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<ul><li> 1. Group no- 8 Guided By: Mr. A. Vikram ReddyPresented by: Amit Kumar (Reg. no: 10010ECR019) Kadambari Dash (Reg. no: 100101ECR041) Prabhakar Padhy (Reg. no: 100101ECR071) Laxmi Prasanna Rokkam (Reg. no: 100101ECR029) 1</li></ul> <p> 2. Abstract This project deals with the development of an ultra-high frequency phase shifter for use in phased arrays or smart antenna arrays. It is very difficult to transmit rich data at very high frequency with higher data rates over a long distance. To overcome these limitations phase shifting technique can be used in both transmitter and receiver end. Use of phase shifters in transmitter as well as receiver end will give high directional beaming and higher gain. These phase sifters can be designed by using varactor diode at output ports These phased array antenna techniques can be used in mobile communication, radar system, fighter plane, as well as in transmission of rich data over very long distance. For designing and simulation of phased array antenna system ADS software can be used.2 3. Phase array antenna system Phased arrays are one of multiple antenna systems thatis using phase shifting technique. Itcanelectronically changethe directionoftransmission and reception of the electromagnetic beam in a particular direction by constructive signal addition, while simultaneously blocking it to other directions by destructive signal cancellation. 3 4. Current literature review From reference [1] we got the information aboutmicrostrip line and varactor diode. From reference [2] we got the design step of micro strip patch antenna and its radiation pattern. From reference [3] we got the steps to design phase shifter with varactor diode. From reference [4] we got the Wilkinson power divider architecture and its insertion loss and isolation between output ports. 4 5. Work Plan DurationAmount of work/work in progressionUp to 17-07-13Literature review and fundamental studies18-07-13 to 25-07-13 Smart antenna concept (i.e. adaptive array antenna or MIMO )26-07-13 to 16-08-13Studied about micro strip patch antenna design and simulation in ADS 17-08-13 to 31-08-13 Studied about Wilkinson power divider design and its response 01-09-13 to 20-09- 13 1:4 micro strip patch antenna array design and simulation with Wilkinson power divider 21-09-13 to 19-10-13 Studied about phase shifter and varactor diode 20-10-13 to 03-11-13 Design and simulation of phase shifter using varactor diode in ADS 04-11-13 to 06-11-13 Comparison of result and its interpretation5 6. Patch Antenna DesignFig a: Microstripline feed [2]Fig c: Microstripline [2]Fig b: Electric field lines [2]Fig d: Effective dielectric constant [2] 6 7. Patch Antenna Design Steps In ADS 1) ADS Menu bar &gt;&gt; Momentum &gt;&gt; Substrate &gt;&gt; Create/Modify &gt;&gt; then set Substrate &gt;&gt; FR-4, Thickness &gt;&gt; h= 63 mil, Dielectric constant Er = 4.3 under Substrate Layers tab and select strip conductor from Layout Layers tab. 2) For an efficient radiator, a practical width is given by[2]7 8. Patch Antenna Design Steps in ADS 3) Use microstrip feed for 50 ohm line width and length and locate the port at the center. 4) ADS Menu bar &gt;&gt; Momentum &gt;&gt; Mesh &gt;&gt; Preview and Simulation &gt;&gt; S-Parameters to check its simulation result.[2] Fig 1: Microstrip feed rectangular patch antenna 8 9. Layout of Patch antenna in ADSFig 2: Microstrip feed rectangular patch antenna design in ADS 9 10. Single Patch Antenna Simulation ResultFig 3: Magnitude and phase simulations of S11 in ADS10 11. Rectangular Patch Antenna 3D View In ADSFig 4: Current distribution &amp; radiation pattern of rectangular patch antenna11 12. Rectangular Patch AntennaFig 5: Linear polarization simulations of rectangular patch antenna 12 13. Rectangular Patch AntennaFig 6: Absolute fields simulations of rectangular patch antenna 13 14. Antenna ParametersFig 7: Antenna parameters of a single rectangular patch antenna 14 15. Final Layout Design Of 1:4 Equal-split WPD In ADSFig 8: Layout of 1:4 equal-split WPD in ADS15 