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  1. 1. Site Analysis of Lembah Bujang Archeological Museum Prepared by: Maria Rosa Seu, Claire Zhuang, Mahi Abdul Muhsin, Alvin Mungur
  2. 2. History of Lembah Bujang
  3. 3. z 1474 10th- 14th Century AD 10th Century AD 8th 9th Century AD 7th 8th Century AD 7th Century AD Between 5th and 4th Century AD 1st Century AD Kedah ruler, Sultan Muzaffar Shah, converted to Islam, followed by his people. Pengkalan Bujang becomes an entrepot. Lembah Bujang residents returned to Hinduism and opened new settlements in Sungai Muda. Mahayana Buddhism influence made a comeback in Kedah. The shape of temples and the direction they faced indicated the Linga practiced by Kedah Hindus. Tang Dynasty monk I- Ching, noted that the kingdom was a center of trade and commerce. Hindu & Buddhist influences arrive. Kedahs early history began in Lembah Bujang. Brief Timeline of Lembah Bujang Civilization: 1200 Years old. Floor Plan
  4. 4. Religion & Culture in Lembah Bujang
  5. 5. The 3 main religions that were prominent in Lembah Bujang were: Animism Buddhism Hinduism
  6. 6. Animism Earliest form of belief in Lembah Bujang before any other religion. The belief that everything in this worl, including plants and inanimate objects, has a soul or spirit. Excavation of candis and ancient artefacts support the fact that the first dwellers in Lembah Bujang believed in animism.
  7. 7. Hinduism Lembah Bujang was an important ancient Hindu kingdom in South East Asia. Hindu influences arrived from the 4th to 5th century. Hinduism diminished for a few centuries until the 10th century, where new settlements in Sungai Muda were created and the religion made a resurgence. Kedah became the center of power and economy due to its strategic place. It had very close connections with many countries of the ancient world. These relations helped spread Hindu culture and religion to the Malays. Hinduism affected the architecture and spatial layout of the candis.
  8. 8. Buddhism Buddhism phase from the 5th to the 10th century. Dominantly in Bukit Meriam, Bukit Choras and the places by the beach. Glory of Srivijaya From the 7th to 9th century, Lembah Bujang was under the control of the Srivijaya. Trading activities began to blossom and Hinduism started to spread as it was near Srivijaya.When Lembah Bujang reached its entrepot status, Hindu Buddhism was widely spread to Matang, Pasir, Merbok, Batu Lintang and Tikam Batu. The outcome of the introduction of these religions has brought to the invention of many religious artifacts and also candis. Eg. Artefacts such as beads, broken pieces of ceramic vases, glasses and porcelain. Besides that, there were many religious Buddhist statues that was made.
  9. 9. Main Activities in Lembah Bujang
  10. 10. Iron Smelting Iron smelting was a popular activity in Lembah Bujang from the 3rd-5th Century A.D. This is supported by findings of metal artefacts, remains of furnaces, thousands of iron ores, tuyeres and slags. The widespread availability of ironin Lembah Bujang allowed for society to come up with innovative technology to smelt iron. With the existence of iron smelting technology, Lembah Bujang is widely known as Kadaram (Sanskrit : Iron), indicating how well the area was known as an industrialized kingdom. Furnaces of different shapes and sizes are found in many places in Lembah Bujang, proving how active this places was as an iron smelting port.
  11. 11. Trading It was the imposing peak of Mount Jerai that first captivated the travel weary traders from the Far East to anchor at Bujang Valley. After travelling for months in the high seas, the 1,217 metre Mount Jerai must have been a welcoming sight for the seafarers. That was a landmark for the sailors after so many weeks at sea. The route to China was too long to sail and the monsoon arrived. Heavy rainfall and devastating hurricanes are dangerous at sea. Their ships could go down and they had to wait until the monsoon was over. As Kedah is located at the centre between the journey, it was a perfect spot for the Indian and Chinese to shelter themselves as they wait for the monsoon season to pass.
  12. 12. At the mean time, while the traders from China and India waited for the monsoon season to pass, they created a trading centre in Lembah Bujang, trading good from their home country such as textiles and ceramics from China, Maniks and spices from India in return with local forest harvest , shelter and other resources. Effectively, it became an entrepot; port, city or trading post where merchandise may be imported, stored and/or traded, typically to beexported again. In the days of wind-powered sailing, such centers had a critical role. During the wait, traders from overseas also bring in their own religion and also cultures to the inhabitants in Lembah Bujang. Buddhist inscriptions found in the valley were proof that the Indians traders were already making frequent visits to the area since the early periods, therefore explains why Lembah Bujang has a strong connection with the Indians. Trading
  13. 13. An artist's impression of trade activities in Lembah Bujang during ancient times. Picture from the Bujang Valley Archaeological Museum.
