clade deuterostomia phylum echinodermata phylum hemichordata phylum chordata
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Clade Deuterostomia Phylum Echinodermata Phylum Hemichordata Phylum Chordata Slide 2 Protostomes vs. Deuterostomes Zygote cleaves to become blastula and then forms gastrula. The blastopore of the gastrula can become either the mouth or the anus of the organism Protostome- first mouth Blastopore becomes the mouth. Ex-Annelids, Mollusks and arthropods Deuterostome- second mouth Blastopore becomes anus. Ex-echinoderms, hemichordates,chordates Slide 3 3 Embryonic Development Protostome Blastopore becomes mouth Deuterostome Blastopore becomes anus (Animation) (Animation) Slide 4 Coelomates- true body cavity lined with mesoderm EX: all other animals Slide 5 Phylum Echinodermata Slide 6 Includes starfish, sea urchins, sea cucumber & sand dollars- all marine Successful for 500 my Spiny-skinned Pentaradial Symmetry Coelom, no segmentation endoskeleton Lack a centralized brain- have a Nerve ring with radial and lateral nerves -sense touch, light, temp, water conditions Ouch! Slide 7 Phylum Echinodermata: Anatomy Bipinnaria larvae(bilaterally symm.) Water Vascular System: -- Series of water-filled canals -- Carries out functions including respiratory, circulation, and movement. -- Oxygen, food, & wastes are carried by the water vascular system. Slide 8 Phylum Echinodermata: Anatomy Water enters madreporite and flows through the stone canal and then enters the circular ring canal.madreporite Water then is separated into five radial canals that branch into double rows of bulblike structures called ampullae, which are on each side of the ambulacral ridge.ampullae The ampullae are connected to suckerlike podia = tube foottube foot Slide 9 Water Vascular System Slide 10 Phylum Echinodermata: Anatomy Have 5 sections or rays or arms Tube Feet: -- Act like suction cups -- Extend from the body -- Used to walk, capture, and hold prey *How a single tube foot moves* Slide 11 Tube Feet Slide 12 Checkpoint 1. What does Echinodermata mean? 2. What are the basic characteristics of these animals? 3. What type of symmetry do echinoderms have? 4. What are the functions of the water vascular system? 5.What do echinoderms use to move? 6.What type of embryological development do they have? Slide 13 Slide 14 Class Asteroidea Star Fish Slide 15 Starfish: External Anatomy Typically have 5 arms- rays thick and short Arms emerge from a central disc ossicles Have an endoskeleton of small calcareous plates called ossicles Slide 16 Starfish: External Anatomy From the ossicles project spines & tubercles that are responsible for their spiny surface Slide 17 Starfish: External Anatomy On the oral surface- ventral side w/ mouth Ambulacralgrooves -- Ambulacral (am-bu-la kral) grooves : Radiate out along the arms from the centrally located mouth -- Tube feet project from the grooves Ambulacral Groove Slide 18 Starfish: External Anatomy On the aboral surface- dorsal surface that includes the madreporite and anus. Slide 19 Starfish: Internal Anatomy Prey on bivalves Two stomachs Pyloric stomach- used for digestion cardiac stomach-can be extended outward to engulf and digest prey. Slide 20 Digestion Starfish push their stomach out once prey is caught. -- cardiac stomach pushes out of mouth to surround prey (ex: clam) -- Pours out enzymes -- Digests clam in its own shell -- Then it pulls its stomach and the partially digested prey into its mouth. Pyloric stomach completes digestion. Slide 21 Reproduction Asexual reproduction- --Regenerates arms -- If pulled apart into pieces, each piece will grow into a new animal, as long as it contains a portion of the central disc. Slide 22 Reproduction Sexual- Individual starfish are male or female. Fertilization takes place externally, both male and female releasing their gametes into the environment.gametes deuterostomes Resulting fertilized embryos form part of the zooplankton and are called deuterostomes. zooplankton Slide 23 Reproduction The deuterostomes then become a larva that are bilateral symmetrical. As they grow, they then change to radial symmetrical adults. Slide 24 1 - Ambulacral ossicles and ampullae. 2 - Madreporite. 3 - Stone canal. 4 - Pyloric caecae. 5 - Rectal glands. 6 - Gonads. Slide 25 Slide 26 Class Echinoidea Sea Urchins & Sand Dollars Slide 27 Sea Urchin -- Eat algae -- Have calcium carbonate plates covered with spines. -- Can swivel spines -- Many animals prey on sea urchins -- Yes, people eat sea urchins Call it roe Class Echinoidea Slide 28 Sea Urchins Sea urchins are one of the sea otters favorite food. Sea otters keep sea urchin populations in check. Without sea otters, the sea urchins can devastate kelp forests which upsets the ecosystem. Slide 29 Sea Urchins On the oral surface of the sea urchin is a centrally located mouth made up of five united calcium carbonate teeth or jaws, with a fleshy tongue-like structure within.calcium carbonate lantern The entire chewing organ is known as Aristotle's lantern.Aristotle Slide 30 Sea Urchins test Shell, which is also called the "test", is globular in shape and covered with spines. Slide 31 Sea Urchin The spines, which in some species are long and sharp, serve to protect the urchin from predators and aid in locomotion.spinespredators The spines can inflict a painful wound on a human who steps on one, but they are not seriously dangerous, some are venomous. Slide 32 Slide 33 Sand Dollars Slide 34 Class Echinoidea Sand Dollars -- Flattened disk -- Few animals eat/bother sand dollars. -- Burrows into the sand. -- Also called sea biscuits. Slide 35 Class Holothuroidea Sea Cucumbers Slide 36 Class Holothuroidea Sea Cucumbers: -- Look like warty moving pickles - - arms or rays absent - - tentacles around mouth -- Benthic: Live on the ocean floor Slide 37 Sea Cucumbers Are little bull dozers -- Eat detritus in sand -- Suck up organic matter & remains of other organisms. -- Sea cucumbers extract oxygen from water in a pair of 'respiratory trees' that branch off the cloaca just inside the anus, so that they 'breathe' by drawing water in through the anus and then expelling it. Slide 38 Sea Cucumbers Mutualistic A variety of fish, most commonly pearl fish, have evolved a Mutualistic symbiotic relationship with sea cucumbers in which the pearl fish will live in sea cucumber's cloaca (anus) using it for protection from predation, The pearl fishs waste provides a source of food/nutrients to the sea cucumber Slide 39 Class Holothuroidea More Sea Cucumber -- When threatened, they spill their guts! -- It takes 1 to 5 weeks to re-grow their guts -- The predator will eat the ejected guts, & leaves the sea cucumber alone. It eventually grows back the lost organs. -- Yes, people eat them! Slide 40 Slide 41 The End Slide 42 Checkpoint 1. List the three classes of Echinoderms studied, facts about each class, and the organisms that belong to these classes.