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  • NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY

  • BANGALORE CHENNAI COCHIN GUWAHATI HYDERABADJALANDHAR KOLKATA LUCKNOW MUMBAI RANCHI NEW DELHI

    INDIA USA GHANA KENYA

    NON-CONVENTIONALSOURCES OF ENERGY

    BY

    ANKUR MATHURB.E. (Electrical), M.Tech. (Hons. in Power System), LMISTE

    Formally Assistant ProfessorDepartment of Electrical Engineering

    Jodhpur National UniversityBoranada, Jodhpur

    Rajasthan

  • NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY

    Copyright by Laxmi Publicati ons (P) Ltd. All rights reserved including those of translati on into other languages. In accordance with the Copyright (Amendment) Act, 2012, no part of this publicati on may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitt ed in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise. Any such act or scanning, uploading, and or electronic sharing of any part of this book without the permission of the publisher consti tutes unlawful piracy and theft of the copyright holders intellectual property. If you would like to use material from the book (other than for review purposes), prior writt en permission must be obtained from the publishers.

    Printed and bound in India Typeset at Goswami Associates, Delhi

    First Editi on: 2015 UIC-9745-125-NON-CONV. SOURCE ENERGY-MAT

    ISBN 978-93-83828-53-1

    Limits of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty: The publisher and the author make no representati on or warranti es with respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this work and specifically disclaim all warranti es. The advice, strategies, and acti viti es contained herein may not be suitable for every situati on. In performing acti viti es adult supervision must be sought. Likewise, common sense and care are essenti al to the conduct of any and all acti viti es, whether described in this book or otherwise. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable or assumes any responsibility for any injuries or damages arising herefrom. The fact that an organizati on or Website if referred to in this work as a citati on and/or a potenti al source of further informati on does not mean that the author or the publisher endorses the informati on the organizati on or Website may provide or recommendati ons it may make. Further, readers must be aware that the Internet Websites listed in this work may have changed or disappeared between when this work was writt en and when it is read.

    All trademarks, logos or any other mark such as Vibgyor, USP, Amanda, Golden Bells, Firewall Media, Mercury, Trinity, Laxmi appear-ing in this work are trademarks and intellectual property owned by or licensed to Laxmi Publicati ons, its subsidiaries or affiliates. Notwithstanding this disclaimer, all other names and marks menti oned in this work are the trade names, trademarks or service marks of their respecti ve owners.

    PUBLISHED IN INDIA BY

    113, GOLDEN HOUSE, DARYAGANJ, NEW DELHI - 110002, INDIATelephone : 91-11-4353 2500, 4353 2501 Fax : 91-11-2325 2572, 4353 2528 Cwww.laxmipublicati ons.com info@laxmipublicati ons.com Printed at:

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    Bran

    ches

  • DedicatedTo

    My Grand Parents

  • PREFACEEnergy is one of the most important factor for the growth and development of any nation. Actually it is the basic need for human beings i.e., without energy, one cant think about better living. Now-a-days coal, oil and gas are being used as energy sources but due to the increased demand, it is being expected that these resources will loose their existance in near future. In this context, the need for the alternative sources of energy arises so as to meet out the energy needs. These alternative sources may also be knows as Non-Conventional or Renewable Energy Sources. The present textbook deals with all these renewable energy sources of future. The Book has been divided into nine chapters.

    The first chapter deals with energy scenario of World, Asia and India. It also covers certain aspects of transmission and distribution of energy developed in various states of India. The second chapter discusses power majors foray in rural electrification. It covers detail regarding various renewable energy technologies in India. Similarly in third chapter, the scene of power crisis and renewable energy (in India) has been presented. Likewise in chapters 4 to 7, various important renewable energy resources like solar, wind, biomass and fuel cell with related issues, have been presented. Chapter 8 provides brief introductory knowledge of energy obtained from earth, ocean, mini and micro hydel plant, hydrogen and helium-3. In the last chapter 9, issues related with energy conservation, energy audit and cleaner energy have been discussed.

    Thus in brief, this book provides good material regarding various non-conventional sources of energy. I hope that this textbook will be proved as a useful book for the students, at the diploma and engineering level. It will also be fruitful for the students, preparing for competitive exams. I would always welcome suggestions from readers/students for the improvement of this book.

