbon sequestration in dryland soils…

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<p>9 7 8 9 2 5 1 0 5 2 3 0 3</p> <p>TC/M/Y5738E/1/12.04/1100</p> <p>ISBN 92-5-105230-1 ISSN 0532-0488 </p> <p>Carbon sequestration in dryland soilsCarbon sequestration in dryland soils</p> <p>Carbon sequestrationin dryland soils</p> <p>This publication reflects part of FAO's work on soil carbon </p> <p>sequestration within the framework of its programme on </p> <p>the integrated planning and management of land resources </p> <p>for sustainable rural development. The report presents a </p> <p>comprehensive analysis of the scientific aspects and </p> <p>potential for carbon sequestration in drylands some of the </p> <p>most soil-degraded and impoverished regions of the world. </p> <p>It is based on case studies carried out across different land-</p> <p>use and management systems in several distinctive dryland </p> <p>areas. The report includes an overview of the policies and </p> <p>clarification of the different economic incentives regarding </p> <p>soil carbon sequestration in order to determine how </p> <p>available resources can be used and specific programmes can </p> <p>be implemented to improve the food security and rural </p> <p>livelihoods in drylands.</p> <p>WORLDSOIL</p> <p>RESOURCESREPORTS</p> <p>WORLD SOIL RESOURCES REPORTS</p> <p>102</p> <p>102FA</p> <p>OCarbon sequestration in dryland soils</p> <p>102ISSN</p> <p> 0532-0488</p> <p>Copies of FAO publications can be requested from:</p> <p>SALES AND MARKETING GROUPInformation DivisionFood and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsViale delle Terme di Caracalla00100 Rome, Italy</p> <p>E-mail: publications-sales@fao.orgFax: (+39) 06 57053360Web site: http://www.fao.org</p> <p>Cover photograph:Smallholder farmers weeding in a woodlot. Malawi. FAO/17754/.A. Conti</p> <p>Carbon sequestration in dryland soils</p> <p>FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF THE UNITED NATIONSRome, 2004</p> <p>WORLDSOIL</p> <p>RESOURCESREPORTS</p> <p>102</p> <p>The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.</p> <p>ISBN 92-5-105230-1</p> <p>All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this information product for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorized without any prior written permission from the copyright holders provided the source is fullyacknowledged. Reproduction of material in this information product for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the copyright holders. Applications for such permission should be addressed to: Chief Publishing Management ServiceInformation Division FAO Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy or by e-mail to: copyright@fao.org</p> <p> FAO 2004</p> <p>iii</p> <p>Contents</p> <p>Preface ix</p> <p>Summary xi</p> <p>Acknowledgements xiii</p> <p>List of acronyms xiv</p> <p>1. Introduction 1Climate change 1</p> <p>The terrestrial carbon cycle 2</p> <p>Soils and carbon sequestration 3</p> <p>The need of models to simulate changes in soil carbon 4</p> <p>Soil degradation 6</p> <p>2. The worlds drylands 7Definition of drylands 7</p> <p>Land degradation in drylands 7</p> <p>Distribution of drylands 10</p> <p>Soil and vegetation of drylands 10</p> <p>Characteristics of drylands that affect carbon sequestration 13</p> <p>Desertification and carbon sequestration 15</p> <p>3. Farming systems in drylands 17Introduction 17</p> <p>Characteristics of smallholder agriculture 17</p> <p>Examples of smallholder farming systems 19Agricultural intensification 19Extensive land use 21Soil fertility management 21Adding nutrients to the soil 22Reducing losses of nutrients from the soil 23Recycling nutrients 24Maximizing the efficiency of nutrient uptake 25Soil fertility management practices in the Sahel 25Building on local knowledge 27</p> <p>Realizing the biophysical potential for carbon sequestration in farming systems 28</p> <p>4. Biophysical aspects of carbon sequestration in drylands 31Introduction 31</p> <p>Halophytes 31</p> <p>Grasslands 