  14. 14. Site Plan
  15. 15. Key Plan
  16. 16. Micro Site Plan
  17. 17. Cross Sections
  18. 18. Vegetation
  19. 19. Moisture of Site Area
  20. 20. Hydrology Cycle on Site Area
  21. 21. Vegetation Specifics Bengal Bamboo Height: 1.2-2.4m Diameter: 3 inch Characteristics: A type of grass; Stems has dark green straight stalky culms; Leaves are long and narrow and green in color Areca Gurita Family: Arecaceae Characteristics: Rachillae of Areca Gurita are recurved and resemble octopus tentacles, and the flowers are mostly arranged in one row. flowers arranged spirally on the rachillae Hawaiian Red Ti Plant Height: 0.9-1.2m Characteristics: A palmlike evergreen shrub with a strong, usually unbranched trunk. Leaves may be glossy green, reddish purple, or marked with various combinations of purple, red, yellow or white.
  22. 22. Bougainvillea Height: 1-12m Characteristics: With spiky thorns in black and waxy substance; leaves are alternate and simple ovate-acuminate; 0.04-0.13m long and 0.02-0.06m broad Keruing Tree Family: Dipterocarpaceae Height: 25-45m Diameter: 3-6 inches Characteristics: generic name comes from Greek and means "two-winged fruits". Overall appearance and grain patterning is rather homogenous and bland. Vegetation Specifics
  23. 23. Cyrtostachys Renda (Lipstick palm tree) Family: Arecaceae Characteristics: name derived from Greek word: "an ear of grain. rare and exotic because of the time it takes for a seed to germinate and palm availability. native to Thailand, Borneo, Malaysia and Sumatra. -needs high humidity, a lot of water, and is not tolerant of drought or wind. Meranti Tree Height: 20-40m Diameter: 1-2m Characteristics: dark reddish or purplish brown in colour with white resin streaks; rough surface Vegetation Specifics
  24. 24. Malaysia Dracaena: Family: Asparagacaea Category: Tropical and tender perennials Height: 1.8-2.4 m/ 1.2-1.5m Characteristics: The leaves generally have green central areas surrounded on both sides with yellow. Bonsai Tree Height: 1.2-2m Characteristics: Can be created from nearly any perennial woody- stemmed tree or shrub species that produces true branches -uses cultivation techniques like pruning, root reduction, potting, defoliation and grafting to produce small trees that mimic the shape and style of mature, full-size trees. Vegetation Specifics
  25. 25. Views And Vistas
  26. 26. VIEWS THROUGH SITE
  27. 27. PANAROMIC VIEWS OUTSIDE THE MUSEUM
  28. 28. Circulation & Access
  29. 29. Getting to Kedah by Motor Transport Kuala Lumpur Kedah Take the route via North-South Expy/E1 About 4 hours and 30 mins drive 437 km
  30. 30. Accessibility to Lembah Bujang Route from Sungai Petani is 20.9 km. Route from Alor Star is 70km. The Bujang Valley Archaeological Museum is 2.5 km from Merbok town. There is no direct public transport to the museum, however, visitors can hire a taxi from the nearest town, Sungai Petani, which is only a 20-minute drive from Merbok town. Alternatively, they can also get a taxi from the capital city of Kedah, Alor Star which is 70 km from Merbok town.
  31. 31. Density of Vehicles Type of vehicles and users: 29%27% 44% Tourists Workers Workers Locals Tourist (Group) 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100%
  32. 32. According to seasons: Normal Days Weekends Public Holiday Low Density High Density Density of Vehicles
  33. 33. Light Transportation
  34. 34. Heavy Transportation
  35. 35. Bicycle and Mortorcycle
  36. 36. Pedestrian Walkway
  37. 37. Climatic Data of Lembah Bujang
  38. 38. Average Temperature (April): 31 32 33 33 34 34 33 25 26 24 24 25 26 26 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 HIGHEST TEMPERATURE LOWEST TEMPERATURE
  39. 39. Average Precipitation on a Typical Day: 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 1:00 PM4:00 PM7:00 PM 10:00 PM 1:00 AM 4:00 AM 7:00 AM 10:00 AM Chart Title SUNNY DAY RAINY/ WINDY DAY
  40. 40. Average Humidity: 66% 68% 70% 72% 74% 76% 78% SUNDAY SATURDAY FRIDAY THURSDAY WEDNESDAY TUESDAY MONDAY AVERAGE HUMIDITY PERCENTAGE Series 1
  41. 41. Sun Path
  42. 42. Sunpath Diagram Maria Rosa Seu Sun path during site visit (22nd of April)
  43. 43. Wind Direction
  44. 44. Maria Rosa Seu
  45. 45. Noise at Site
  46. 46. Maria Rosa Seu