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    File Attachment2000d21bcoverv05b.jpg

  • Fundamentals of Total Quality Management

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  • Fundamentals of Total Quality Management

    Process analysis and improvement

    Jens J.Dahlgaard Division of Quality and Human Systems Engineering,

    Linkping University, Sweden

    Kai Kristensen Aarhus School of Business,

    Aarhus, Denmark

    and

    Gopal K.Kanji Centre for Quality and Innovation,

    Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK

    LONDON AND NEW YORK

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  • Text Jens J. Dahlgaard, Kai Kristensen and Gopal K. Kanji 2002 Original illustrations Taylor & Francis 2002

    The right of Jens J. Dahlgaard, Kai Kristensen and Gopal K. Kanji to be identified as authors of this work has been asserted by them in accordance

    with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

    All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or under licence from the Copyright Licensing Agency Limited, of 90 Tottenham Court Road, London W1T 4LP. Any person who commits any unauthorised act in relation to this publication

    may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages.

    First published in 1998 by: Taylor & Francis

    This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2007.

    To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledges collection of thousands of eBooks

    please go to www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk.

    Transferred to Digital Printing 2005 02 03 04 05/10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

    ISBN 0-203-93002-9 Master e-book ISBN

    ISBN 0 7487 7293 6 (Print Edition)

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  • Contents

    Preface x

    Part One Fundamentals of Total Quality Management 1

    1 Introduction 3

    2 Historical evolution of Total Quality Management 7

    3 Some definitions of quality 11

    3.1 Exceptional 12

    3.2 Perfection or consistency 12

    3.3 Fitness for purpose 13

    3.4 Value for money 13

    3.5 Transformative 13

    3.6 Conclusion 14

    4 Philosophy, principles and concepts of TQM 16

    4.1 The foundation and the four sides of the TQM pyramid 17

    4.2 Focus on the customer and the employee 22

    4.3 Focus on facts 26

    4.4 Continuous improvements 32

    4.5 Everybodys participation 35

    5 Quality management systems and standardization 42

    5.1 The concept of system 42

    5.2 Quality management systems 43

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  • 5.3 Joharrys new window on standardization and causes of quality failures 45

    5.4 Standardization and creativity 53

    5.5 ISO 9000 and BS 5750a stepping stone to TQM? 55

    6 The European Quality Award 60

    6.1 The background to the European Quality Award 61

    6.2 The model 62

    6.3 Assessment criteria 64

    6.4 Experiences of the European Quality Award 66

    Part Two Methods of Total Quality Management 70

    7 Tools for the quality journey 72

    7.1 The quality story 72

    7.2 The seven+ tools for quality control 74

    7.3 Check sheets 76

    7.4 The Pareto diagram 78

    7.5 The cause-and-effect diagram and the connection with the Pareto diagram and stratification

    80

    7.6 Histograms 85

    7.7 Control charts 89

    7.8 Scatter diagrams and the connection with the stratification principle 104

    7.9 Case example: problem solving in a QC circle using some of the seven tools (Hamanako Denso)

    105

    7.10 Flow Charts 113

    7.11 Relationship between the tools and the PDCA cycle 117

    8 Some new management techniques 119

    8.1 Matrix data analysis 120

    8.2 Affinity analysis 124

    8.3 Matrix diagrams 126

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  • 8.4 Prioritization matrices and analytical hierarchies 129

    8.5 An example 134

    9 Measurement of quality: an introduction 138

    10 Measurement of customer satisfaction 144

    10.1 Introduction 144

    10.2 Theoretical considerations 144

    10.3 A practical procedure 146

    11 Measurement of employee satisfaction 154

    11.1 Set up focus with employees to determine relevant topics 154

    11.2 Design the questionnaire including questions about both evaluation and importance for each topic

    155

    11.3 Compile presentation material for all departments andpresent the material to the departments

    157

    11.4 Carry out the survey 157

    11.5 Report at both total and departmental level 157

    11.6 Form improvement teams 159

    11.7 Hold an employee conference 159

    12 Quality checkpoints and quality control points 160

    13 Quality measurement in product development 163

    13.1 Definition of the quality concept from a measurement point of view 163

    13.2 Direct measurement of quality 164

    13.3 Indirect measurement of quality 170

    14 Quality costing 183

    14.1 The concept of TQM and quality costs 183

    14.2 A new method to estimate the total quality costs 186

    14.3 Advantages and disadvantages of the new method to estimate total quality costs

    190

    14.4 Quality cost measurement and continuous improvements 192

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  • 15 Benchmarking 196

    15.1 What is benchmarking? 197

    15.2 What can be benchmarked? 200

    15.3 How is benchmarking carried through? 203

    Part Three Process Management and Improvement 207

    16 Leadership, policy deployment and quality motivation 209

    16.1 Introduction 209

    16.2 The PDCA Leadership Modela model for policy deployment 209

    16.3 Leadership and quality motivation 212

    16.4 Conclusion 222

    17 Implementation process 224

    17.1 Introduction 224

    17.2 Four stages of implementation 224

    17.3 Plan 224

    17.4 Do 227

    17.5 Check 228

    17.6 Act 232

    18 Quality culture and learning 235

    18.1 Introduction 235

    18.2 The concept of culture 236

    18.3 Organizational theory and corporate culture 237

    18.4 Corporate culture 237

    18.5 Classifying a culture 240

    18.6 Corporate and quality culture 242

    18.7 Working with quality culture 246

    18.8 Quality culture, quality improvement and TQM 249

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  • 18.9 Quality learning 253

    18.10 Conclusion 257

    19 Milliken Denmark A/S case studies: leadership, participation and quality costing

    260

    19.1 Context, imperatives for change and objectives for quality management

    260

    19.2 History of quality management 263

    19.3 Measurement of quality costs (the results of quality management) 275

    19.4 Conclusion 283

    20 International Service System A/S case studies: the winning hand 286

    20.1 Changing for the futureadhering to our core beliefs: preface by Group Chief Executive Waldemar Schmidt

    286

    20.2 Context, imperatives for change and objectives for quality management

    288

    20.3 History of quality management 291

    20.4 Some results 311

    20.5 Conclusion 315

    Appendix A 317

    Appendix B 318

    Index 320

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  • Preface

    The principles of TQM have proven very valuable to individuals, groups of peop