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    Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth andassociated companies around the world

    Kerry Whalle

    Carol Nevill

    Geoff Phillip

    Faye Jeffer

    Karin Johnston

    Peter Roberso

    Greg Rickar

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    Pearson Education AustraliaA division of Pearson Australia Group Pty LtdLevel 9, 5 Queens RoadMelbourne 3004 Australiawww.pearsoned.com.au/schools

    Offices in Sydney, Brisbane and Perth, and associated companiesthroughout the world.

    Copyright Pearson Education Australia 2005First published 2005

    All rights reserved. Except under the conditions described in theCopyright Act 1968 of Australia and subsequent amendments, nopart of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrievalsystem or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without theprior permission of the copyright owner.

    Designed by Polar DesignEdited by Writers ReignIllustrated by Wendy Gorton and Bruce RankinPrepress work by The Type Factory

    Set in Melior 10 ptProduced by Pearson Education AustraliaPrinted in Hong Kong

    National Library of AustraliaCataloguing-in-Publication data:

    Science Focus 2.

    Includes index.For secondary school students.

    ISBN 0 1236 0445 1.

    1. Science - Textbooks. I. Whalley, Kerry.

    500

    ii

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    UNIT

    UN

    IT

    UN

    IT

    UNIT

    UNIT

    5 Electricity

    5.1 Static electricity

    5.2 Moving electricity

    5.3 Using electricity Science focus:Solar challenge

    Chapter review

    6 Ecology

    6.1 Ecosystems

    6.2 Physical attributes of an ecosystem

    6.3 Food chains and food webs:

    interactions of life

    6.4 Effects of human civilisation on

    the ecosystem

    Science focus:The right balance

    a human problem Chapter review

    7 Plant systems

    7.1 Plant transport systems

    7.2 Photosynthesis and respiration

    7.3 Leaves

    Chapter review

    8 Astronomy

    8.1 Space rocks

    8.2 The night sky

    8.3 The Milky Way and other galaxies

    8.4 Satellites and remote sensing

    Chapter review

    9 Team research project

    9.1 Teamwork and topics

    9.2 Planning your investigation

    9.3 Testing and evaluation

    Chapter review

    Index

    Acknowledgements iv

    Introduction v

    Curriculum grids viii

    Verbs 1

    1 Science skills 2

    1.1 What, why and how? 3

    1.2 Scientific research 7

    Science focus:Scientific method: the path to

    greater understanding 12

    1.3 Better measurements 15

    1.4 Scientific conventions 22

    Chapter review 28

    2 Atoms 29

    2.1 Elements, compounds and mixtures 30

    2.2 Physical and chemical change 38

    2.3 Inside atoms 46

    Science focus:Atomic models 50

    Chapter review 53

    3 Microbes 55

    3.1 What is a microbe? 56

    3.2 Reproduction in microbes 64

    3.3 Friend or foe? 70

    Chapter review 76

    4Body systems

    78

    4.1 Food 79

    4.2 Digestion 89

    4.3 Blood and circulation 98

    4.4 Excretion: getting rid of wastes 108

    4.5 Respiratory systems 111

    Science focus:Spare parts 118

    Chapter review 122

    UNIT

    UNIT

    UNIT

    UNIT

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    iv

    We would like to thank the following for permission toreproduce photographs, texts and illustrations.

    Andromeda Oxford Limited: Based on originalartwork from Ecology & Environment: The Cyclesof Lifeby Sally Morgan, Oxford University Press NYAndromeda Oxford Limited 1995, figure 6.3.4.

    Anglo-Australian Observatory / David MalinImages: figures 8.2.2, 8.3.1.

    ANT Photo Library: B.G. Thomson, figure 6.1.5;M.J. Tyler, figure 6.4.7.

    Auscape International Photo Library: AndrewHenley, figure 6.4.6.

    Australian Associated Press: figure 2.1.3.

    Australian Picture Library:figures 1.3.14, 3.1.6, SF6.1a, SF 6.1b, SF 6.3, 7.0.1, 7.2.7, 7.3.4; Hulton-DeutschCollection/Corbis, figure 1.1.1a; Hermann/Starke, figure2.2.2; Digital Art, figure 3.1.14; Lester V. Bergman/Corbis, figures 3.2.5b, 4.3.11; Lester Lefkowitz, figure4.0.1; Paul A. Souders, figure 5.1.7; John Carnemolla,figure 6.1.8; Galen Rowell, figure 6.2.5; Jonathan Blair,figure 6.2.7; Michael & Patricia Fogden, figure 6.3.9.

    Dr Charles Vacanti: provided by Pearson AssetLibrary, figure SF 4.3.

    Coo-ee Picture Library: figure 6.1.4.

    CSIRO Publishing:figure 6.1.7, 8.2.8; CSIRO HumanNutrition and The Cancer Council South AustraliaReproduced from 12345+ Food and Nutrition Plan (KBaghurst et al., 1990) by permission of CSIRO Australiaand The Cancer Council South Australia, figure 4.1.4.

    Dorling Kindersley: figures 2.1.2c, 5.0.1; MaxAlexander, figure 2.1.2a; Erik Svensson & JeppeWikstrom, figure 2.1.2b; Steve Gorton, 4.3.1; AndyCrawford, figure 4.4.1; Based on original artwork fromNature Encyclopediaby David Burnie, JonathanElphic et al, figure 6.1.2.

