opportunities & challenges of soil carbon sequestration in indian conditions

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  • 1. Speaker : Sunil Kumar (A-2012-40-004) Opportunities & Challenges of Soil Carbon Sequestration in Indian Conditions
  • 2. Introduction Ways that carbon can be sequestered Soil carbon sequestration Opportunities to sequester carbon in soil Challenges in soil carbon sequestration Conclusion. OUTLINE 3
  • 3. INTRODUCTION 4
  • 4. Climate change is an important environmental issue that has captured the worlds attention during the recent past. Global climate change commonly referred to as global warming, is a serious environmental issue affecting human life and planet earth. 5
  • 5. The continued increase in CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is believed to be accelerated by human activities such as burning of fossil fuels and deforestation. One of the approaches to reducing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is carbon sequestration. 6
  • 6. Carbon sequestration Carbon Sequestration/CO2 storage is the placement of CO2 into a depository in such a way that it remains safely stored and not released back to the atmosphere.
  • 7. Carbon dioxide emission in top five countries CHINA, 9700 USA, 5420 INDIA, 1970 RUSSIA, 1830 JAPAN, 1240 Million tonnes per annum http://www.pbl.nl/en/, 2013Netherlands Environment Agency
  • 8. Sources of carbon dioxide emission Man made sources Industries Transportation Land use change Soil cultivation Biomass burning
  • 9. Natural sources Volcanoes Wild fires Decomposition Respiration Sources of carbon dioxide emission
  • 10. Ways that carbon can be sequestered Geological sequestration: Underground Ocean sequestration: Deep in ocean Terrestrial sequestration: In plants and soil
  • 11. Geological sequestration Carbon extracted from a coal or other fossil fuel is currently burned and emitted to air CO2 is captured as concentrated high pressure fluid. CO2 is shipped as supercritical fluid via pipeline to a selected, permitted injection site. CO2 injected at pressure into pore space at depths below and isolated (sequestered) from potable water. 12
  • 12. Various physical and geochemical trapping mechanisms would prevent the CO2 from escaping to the surface. For well-selected, designed and managed geological storage sites, the IPCC estimates that CO2 could be trapped for millions of years, and the sites are likely to retain over 99 per cent of the injected CO2 over 1,000 years. 13
  • 13. Ocean Sequestration Carbon is naturally stored in the ocean via two pumps, solubility and biological and there are analogous man made methods, direct injection and ocean fertilization, respectively. At the present time, approximately one third of human generated emissions are estimated to be entering the ocean.
  • 14. Geological and ocean carbon sequestration is not yet viable at a commercial level. Small scale projects demonstrated but carbon sequestration is still a developing technology due to high price of installing these carbon capture systems. 15
  • 15. Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration The process through which CO2 from the atmosphere is absorbed naturally through photosynthesis & stored as carbon in biomass & soils.
  • 16. SOIL CARBON SEQUESTRATION Soil is a major source and sink of atmospheric CO. Soil carbon sequestration refers to the storage of carbon in soil. The awareness of green house gas emissions and concerns about the global warming have led to an increased interest in sequestering carbon in soils. 17
  • 17. SOIL :THE LARGEST TERRESTRIAL CARBON POOL The global soil carbon pool amounts to 2500 Gt. The total soil carbon pool is four times the biotic pool and three times the atmospheric pool. Soil organic carbon stocks in soils of India have been estimated to be 21 Pg (upper 30 cm) and 63 Pg (upper 150 cm). Lal (2004)
