Phylum Echinodermata Notes - Sardis Secondary Echinodermata...General characteristics Hard, spiny, or bumpy endoskeleton covered with a thin ... Phylum Echinodermata Includes

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<ul><li><p>PhylumEchinodermataBiology11</p></li><li><p> Spiny Radialsymmetry Watervascularsystem Endoskeleton</p><p>Generalcharacteristics</p></li><li><p> Hard,spiny,orbumpyendoskeletoncoveredwithathinepidermis.</p><p> Endoskeletoncomposedofcalciumcarbonate(limestone).</p><p> Somespinesaremodifiedintopedicellariae forprotectionorselfcleaning.</p><p> Canbeeitherrigid(aswhenwetrytopulloneoffofarock)orveryflexible(whenrightingitself),sinceendoskeletonismadeofplatesjoinedbymuscleswhichcancontractorrelax.</p><p>Endoskeleton</p></li><li><p> Enablessessile&amp;slowmovinganimalstosensepotentialfood,predators,andotheraspectsoftheirenvironmentfromalldirections</p><p>RadialSymmetry</p></li><li><p> 1.ClassAsteroidea: Ex.Seastars Mostspecieshave5ormorearms</p><p> 2.ClassOphiuroidea: Ex.BrittleStar&amp;basketstar Compactsize;movequickly Armsusedformotility</p><p>EchinodermDiversity</p></li><li><p> 3.ClassCrinoidea: Ex.Sealilies&amp;featherstar Fewlivingspeciesremain Sealiliesareattachedtotheoceanfloor Featherstarsbeginattachedbutbreak</p><p>awayandswimfreely</p><p> 4.ClassEchinoidea: Ex.Seaurchin&amp;sanddollar Bodiesshapedlikespheresordisks;no</p><p>arms Solid,internalshell Specialfeedingstructurescalled</p><p>Aristotleslantern:madeupoffivesharp,triangulartoothlikesstructuressurroundingthemouth</p><p>EchinodermDiversity</p></li><li><p> 5.ClassHolothuroidea: Ex.Seacucumber Noarms;elongatedbody Bilaterallysegmented Lieandmoveononesideonly</p><p>EchinodermDiversity</p></li><li><p>SeaStars(ClassAsteroidea)</p></li><li><p> Radialsymmetry Haveadorsalandventralside,butnoanteriorandposteriorends</p><p> Fivepartbodyplan NOcephalization(i.e.nobrain)</p><p>SeaStarGeneralCharacteristics</p></li><li><p> MovementcarriedoutbyWATERVASCULARSYSTEM WVS:Anetworkoffluidfilledtubesthatenabletheseastarto</p><p>move Alongtheundersideofeachoftheseastarsarmsaremany</p><p>pairsofTUBEFEET Tubefeet:externalstructuresofthewatervascularsystem</p><p> OntopofeachtubefootisanAMPULLA Ampulla:muscularsacthathelpsforcewaterthroughtheWVS</p><p> Musclesoftheampullaecontract,pushingwaterintothetubefootcausingittoextend</p><p> Whenthefootattachestoasurface,itcontracts,pushingthewaterbackintotheampullaeandpullingtheseastarforward</p><p>SeaStarMovementandSupport</p></li><li><p> Systemenablesthemtomove,exchangegases,capturefood,andexcretewastes</p><p> Waterentersthemadreporite ringcanallongradialcanals hollowtubefoot</p><p>SeaStarWaterVascularSystem(WVS)</p></li><li><p> Allechinodermshaveamouth,stomachandintestines.</p><p> Seastarsarecarnivorous Feedonmollusksbyextrudingtheir</p><p>stomachthroughtheirmouthontothefood.</p><p> Tubefeetaidinpryingapartshellsofmollusks.</p><p> Powerfulenzymesaresecretedbyapairofdigestiveglandsineacharm</p><p> Thestomachthenabsorbstheliquidfood.(Nointestineneeded).</p><p>SeaStarDigestion</p></li><li><p> Thereisaheartlikesacunderthemadreporite thatpushesfluidnearlyidenticaltoseawaterthroughthecoelem,bathingallorgans</p><p> Thefluidiskeptinmotionbybeatingcilia.</p><p> Skingillsandtubefeetbringinoxygentothisfluid.</p><p>SeaStarCirculationofNutrients</p></li><li><p> Wastesareflushedfrombodythroughthetubefeetorskingills.</p><p> Aseastaralsohasananus,locatedinthecenterofthedorsalside.</p><p>SeaStarExcretion</p></li><li><p> Nobrainorevenfusedganglia,onlyacentralnerveringthatsurroundsthemouth</p><p> Nervesextendfromthenerveringdowneachray(belowradialcanals)intoanervenetthatissensoryandcoordinatesmovement</p><p> Nosensoryorgans,onlycellsthatdetectlight&amp;touch Haveeyespotsattheendofeacharmthatallowthemtodetectlight,andchemicalreceptorsontheirtubefeet</p><p>SeaStarNervousSystem</p></li><li><p> Seastarsareseparatelysexed. Twoovariesortesteslieinthecornersofeacharmandopendirectlytotheexterior</p><p> Spawningbyonecanresultinthosenearbytoalsospawn</p><p>SeaStarReproduction</p></li><li><p> SeaStars</p><p>PhylumEchinodermataIncludes</p></li><li><p> BrittleStars Fragile:rayswill</p><p>breakoffwhenpickedup.</p><p>PhylumEchinodermataIncludes</p></li><li><p> SeaUrchinsandSandDollars</p><p> Coveredinspines. Norays</p><p>PhylumEchinodermataIncludes</p></li><li><p> SeaCucumbers Leatherycovering</p><p>allowsflexibility. Whenthreatened,</p><p>mayexpeltubesfromanusorreleaseinternalorganstoconfusepredator.</p><p>PhylumEchinodermataIncludes</p></li><li><p> SealiliesandFeatherstars</p><p> Featheryarmsallowittoswim.</p><p>PhylumEchinodermataIncludes</p></li><li><p> Seadaisies Tubefeetlocated</p><p>aroundedgeofdisk. Lessthan1cmin</p><p>diameter Discoveredin1986</p><p>PhylumEchinodermataIncludes</p></li></ul>

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