31</p> <p>Burning 32</p> <p>Afforestation 33</p> <p>Residues 33</p> <p>iv</p> <p>Applied manures 35</p> <p>Inorganic fertilizers and irrigation 37</p> <p>Tillage 37</p> <p>Rotations 39</p> <p>Fallows 40</p> <p>Soil inorganic carbon 41</p> <p>Trace gases 41</p> <p>Climate change 41</p> <p>5. Case studies on drylands 43Models for analysing tropical dryland agricultural systems 43</p> <p>Approach adopted for parametizing RothC and CENTURY 43</p> <p>Choice of systems and sources of data 44</p> <p>Case study 1 Nigeria Kano Region 46</p> <p>Case study 2 India Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka States 53</p> <p>Case study 3 Kenya Makueni District 62</p> <p>Case study 4 Argentina Tucuman, Catamarca and Cordoba Provinces 69</p> <p>Case study 5 Senegal Old Peanut Basin 74</p> <p>Case study 6 Sudan Northern Kordofan Province 76</p> <p>6. Carbon sequestration projects 79Benefits from carbon trading 79</p> <p>Direct local costs and benefits 81</p> <p>Institutional and policy factors 82</p> <p>Carbon accounting and verification 84</p> <p>Risks and uncertainties for investors and farmers 85</p> <p>Planning, designing and managing carbon sequestration projects 86</p> <p>Policy and funding framework for carbon sequestration and poverty alleviation in drylands 90</p> <p>The Clean Development Mechanism of the Kyoto Protocol 91</p> <p>Carbon Funds 92</p> <p>BioCarbon Fund 92</p> <p>The Community Development Carbon Fund 92</p> <p>The Global Environment Facility 93</p> <p>Adaptation Fund 94</p> <p>Prototype Carbon Fund 94</p> <p>Conclusions 97</p> <p>References 99</p> <p>v</p> <p>List of figures</p> <p>1. Major carbon pools and fluxes of the global carbon balance 12. Terrestrial global carbon balance (simplified) 23. Soil carbon balance (simplified) 34. Distribution of drylands in the world 115. Major soil types of drylands 126. Major farming systems in the drylands (arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid) according to FAO, 2003 147. Smallholder farming systems in the Sahel and management strategies in the context of carbon 208. Changes in land use and soil fertility management, expressed in weighted points of importance/extent (1-10), as perceived by farmers in an intensified farming system in Senegal 239. Total soil carbon for Futchimiram settlement (CENTURY) 4710. Average annual change in total soil carbon for Futchimiram settlement (CENTURY) 4811. Total soil carbon for Kaska settlement (CENTURY) 4812. Average annual change in total soil carbon for Kaska settlement (CENTURY) 4913. Total soil carbon for Dagaceri settlement (CENTURY) 5014. Average annual change in total soil carbon for Dagaceri settlement (CENTURY) 5015. Total soil carbon for Tumbau settlement (CENTURY) 5116. Average annual change in total soil carbon for Tumbau settlement (CENTURY) 5217. Total soil carbon for a large farm (5 ha), Lingampally village (CENTURY) 5518. Average annual change (over 50 years) in total soil carbon for a large mixed farm, Lingampally village (CENTURY) 5619. Total soil carbon for a small rainfed farm, Lingampally village (CENTURY) 5620. Average annual change in total soil carbon for a small rainfed farm, Lingampally village (CENTURY) 5721. Total soil carbon for a large farm using irrigation and cultivating three crops per year, Lingampally village (CENTURY) 5822. Average annual change in total soil carbon for a large farm using irrigation, Lingampally village (CENTURY) 5823. Total soil carbon for a small mixed crop and livestock farm, Metalkunta village (CENTURY) 5924. Average annual change in total soil carbon for a small mixed crop and livestock farm, Metalkunta village (CENTURY) 5925. Total soil carbon for a small farm, Malligere village, Tumkur District (CENTURY) 6026. Average annual change in total soil carbon for a small farm, Malligere village, Tumkur District (CENTURY) 6127. Total soil carbon for Darjani settlement (CENTURY) 6328. Average annual change in total soil carbon for Darjani settlement (CENTURY) 6429. Total soil carbon for Kaiani settlement (CENTURY)...</p>