phylum echinodermata

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  1. 1. Phylum Echinodermata1 Phylum Echinodermata
  2. 2. Phylum Echinodermata2 Phylum Echinodermata Defining Characteristics A complex series of fluid filled canals with numerous flexible feeding and locomotory appendages 5 pointed radial symmetry in adult
  3. 3. Phylum Echinodermata3 Echinoderms Skeleton Have an internal skeleton of calcium carbonate Ossicles vary in size and structure and are manufactured by specialized cells Feeding biology?
  4. 4. Phylum Echinodermata4 Water vascular system A separate coelom is used with interconnecting fluid filled tubes and canals A ring canal circles the mouth and gives off 5 radial canals The radial canal is exposed and runs along the ambulacral groove
  5. 5. Phylum Echinodermata5 Water Vascular System
  6. 6. Phylum Echinodermata6 Tube Feet The ampullae is a small ball that sits above the tube foot Contraction and expansion of the ampulla accomplishes movement
  7. 7. Phylum Echinodermata7 Mutable Connective Tissue Another unique Echinodermata characteristic is the presence of mutable connective tissue
  8. 8. Phylum Echinodermata8 Taxonomic Summary Phylum Echinodermata Class Crinoidea Class Concentricycloidea Class Stelleroidea Subclass Asteroidea Subclass Ophiuroidea Class Echinoidea Class Holothuroidea
  9. 9. Phylum Echinodermata9 Subclass Asteroidea
  10. 10. Phylum Echinodermata10 Sea Stars The oral surface of each arm has a single ambulacral groove Have a large coelom where all the main organs occur
  11. 11. Phylum Echinodermata11 Sea Star Feeding Feed mainly on slow moving, sedentary, or sessile invertebrates Some species evert the stomach onto prey and digest externally, others swallow whole
  12. 12. Phylum Echinodermata12 Pedicellariae Specialized pinchers found on the aboral surface.
  13. 13. Phylum Echinodermata13 Reproduction Can reproduce asexually by disk division Sexual Reproduction Dioecious with sperm or eggs produced in 2 or more gonads in each arm Larval stage = bipinnaria
  14. 14. Phylum Echinodermata14 Regeneration Many species autotomize, leaving predators with a nutritious souvenir while they escape Most spp. can regenerate from fragments that include the disk
  15. 15. Phylum Echinodermata15 Subclass Ophiuroidea Defining Characteristics Well-developed ossicles in the arms forming a system of articulating vertebrae The oral surface bears 5 pair of bursal sacs
  16. 16. Phylum Echinodermata16 Brittle Star Structure
  17. 17. Phylum Echinodermata17 Reproduction Similar to Asteroids; yet a pluteus larva is formed Regenerate well, and one spp., in our area reproduces asexually by disk division
  18. 18. Phylum Echinodermata18 Class Echinoidea Defining characteristics Ossicles are joined to form a rigid test Adults possess a feeding structure called Aristotles lantern Two attributes: mobile spines, and hollow skeleton or test
  19. 19. Phylum Echinodermata19 Sea Urchin Structure
  20. 20. Phylum Echinodermata20 Pedicellariae Pedicellariae prevent fouling of test and are used in defense More complex than sea stars and are located on tall moveable stalks
  21. 21. Phylum Echinodermata21 Ingestion and Digestion Feed on alga material, encrusting bryozoans or scavenge Food is chopped by 5 sharp pointed teeth The digestive system is long to deal with vegetable manner The anus is located aborally
  22. 22. Phylum Echinodermata22 Reproduction Most conspicuous organs are those responsible for reproduction At spawning the entire coelom will fill with sperm or eggs Pluteus larva is formed
  23. 23. Phylum Echinodermata23 Sand Dollars Irregular: non- spherical variously depressed Anus is shifted to the oral surface posterior to the mouth creating bilateral symmetry
  24. 24. Phylum Echinodermata24 Class Holothuroidea Defining characteristics Worm shaped body, greatly elongated along the aboral and oral axis The calcareous ossicles are reduced in size and embedded individually in the body wall Highly branched muscular respiratory structures
  25. 25. Phylum Echinodermata25 Holothuroidea Feeding Possess retractile feeding tentacle that surrounds the mouth While suspension or deposit feeding each tentacle is cleaned in the mouth
  26. 26. Phylum Echinodermata26 Holothuroidea Structure
  27. 27. Phylum Echinodermata27 Ossicles Although somewhat soft they do have an internal skeleton The skeletal elements (ossicles) are microscopic with complex shapes May compose up to 80% of the dry body weight
  28. 28. Phylum Echinodermata28 Respiration Respiratory trees
  29. 29. Phylum Echinodermata29 Defense Many spp. have powerful toxins in the body wall Cuverian tubules Sticky and toxic tentacles which are shot out the anus Also eviscerates to avoid predation Internal organs regenerate after a period of time