phylum arthropoda / echinodermata

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Phylum Arthropoda / Echinodermata. Brought to you by: Kate Lee, Beth Reinert , Christie Currie, and Maggie Gorski. Main Characteristics. Segmented animals Five subphylums : Trilobita , Cehelicerata , Crustacea , Myriapoda , and Hexapoda - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Phylum Arthropoda/EchinodermataBrought to you by: Kate Lee, Beth Reinert, Christie Currie, and Maggie GorskiMain CharacteristicsSegmented animalsFive subphylums: Trilobita, Cehelicerata, Crustacea, Myriapoda, and HexapodaArthropods include insects, spiders, trilobites, shrimp, lobsters, crabs, etc.Evolved around 545 million years ago around the same time as chordates evolved Bilateral symmetryCoelomsUses exoskeletons for structure and supportExoskeleton has three layers and the tough covering is called the carapace.Most arthropods shed their exoskeleton through a process called molting.

Subphylum Crustacea

Macrocheira kaempferi (Japanese Spider Crab)Reproduce sexually through internal fertilizationAquatic crustaceans use swimmerets that transfer sperm to egg.The eggs then hatch into a free-swimming larva called a naupliusThrough many series of molting, the nauplius eventually develops into the adult formReproduction & DevelopmentFood passes through a one way digestive tract (mouth to anus).Uses a digestive gland to mix food with enzymesExcess water and wastes are eliminated using green glands.Digestion and ExcretionOpen circulatory systemuses hearts and vessels to transport circulatory fluid throughout the crustaceanUses gills to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide for respirationNervous Systemhas clusters of ganglia in the brain that controls the body (cephalized)Ganglias throughout the body are connected by a ventral nerve cordCirculation and Respiration

Tissues include heart tissues, nerve tissues, and gill tissues.Crustaceans use sensory hairs that sense vibrations and chemicalsCan be terrestrial or aquaticSome crustaceans are up to 4 meters longUnique Features

The goose barnacle (Lepas anatifera) is an aquatic crustacean.SubphylumInsectaClasses & ExamplesOrder Hemiptera (half wing); true bugsOrder Homoptera (like wing); aphids, mealy bugs, cicadasOrder Isoptera (equal wing); termitesOrder Odonata (toothed); dragonflies, damselfliesOrder Orthoptera (straight wing); grasshoppers, crickets, katydidsOrder Coleoptera (sheathed wing); weevils, ladybugs, beetles

Order Coleoptera (sheathed wing); weevils, ladybugs, beetlesOrder Diptera (two wing); mosquitoes, flies, gnatsOrder Hymenoptera (membrane wing); bees, wasps, and antsOrder Lepidoptera (scaled wing); butterflies, moths

Bilateral Symmetry


The body of an insect is divided into three tagmata: the head, thorax, and abdomen.

Body Cavity

TissuesBrain, Crop, Aorta, Gastric Ceca, Ovary, Heart, Tracheae, Anus, Oviduct, Seminal Receptacle, Hindgut, Malphigian tubules, midgut, Ganglion, Ventral Nerve cord, gizzard, salivary glands, and the esophagus.

Characteristics of most insects: a body consisting of a head, thorax, and abdomen; a pair of unbranched antennae; three pairs of jointed legs; and two pairs of wings.Structure & Support

Digestion & ExcretionOne way digestive tract

Malphigian tubules which collect water and cellular wastes from the hemolymph and produce a very concentrated mixture of wastes that is deposited in the hindgut and leaves the body with the feces.

Open circulatory systemInsects exchanges oxygen and carbon dioxide with the environment through a complex network of air tubes called trachea.

Circulation & Respiration

Reproduction & DevelopmentAll insects have separate sexes and reproduce through internal fertilizationDevelop either through incomplete metamorphosis

Or incomplete metamorphosis

Consists of a brain and a ventral nerve cord with ganglia located in each body segment.Antennae contain sensory structures that respond to touch and smell.Three simple eyes function to sense the intensity of lightTwo bulging compound eyes provide a wide field of view and can detect movement and form images.The tympanum detects soundsSensory hairs detect touch or movement by vibrationNervous System

Insect defense: warning coloration, Mllerian mimicry, Batesian mimicry, venomous stingers, spraying noxious chemicals

Unique Characteristics

Insects communicate through pheromone, sound, and light.

The Round DanceThe Waggle DanceBee Dances