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  • 1. 3-1
    Anatomy and Physiology
    Cells

2. 3-2
Chapter 3
Cell Structure and Function
3. 3-3
Cell Characteristics
Plasma Membrane
Outer cell boundary
Cytoplasm
Cytosol
Cytoskeleton
Cytoplasmic inclusions
Organelles
Specialized structures that perform specific functions
4. 3-4
Functions of the Cell
Basic unit of life
Protection and support
Movement
Communication
Cell metabolism and energy release
Inheritance
5. 3-5
6. 3-6
Plasma Membrane
Intracellular versus extracellular
Membrane potential
Glycolipids and glycoproteins
Fluid-mosaic model
7. 3-7
Membrane Lipids
Phospholipids form a lipid bilayer
Hydrophilic (water-loving) polar heads
Hydrophobic (water-fearing) nonpolar heads
Cholesterol: Determines fluid nature of membrane
8. 3-8
Membrane Proteins
Integral or intrinsic
Extend from one surface to the other
Peripheral or extrinsic
Attached to either the inner or outer surfaces of the lipid bilayer
9. 3-9
Marker Molecules
Allow cells to identify on another or other molecules
Glycoproteins
Glycolipids
Examples:
Immune system
Recognition of oocyte by sperm cell
10. 3-10
Channel Proteins
Nongated ion channels
Always open
Ligand gated ion channel
Open in response to small molecules that bind to proteins or glycoproteins
Voltage-gated ion channel
Open when there is a change in charge across the plasma membrane
11. 3-11
Receptors
Receptor molecules
Exposed receptor site
Linked to channel proteins
Acetylcholine
Linked to G proteins
Alter activity on inner surface of plasma membrane
12. 3-12
Enzymes and Carrier Proteins
13. 3-13
Movement through the Plasma Membrane
Diffusion
Osmosis
Filtration
Mediated transport mechanisms
Facilitated diffusion
Active transport
Secondary active transport