    A th r

  • ACknowlEdgEmEntsI appreciate the patience, understanding and support of Mr. Ratnesh Gupta. His valuable comments and suggestions made it possible for me to complete this book on time. I am also thankful for my wife, parents and brothers for supporting me at every stage of preparation of the manuscript for the present book. My thanks are also due to Mr. Saurabh Gupta for bringing out this edition in such a short time period.

    Author

  • ContEntsPreface (vii)

    Acknowledgements (viii)

    1. ENERGY 1

    Introduction to Power Generation 1

    Energy Sources and their Classification 1

    Energy Scenario in India 3

    Energy Scenario in Asia 10

    Energy Scenario in World 11

    Transmission and Distribution Losses 17

    2. RURAL ELECTRIFICATION 21

    Introduction 21

    Contribution of Public Sector Towards Rural Electrification 25

    Power to the People (Implementation of Renewable Energy Technologies in Rural India) 26

    Advantages of TERI Uttam Urja Products 27

    Full Rural Electrification by 2012 28

    3. CRISIS OF POWER IN INDIA AND RENEWABLE SOURCES 30

    Introduction 30

    Need for Renewable Resources 31

    Fossil Fuel Hazards 33

    Non-conventional Energy A Way to Energy Gain 33

    Renewable Energy and its Resources 34

    Renewable Energy Scene in India 36

    4. SOLAR ENERGY 37

    Introduction 37

    Ways of Harnessing Suns Energy 37

  • (x) Contents

    Generation of Solar Cell 38

    How do Photovoltaics Work? 38

    Solar Photovoltaics and Design Trends 41

    Solar Chimney 46

    Technology Tips 47

    Solar Energy Programmes by MNES (Ministry of Non-Conventional Energy Sources) 47

    Solar Generation Report (Global) 48

    Making Solar Energy More Viable 48

    Role of Nanotechnology to Increase the Efficiency of Solar Cells 49

    Harnessing Suns Power Using Antennas 56

    Advantages of Solar Cells 56

    5. WIND ENERGY 57

    Introduction 57

    Some Aspects Regarding Wind Power 59

    Basic Components of Wind Energy Conversion Systems 61

    Potential of Wind Power in India 62

    Indian Wind Energy 63

    Wind Power in Future 65

    Types of Wind Machines 65

    Comparison between Fossil Fuels and Wind 67

    Wind Energy and Photovoltaic (An Integrated Approach) 67

    Wind Energy Applications 68

    Advantages and Disadvantages 69

    6. BIOMASS ENERGY 70

    Introduction 70

    BiomassThe Growing Energy Resource 71

    Cogeneration and Biomass Gasification Programmes 72

    Biomass and Biofuels 73

    Biomass Farming 74

    Biomass Projects and the Support from the Government 75

    Biomass and the Environment 76

    Applications of Biomass 76

    Advantages and Disadvantages 77

  • Contents (xi)

    7. FUEL CELLS 78

    Introduction 78

    Working of Fuel Cell 79

    Types of Fuel Cell 80

    Improvement in the Fuel Cell using Nanotechnology 84

    Improved Fuel Cell Catalyst Technology 84

    Applications of Fuel Cell 85

    Advantages of Fuel Cell 86

    Limitations of fuel Cell 87

    8. MISCELLANEOUS 88

    Geothermal Energy 88

    Tidal Energy (Ocean Energy) 95

    Mini and Micro Hydroelectric Plants Energy 100

    Future Power Generation Sources 105

    9. ENERGY CONSERVATION AND CLEANER ENERGY PERSPECTIVE 111

    Energy Conservation 111

    Energy Audit 112

    Cleaner Energy-Cleaner FuelEnvironmental Considerations 113

    Bibliography 118

    Index 120

  • Chapter1 EnErgy

    INTRODUCTION TO POWER GENERATION

    We all know that energy can neither be created nor be destroyed but can only be converted from one form to another useful form. In reality, energy provides the means of economic growth and social development. For generation of electrical energy, some other forms of energy are needed. Actually energy is related with power where power is the rate of flow of energy and it is normally used in terms of generation and consumption of electricity. Overall it has been proved as an

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