    Fundamental Photographs: NYC Richard Menga,

    figure 2.2.4.Getty: figure 6.1.3.

    Global Publishing: Based on original artwork fromAnatomica: The Complete Reference Guide to theHuman Body, figure SF 4.5.

    HarperCollins Publishers Ltd:figure 1.3.11.

    Dr Ian Jamie:figure 1.1.2.

    Kerry Whalley: figures 9.1.3, 9.2.1, 9.2.4, 9.3.1a, 9.3.1b, 9.4.1.

    NASA: figures SF 5.3c, 8.0.1, 8.1.1, 8.3.4, 8.3.5, 8.3.68.3.7, 8.4.0, 8.4.6, 8.4.7, 8.4.10, 8.4.11; Glen ResearchCenter, figure 8.4.2.

    The National Library of Australia: figure SF 6.5; JoAllcot, figure SF 6.4.

    Oxford University Press: copyright from The YouOxford Book of Ecologyby Michael Scott (OUP, 199reprinted by permission of Oxford University Press,figure 6.4.2.

    Pearson Education Australia: Anna Small, figures2.2.1, SF 5.3a; Elizabeth Anglin, figures 1.1.4, 2.1.5,2.1.11c, 3.1.3, 3.1.9, 3.1.15, 3.3.2, 3.3.3, 3.3.6, 4.1.1,4.1.2, 4.1.3, 4.3.22, SF 5.1, SF 5.3d, 8.1.3; Karly Aberyfigures 3.1.10c, 3.3.1; Kim Nolan, figure 3.3.8; TriciaConfoy, figure 2.2.3.

    Photolibrary:figures 1.1.1b, 1.1.1c, 2.0.1, 2.1.2d, 2.12.3.3, 3.0.1, 3.1.4, 3.2.8, 3.3.9a, 3.3.9b, 3.3.9c, 4.3.4,4.3.6, 4.3.19, 4.4.4, 5.2.9, 6.1.6, 6.2.1, 6.2.4, 6.3.10,7.1.7, 7.2.1, 7.2.2, 7.3.2, 8.1.2, 8.1.4, 8.1.5, 8.1.7, 8.2.48.2.6, 8.3.3, 8.4.5, 8.4.9, 9.2.2; Graham J. Hills, figure2.1.8; Dr Tony Brain & David Parker, figure 3.1.1;Samuel Ashfield, figure 3.1.2; Jackie Lewin, EM UnitRoyal Free Hospital, figure 3.1.8; Susumu Nishinaga,figure 3.1.10d; Sinclair Stammers, figure 3.1.11; Astri& Hanns-Frieder Michler, figure 3.1.12a; Laguna Desifigure 3.1.12b; David Scharf, figure 3.2.1b; ClaudeNuridsany & Marie Perennou, figure 3.2.4; Jean-Loup

    Charmet, figure 3.3.5; John Heseltine, figure 3.3.7;National Cancer Institute, figure 4.3.2; Du Cane MediImaging Limited, figure 4.4.2; Alred Pasieka, figure4.5.2; Klaus Guldbrandsen, figure SF 4.2; James KingHolmes, figure SF 4.4; Volker Steger, figure 6.3.5; SheTerry, figure 6.3.8; Dr Jeremy Burgess, figures 7.1.3,7.2.4; St Marys Hospital Medical School, figure 9.3.2

    Skymaps.com: figure 8.2.7.

    Thomson Learning:Based on original artwork fromThe Joy of Chemistry, 1st Edition 1976, reprintedwith permission of Brooks/Cole, an imprint of the

    Wadsworth Group, a division of Thomson Learning,figure 1.3.9.

    World Solar Challenge: figures SF 5.6a, SF 5.6b, SF5.6c.

    Every effort has been made to trace and acknowledgecopyright. However, should any infringement haveoccurred, the publishers tender their apologies andinvite the copyright owners to contact them.

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    Coursebook

    The coursebook consists of nine chapters with the

    following features.

    Chapter opening pages include:

    the key

    prescribed

    focus areafor

    the chapter

    outcomes

    presented in

    a way that

    students

    can easily

    understand

    pre quiz

    questions

    to stimulate

    interest and test

    prior knowledge.

    Chapter unitsopen with a context to encourage

    students to make meaning of science in terms oftheir everyday experiences. The units also reinforce

    contextual learning by presenting theory, photos,

    illustrationsand science focus segments in a format

    that is easy to read and follow.

    Each PFAhas one Science Focusspecial

    feature which uses a contextual approach to focus

    specifically on the outcomes of that PFA. Student

    activities on these pages allow further investigation

    and exploration of the material covered.

    The Science Focusseries has been written for the NSW Science syllabus, stages 4 and 5. It includes material th

    addresses the learning outcomes in the domains of knowledge, understanding and skills. Each chapter address

    at least one prescribed focus area in detail. The content is presented through many varied contexts to engage

    students in seeing the relationship between science and their everyday lives. By learning from the Science Foc

    series students will become confident, creative, responsible and scientifically literate members of society.

    Each unit ends with a set of questions. These

    begin with straightforward checkpoint questionsthat build confidence, leading to think, analyse

    and skills questions that require further thought an

    application. Questions incorporate the syllabus ver

    so that students can begin to practise answering

    questions as required in examinations in later years

    The extension questions

    can be set for further

    exploration and assignment

    work and include a variety