Open Badges in Education

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This communication reflects the views only of authors, and the commission cannot be held responsible for any use, which may be made of the information contained therein.Funded with support from the European Commission, as part of the project Grading soft skills: GRASS, No. 543029-LLP-1-RS-KA3-KA3MP Open Badges in EducationVladan Devedzic, Jelena Jovanovic, Bojan Tomic, Nikola MilikicUniversity of Belgrade, Serbia Introduction - concepts and perspectives Pedagogical aspects of Open Badges Technological aspects of Open Badges I badging platforms and tools Interactive design of Open Badges Designing and developing Open Badges I Open Badges for soft skillsOutline Community aspects of Open Badges I enthusiasts and stakeholders Designing and developing Open Badge systems the big pictureOutline Here is the introIntroduction concepts and perspectives as a motivational mechanismOBs as learning scaffoldsPedagogical aspects of Open BadgesTraditional role: Badges as a rewarding mechanism an important element of gamification or game-mechanics required features: desirable and attainable, yet challenging what a badge is awarded for - effort, improvement, performance - tends to affect motivationOBs as a Motivational Mechanism Facilitators of learning practices that foster intrinsic motivation Participatory learning and peer-based learning communities Badges enable novel forms of learners engagement: receiving badges and earning reputation to recommend peers for badges interacting around badges as social objects building badge-based (context-specific) e-portfolios community-building around shared badge missionsOBs as a Motivational Mechanism (2) Recognition of learning in multiple and diverse locations and environments that go beyond traditional classrooms Recognition of under- or non-recognized skills and prior learning Reputation building and social comparison within a learning communityOBs as a Motivational Mechanism (3)Concerns: higher focus on accumulating badges than on learning activities/materials associated with the badges motivation displacementOBs as a Motivational Mechanism (4)Drawbacks could be avoided with well designed instr. strategy chain badges, so that they appear as means of unlocking new learning opportunities associate badges with roles that bring about both privileges and responsibilities in the learning community introduce badges as a feedback rather than a reward mechanismOBs as a Motivational Mechanism (5)OBs might be used for charting learning routes, through: badge-earning criteria privileges and responsibilities opened up by earning a badge badge hierarchies chaining of badges Badges assume the role of signposts in the learning spaceOBs as learning scaffoldsOBs offer support for self-directed learning, by allowing continuous tracking of what has been learned (self-monitoring and reflection), and insights into what the next step might be (planning)OBs as learning scaffolds (2)Proper tool support is still missing What is envisioned/needed: a discovery tool assisting learner when looking for new learning opportunities e.g., recommending badges; enabling personalized search of badges empowering learner to make well-informed decisions, so that the learners agency is promoted/sustained e.g., through explanation facilityOBs as learning scaffolds (3) Java programming course, University of Belgrade Advanced programming concepts, 12 weeks, not in the official curriculum (no credits) Goal: addressing both hard and soft skills (related to programming) OBs given for tasks well done/skills obtained 2015, 56 students (2016, 62 students, ongoing)UB application case skillsUB application case (2)Soft skills Git (GitHub) JUnit JavaDoc GUI Three tier architecture JSON Threads Collections Enthusiasm Collaboration Skilled communication Real-world problem solvingUB application case (3)Hard skills - pedagogy, assessing, gradingUB application case (4)Soft skills - pedagogy, assessing, grading One task per skill (homework) One OB per skill (no hierarchy) OB submissions OB evidence link to code repository on GitHub One task per skill (homework) OR continuous activity throughout the course Pedagogical rubrics Several OBs per skill OB submissions or admin awarded OB evidenceMore coprehensive list at Badge List Open Badge Factory & Open Badge PassportTechnological aspects of Open Badges I badging platforms and tools Credly ForAllRubrics BadgeOS Open Badge Academy case scenarios:Badging Platforms: Scenarios: Comparison of Features (Live version): Offering badges Badge discovery Applying for badges Awarding badges Management of and reflection over collected badges Displaying and Sharing badges (Re)viewing a badge earners achievementsTechnological aspects of Open Badges I badging platforms and tools (2) Canvas - Form a group of 3-4 people Agree on a badge name Fill in your canvasTime: 30 minutesHands-on: Design Your Badge 1 - Creating a badge in BadgeOS design of Open Badges personal attributes associated with effective and harmonious interaction with other people transversal (cross-domain/discipline) skills closely related to and often equated with 21st Century SkillsSoft SkillsPersonal development ways of thinking (e.g., problem solving, critical thinking,...) ways of working (e.g., enthusiasm, persistence, self-regulation,...)Classification of Soft SkillsSocial participation ways of thinking with others (e.g., negotiating and refining meaning, constructive discourse) ways of working with others (e.g., communication, collaboration, conflict resolution,...)Classification of Soft Skills (2)GRASS framework for soft skills(available at: 2 - Awarding a badge in BadgeOS and developing Open Badges I Open Badges in Education 2014 (Tallinn, Estonia)Community aspects of Open Badges I enthusiasts and stakeholders Open Badges in Education 2014 (Tallinn, Estonia)Community aspects of Open Badges I enthusiasts and stakeholders Open Badges in Education 2014 (Tallinn, Estonia)Community aspects of Open Badges I enthusiasts and stakeholders OB system development process, v01 OB system development process - big picture OB system development process, v02Community aspects of Open Badges I enthusiasts and stakeholders and developing an OB systemAdapted from: Devedzic, V., Jovanovic, J. (2015). Developing Open Badges: a comprehensive approach. Educational Technology Research and Development, 63(4), 603-620.Includes identification and elaboration of: the purpose/objectives of the OB system: what do we want to achieve with OBs? why do we want to badge our course? types of achievements to badge - e.g., attendance, participation, effort, assessed performance Goal setting and initial planningIncludes identification and elaboration of: competences/skills to badge - including definition/selection of competence/skill model to assure wide recognition of badged achievements options for integration of badges in the instructional designGoal setting and initial planning (2)Should be informed by the capabilities of the available technical solutions No worth envisioning badge system design that cannot be supported by the available toolsets requires efforts and costs that go over the available budgetGoal setting and initial planning (3) Mapping out the skills/competences and the associated instructional design Defining the types of badges, and for each type, the number of badges to issue Designing individual badges, by defining association with the elements of instr. design (e.g., assessment items) badge earning criteria and the required type(s) of evidence badge visual appearanceDesign of an OB system Defining badge dependencies and hierarchy (optional) Defining options for managing and sharing badgesDesign of an OB system (2)The major challenges: effective communication / demonstration of the value of OBs ensuring effective feedback loops ensuring teachers motivation ensuring the privacy of students data Building / sustaining internal trust networkThe major concerns: proper interpretation of the meaning of a badge - what does it actually say about a person? aggregation and semantic alignment of learners badges that originate from different sources (i.e., badge issuers) seamless integration of badges with existing recognition and certification standards and practicesBuilding / sustaining external trust network