16. Design Steps For Four Way WPD Using ADSFig 9: LineCalc showing W and L of microstripline, ADS16 17. Magnified view of 1:4 WPDFig 10: Showing port1 &amp;section of 1:4 equal-split WPD in ADS 17 18. Output Ports 4 &amp; 5 of 1:4 Equal-split WPD In ADSFig 11: Showing output ports 4 &amp; 5 of 1:4 equal-split WPD in ADS 18 19. Rectangular patch antenna array fed with 1:4 WPDFig 12: Rectangular patch antenna array fed with 1:4 WPD19 20. Rectangular Patch Antenna Array fed with 1:4 WPD- 3DFig 13: Rectangular patch antenna array fed with 1:4 WPD- 3D20 21. Simulation Result of Patch Antenna Array fed with 1:4 WPDFig 14: Simulation result showing S11 of a patch antenna array fed with 1:4 WPD 21 22. Radiation pattern of patch antenna array fed with 1:4 equal-split WPD 3D viewFig 15: Radiation pattern of patch antenna array fed with 1:4 WPD22 23. Linear Polarization of Patch Antenna Array fed with 1:4 EqualSplit WPDFig 16: Linear polarization of patch antenna array fed with 1:4 WPD23 24. Absolute Fields of Patch Antenna Array fed with 1:4 Equal-Split WPDFig 17: Absolute fields of patch antenna array fed with 1:4 WPD24 25. Directivity &amp; Gain of Patch Antenna Array fed with 1:4 EqualSplit WPDFig 18: Directivity &amp; Gain of patch antenna array fed with 1:4 WPD25 26. Patch Antenna Array Parameters fed with 1:4 Equal-Split WPD in ADSFig 19: Antenna parameters of patch antenna array fed with 1:4 WPD26 27. Varactor Diode Fig 20: For varactor diode Quality factor is given by ,Where, Cv = capacitance at the measured voltage R = series resistane27 28. Design steps for phase shifter using ADS 1) ADS Menu bar &gt;&gt; Momentum &gt;&gt; Substrate &gt;&gt;Create/Modify &gt;&gt; then set Substrate &gt;&gt; FR-4, Thickness &gt;&gt; h= 63 mil, Dielectric constant Er = 4.3 under Substrate Layers tab and select strip conductor from Layout Layers tab. 2) ADS Palette &gt;&gt; T lines - microstrip &gt;&gt; MLIN &gt;&gt; then set W and L according to branch impedance value calculated from ADS Line-Calc tool.28 29. Design steps for phase shifter using ADS 3) ADS Menu bar &gt;&gt; Momentum &gt;&gt; Mesh &gt;&gt;Preview and Simulation &gt;&gt; S-Parameters &gt;&gt; set min and max frequency and click the add to frequency plan list. 4) ADS Menu bar &gt;&gt; Momentum &gt;&gt; Component &gt;&gt; create/update &gt;&gt; click the schematic check box and delete previous database. 5) ADS Main window &gt;&gt; Menu bar &gt;&gt; new schematic window. 29 30. Design steps for phase shifter using ADS 6) ADS Menu bar &gt;&gt; Bookshelf/component library &gt;&gt; Project &gt;&gt; Right click on project file and click place component. 7) Place the component on schematic window then place S parameter simulation and select appropriate frequency range and step. 8) ADS component library &gt;&gt; HF diode library &gt;&gt; bb535 siemens diode and place at port 3 and 4. 9) Select register, inductor from palette and in series with varactor diode and provide proper port termination.30 31. Layout of Phase Shifter with Impedance ratio one in ADSFig 22: Layout of phase shifter for rz=1 in ADS31 32. Co simulation of Phase Shifter for impedance ratio oneFig 23: Schematic of phase shifter co simulation for rz=1 in ADS32 33. Phase Variation for Minimum Capacitance 1.4 pf and 5 VFig 24: Phase plot for rz = 1Fig 25: Unwrap phase plot for rz = 1 33 34. Insertion loss and Reflection for Minimum Capacitance 1.4 pf and 5 vFig 26: S21 (dB) plot for rz = 1Fig 27: S11 (dB) plot for rz = 1 34 35. Phase Variation for Mid Capacitance 4.7 pf and 3 V m1 freq=2.400GHz unwrap(phase(S21))=-595.761m2 freq=2.400GHz phase(S(2,1))=124.239-100 200-200 unwrap(phase(S21))m2 phase(S(2,1))1000-100-300 -400 -500m1 -600 -700 -800-200 1.01.21.41.61.82.02.22.42.6freq, GHzFig 28: Phase plot for rz = 12.83.01.01.21.41.61.82.02.22.42.62.83.0freq, GHzFig 29: Unwrap phase plot for rz = 1 35 36. Insertion loss and Reflection for Mid Capacitance 4.7 pf and 3 VFig 30: S21 (dB) plot for rz = 1Fig 31: S11 (dB) plot for rz = 1 36 37. Phase Variation for Maximum Capacitance 8 pf and 0 V m1 freq=2.400GHz unwrap(phase(S21))=-595.923 -100unwrap(phase(S21))-200 -300 -400 -500m1 -600 -700 -800 1.01.21.41.61.82.02.22.42.62.83.0freq, GHzFig 32: Phase plot for rz = 1Fig 33: Unwrap phase plot for rz = 1 37 38. Insertion loss and Reflection for Maximum Capacitance 8 pf and 0 VFig 34: S21 (dB) plot for rz = 1Fig 35: S11 (dB) plot for rz = 1 38 39. Layout of Phase Shifter with Impedance ratio four in ADSFig 36: Layout of phase shifter for rz=4 in ADS39 40. Co simulation of Phase Shifter for impedance ratio fourFig 37: Schematic of phase shifter co simulation for rz=4 in ADS40 41. Phase Variation for Minimum Capacitance 1.4 pf and 5 V m2 freq= 2.400GHz unwrap(phase(S21))=-560.828 200unwrap(phase(S21))0-200-400m2 -600 -800-1000 1.01.21.41.61.82.02.22.42.62.83.0freq, GHzFig 38: Phase plot for rz = 4Fig 39: Unwrap phase plot for rz = 4 41 42. Insertion loss and Reflection for Minimum Capacitance 1.4 pf and 5 VFig 40: S21 (dB) plot for rz = 4Fig 41: S11 (dB) plot for rz = 4 42 43. Phase Variation for Mid Capacitance 4.7 pf and 3 V m2 freq= 2.400GHz unwrap(phase(S21))=-561.900m1 freq= 2.400GHz phase(S(2,1))=158.100200200m1 unwrap(phase(S21))0phase(S(2,1))1000-100-200-400m2 -600 -800-200 1.01.21.41.61.82.02.22.42.62.83.0-1000 1.01.21.41.61.82.02.22.42.62.83.0freq, GHzfreq, GHzFig 42: Phase plot for rz = 4Fig 43: Unwrap phase plot for rz = 4 43 44. Insertion loss and Reflection for Mid Capacitance 4.7 pf and 3 VFig 44: S21 (dB) plot for rz = 4Fig 45: S11 (dB) plot for rz = 4 44 45. Phase Variation for Maximum Capacitance 8 pf and 0 V m1 freq=2.400GHz unwrap(phase(S21))=-580.209m1 freq= 2.400GHz phase(S(2,1))=157.917200 200m1 unwrap(phase(S21))0phase(S(2,1))1000-100-200-400m1 -600-800 -200 1.01.21.41.61.82.02.22.42.62.8freq, GHz3.0-1000 1.01.21.41.61.82.02.22.42.62.83.0freq, GHzFig 46: Phase plot for rz = 4Fig 47: Unwrap phase plot for rz = 4 45 46. Insertion loss and Reflection for Maximum Capacitance 8 pf and 0 VFig 48: S21 (dB) plot for rz = 4Fig 49: S11 (dB) plot for rz = 4 46 47. Insertion Loss with Rp and without Rp 0 50-5 dB(S(2,1))dB(S(2,1))-5-10-10-15-15 -20-25-201.01.01.21.41.61.82.02.22.42.62.83.01.21.41.61.82.02.22.42.62.83.0freq, GHzfreq, GHzFig 50: S21 (dB) plot with Rp for rz = 4Fig 51: S21 (dB) plot without Rp for rz = 4 47 48. Comparison between rz=1 and 4 Phase ShifterFig 52:Phase plot for rz = 1fig 53:Phase plot for rz =4 48 49. Future work Optimization of phase shift and reflection forphase shifter having impedance ratio rz=4. Implementation of tunable phase shifter in ourdesign between the WPD and patch antenna array.49 50. Conclusion We have successfully completed the design and simulation of patch antenna array. The gain obtained from array is more than the single patch antenna. Also we have designed our phase shifter with impedance ratio one and four. The phase shifter having impedance ratio four is giving more phase shift than the phase shifter with impedance ratio one. So after inserting tunable phase shifter in between WPD and patch antenna array we will get more directive gain due to constructive signal addition in major lobes and destructive signal cancellation in side lobes. 50 51. Reference [1] David M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering Third Edition, Wiley India Pvt. Ltd.[2] Constantine A Balanis, Antenna Theory Analysis and Design. 34d ed. New York: Wiley, 2005. [3] Chien-San Lin, Sheng-Fuh Chang, Chia-Chan Chang, Yi-Hao Shu, Design of a reflection-type phase shifter with wide relative phase shift and constant insertion loss, IEEE Transactions on microwave theory and techniques, vol. 55, no. 9, september 2007. [4] L. Wu, Z. Sun, H. Yilmaz, and M. Berroth, A dual-frequency Wilkinson power divider, IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech., vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 278 284, Jan. 2006. [5] K. O. Sun, H. J. Kim, C. C. Yen, and D. Weide, A scalable reflection type phase shifter with large phase variation, IEEE Microw. Wireless Compon. Lett., vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 647648, Oct. 2005. 51 52. THANK YOU52 </p>

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