  • 18. Benefits of Soil Carbon Sequestration Improved agricultural performance Increased soil fertility Healthier ecology Improved soil structure Less erosion Better water use and storage Improved biodiversity
  • 19. Opportunities to sequester carbon in soil Crop management Tillage & Residue management Nutrient management Agroforestry & Grasslands 20
  • 20. Crop Management Strategies for C Sequestration Enhance C inputs Reduce C losses Crop rotations Fallow management To increase soil carbon levels, we need crop rotations that reduce fallow periods. Especially rotations with fallow periods during the summer when temperatures result in maximum soil respiration rates. 21
  • 21. Carbon sequestration rate in rice-wheat and maize-wheat system (0-60 cm profile) Kukal et al. (2009) Sandy loam pH=7.9 Ludhiana Treatments Carbon sequestration rate (kg ha-1 yr-1) Rice -wheat Maize-wheat N120 130 30 N120P 30 190 40 N120P30K 30 260 80 FYM 20 t ha-1 310 140 LSD (0.05) 40 30 22
  • 22. Long term effect of manure and fertilizers on total organic carbon (g kg-1) under rice-wheat-jute system 6.1 5.1 5.7 6.3 7.4 7.9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fallow Control N NP NPK NPK + FYM 0-15 cm Barrackpore (West Bengal), pH = 7.1 Manna et al. (2006) Initial TOC=7.12
  • 23. Treatments Years 2004- 2005 2005- 2006 Coconut + banana 1.23 1.25 Coconut + maize 1.18 1.21 Coconut + pineapple 1.25 1.30 CD(0.05) 0.05 0.04 Sudha and George (2011) Soil organic carbon (%) under different cropping systems at 0-15 cm soil depth Thiruvananthapuram, Clay loam, pH-5.8 24
  • 24. Change in total organic carbon (Mg ha-1) under different treatments at 0-15 cm depth in rice-wheat cropping system 0 5 10 15 20 25 Fallow Control NPK NPK + FYM NPK +PS NPK + GM 18.8 14.7 17.8 21.3 19.9 18.3 BCKV, West Bengal (Sandy loam, pH- 7.2) Ghosh et al. (2012) PS=Paddy straw, GM=Green manure
  • 25. Soil organic carbon (g kg-1) in rice-wheat system Benbi and Brar (2009) 26 Ludhiana
  • 26. Tillage and Residue management 27
  • 27. Effect of straw management and tillage system on organic carbon and carbon sequestration in soil after wheat Treatments Organic carbon (%) C sequestered (%) Straw burned- CT 0.35 - Straw burned- ZT 0.36 - Straw incorporated- CT 0.44 16.6 Straw mulched- ZT 0.48 25.2 CD (0.05) 0.05 - Singh et al. (2009)Ludhiana (Sandy loam, pH-7.8) CT= Conventional tillage, ZT= Zero tillage 28
  • 28. Soil organic carbon stock (Mg ha-1 yr-1) under lantana application M0 F100% M10 F100% M20 F100% M30 F100% 0.06 0.31 0.41 0.46 Palampur Raina (2007) Lantana application on fresh weight basis. M0= 0, M10=10 t/ha, M20= 20 t/ha, M30= 30 t/ha Silty clay loam
  • 29. Treatments Year 2004- 2005 2005- 2006 Residue management Surface mulching 1.31 1.37 Residue incorporation 1.13 1.13 CD (0.05) 0.04 0.04 Tillage Conventional tillage 1.22 1.22 Reduced tillage 1.22 1.29 CD (0.05) NS 0.04 Sudha and George (2011) Soil organic carbon (%) under residue management and tillage at 0-15 cm soil depth Thiruvananthapuram, Clay loam, pH-5.8 Coconut based cropping system, maize, banana, pineapple 30
  • 30. Treatments Mean annual C input (Mg ha1) Stubble Root RD C input through crop residue C input through organics Total C input Control 0.05 0.22 0.31 0.59 e - 0.59 25 kg N (urea) 0.08 0.29 0.41 0.78 c - 0.78 50 kg N (urea) 0.09 0.33 0.46 0.85 b - 0.85 25 kg N (FYM)+25 kg N (urea) 0.10 0.31 0.44 0.87 b 1.48 2.35 25 kg N (CR)+25 kg N (urea) 0.09 0.29 0.41 0.80 c 2.22 3.02 25 kg N (Leucaena)+25 kg N (urea) 0.08 0.24 0.33 0.65 d 0.28 0.93 25 kg N (CR)+25 kg N (Leucaena) 0.10 0.33 0.46 0.90 a 2.50 3.40 Srinivasarao et al. (2012) Carbon input to soil from rainfed sorghum under different fertilizer and manurial treatments Hyderabad Clay pH= 8.0

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