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Renewable Energy TechnologyIntroduction to Energy TechnologyPart-1 : Fossil Fuel based Technology & its EffectsPrepared By
S.M.Ferdous & Ahmed Mortuza Saleque Lecturers, Dept. of EEE American Internatinal University-Bangladesh (AIUB)1
Learning Objectives To understand what a resource is. To understand the difference between non-renewable and renewable resources. To understand the advantages/disadvantages of using nonrenewable energy. To understand how we can conserve resources/reduce pollution.2
Learning Outcomes What are our dominant sources of energy? What is peak oil production? Why is it hard to evaluate future oil production? How important is coal in domestic energy production? What are the environmental effects of coal burning? Is clean coal possible? How do nuclear reactors work? What are some of their advantages and disadvantages? What are our main renewable forms of energy? Could solar, wind, hydropower, and other renewables eliminate the need for fossil fuels? What are photovoltaic cells, and how do they work? What are biofuels? What are arguments for and against their use?
We are not only responsible for what we do, but also for what we do not do.
What Does Energy Mean to Us?When you hear politicians and scientists say things like energy consumption or energy independence what does that really mean?
A resource is anything we can use to help us live and work
Oil, coal, gas, trees, soil, wind, waves, sun, people, the countryside, water, rocks etc Conflict over ownership, depletion, pollution
What is a resource A) Things that humans can use. B) Fuel supplies already discovered that can be used in the future. C) Recovery of waste products to convert into materials that can be used again.
Why has Resource use Increased?
Population Increase Increase in Technology Increase in purchasing power in LEDCs Increase in disposable income.
Also, as the countries develop, they use more energy because they are able to afford labour saving devices, tools and gadgets which we take for granted in the developed world, like TVs, computers, cars etc. Energy is required not only in running these devices but also in their manufacture.
C) There will be a big energy increase by 2010 because statistics show that energy use has always increased over time and because there will be more people, they will use more energy than if there were less people. Also, China and India are using up lots of energy9
A) As countries become more developed there is a greater demand for energy because people get more materialistic and buy more products which use energy both in their manufacture as well as in their use. For example, people will buy labour saving devices like cars and dishwashers. These both use up energy when they are made and every time they are used. Also, as countries develop their industries develop and industry is a large consumer of energy. B) As countries get richer they use more energy because everybody gets cars and electrical goods.10
These both use lots of oil and electricity, so this is why energy use will increase. C) Energy use might increase as a country gets more developed because when a country gets richer its population increases dramatically. This rise in population means that more coal and gas is needed to heat their homes. They will also need lots more petrol and diesel to fuel all the extra cars and lorries that will be on the road.11
EnergyEnergy creates the power to drive tools and machines, to process materials into manufactured products and to create structures. Power is generated from nonrenewable energy sources such as coal, oil, and gas, or can be generated from natural resources such as geothermal, solar, and gravitational energies.12
To understand the magnitude of energy use, it is helpful to know the units used to measure it. Work is the application of force over distance, and we measure work in joules. Energy is the capacity to do work. Power is the rate of energy flow or the rate of work done: for example, one watt (W) is one joule per second. If you use a 100-watt light bulb for 10 hours, you have used 1,000 watt-hours, or one kilowatt-hour (kWh). Most American households use about 11,000 kWh per year.13
The Need for Energy Fuel is any substance from which energy can be obtained. To produce electricity, fuel is burned to boil water, producing steam. The steam exerts pressure on giant machines called turbines, causing them to turn.
Energy Uses Automobiles Planes/Jets Trains Household Appliances Industry Agriculture Heating/Cooling Systems Etc.15
Energy Use Energy is generally divided into two main types: Electricity Production and
How do we measure energy?
Natural resourceRenewable resource Non-renewable resource
Classification of ResourcesNatural resources are Classified by two types : Renewable resource
Energy Sources Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources Renewable resources can be replenished over fairly short spans of time, such as months, years, or decades. Nonrenewable resources take millions of years to form and accumulate.
What is Renewable Energy?Renewable energy is energy created from natural sources. This includes sunlight, wind, rain, tides and geothermal heat. With global warming, such as climate change, concerns linked to high oil prices, the drive for more renewable energy is being lobbied by local governments. Not only would renewable energy help with the global warming concerns, but also may help turn around the recent economic crisis. This would mean less money spent on expensive fossil fuels and more focus on renewable energy sources.21
What is meant by the term Non-Renewable Energy??? A) Resources which cannot be used again and again, like water and wind. B) Fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas, which are finite, and will eventually run out are examples. Once they have been used they cant be used again. C) Fossil fuels made from trees and plants.22
Classifications of Energy Sources :Renewable Wood Unlimited Biomass gasification Solar Animal Power Wind Human Muscle Power Gravitational Tidal Geothermal Fusion23
Limited Oil Coal Natural gas Uranium
Advantages of Natural Resources: Renewable Cheap to operate Clean Do not damage the environment Non renewable Very cheap
Efficient Can produce a lot of energy in a short time
Disadvantages of Natural Resources : Renewable Expensive to build Can be noisy Generally unattractive Does not capable of producing bulk of energy. Non renewable They will run out, will not be replenished. Very dirty Harmful to the environment.
Disadvantages of Natural ResourcesRenewable Expensive to build Can be noisy Generally unattractive Does not produce lots of energy Non renewable - They will run out - Very dirty - Harmful to the environment
Non-renewable Energy Non-renewable means that the supply can not be replenished. Once it runs out, it is gone forever. Fossil Fuels are the most common form of nonrenewable energy.
Non-renewable energy resources :Non-renewable types of energy can only be used once. There is a finite amount of these materials on the Earth so they will run out eventually. Non-renewable resources make up approximately 95% of the worlds energy.28
Non-renewable Energy Sources Non-renewable Resource: A resource that is not being replenished or formed at any significant rate on a human timescale.
Examples: Oil Natural Gas Coal Nuclear (Uranium)30
NONRENEWABLE RESOURCES:COAL Although coal is found in many places throughout the world, nearly half of it is located in the United States. Of the 700 million tons of coal mined each year in the United States, two- thirds is burned to fuel electric generating plants. The remainder is used to provide heat for buildings and to make steel and other industrial products.
NONRENEWABLE RESOURCES:GEOTHERMAL POWER Geothermal energy comes from the tremendous heat trapped deep within the earth. Natural steam geysers are used to generate electricity. Hot water can also be pumped out of the ground to heat buildings. Geothermal sources account for less than 1 % of the total energy produced In the United States. Most of the sources are in the western third of the nation.
NONRENEWABLE RESOURCES:NATURAL GAS It is estimated that there is only enough natural gas in the world to last for 20 more years. Most of the recoverable supplies are found In the U.S.S.R., the Middle East, and the United States. Natural gas provides about 32% of the total energy used in the United States. Some natural gas is used for home heating and cooking, but most is used in industry.
NONRENEWABLE RESOURCES:NUCLEAR POWER Nuclear power requires uranium as the fuel source. When uranium atoms are split (fission), heat is released. Water is circulated through the reactor to keep it cool. As the water turns to steam, it is forced through a turbine to generate electricity. There are 52 nuclear generating plants, which provide about 1 % of our total energy in the United States.34
coal nuclear HEP and other renewables oil natural gas
9% 1% 32%
Fossil fuels How much is left ?2200 2150 2100 2050 2000 1950 Natural Gas Oil Coal ESTIMATED RESERVES