microgrid demonstration project - california .microgrid demonstration project is the final report

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  • Energy Research and Development Div is ion FINAL PROJECT REPORT

    MICROGRIDDEMONSTRATIONPROJECT

    DECEMBER 2012CEC 500 2014 045

    Preparedfor: CaliforniaEnergyCommissionPreparedby: SacramentoMunicipalUtilityDistrict

  • PREPARED BY: Primary Author(s): Mark Rawson Jeff Berkheimer Sacramento Municipal Utility District 6201 S Street Sacramento, California 95817-1899 Contract Number: 500-08-009 Prepared for: California Energy Commission Steve Ghadiri Contract Manager Fernando Pina Office Manager Energy Systems Research Office Laurie ten Hope Deputy Director ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT DIVISION Robert P. Oglesby Executive Director

    DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as the result of work sponsored by the California Energy Commission. It does not necessarily represent the views of the Energy Commission, its employees or the State of California. The Energy Commission, the State of California, its employees, contractors and subcontractors make no warranty, express or implied, and assume no legal liability for the information in this report; nor does any party represent that the uses of this information will not infringe upon privately owned rights. This report has not been approved or disapproved by the California Energy Commission nor has the California Energy Commission passed upon the accuracy or adequacy of the information in this report.

  • i

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

    TheauthorswishtothankthePublicInterestEnergyResearchProgramfortheirsupportofthisresearch.TheywouldalsoliketothanktheConsortiumforElectricReliabilityTechnologySolutionsandthefollowingindividualsfortheirinvaluablehelpinperformingtheprojectworkandpreparingthisdocument.

    DESolutions,Inc...............................................KeithDavidson

    EnergyTechConsultants.................................RickKuchenig

    IntegratedCHPSystemsCorp........................GearoidFoley

    NationalRenewableEnergyLaboratory.......BenKroposkiandMarikoShirazi

    PetersEngineering............................................JanBlack

    SacramentoMunicipalUtilityDistrict...........JimDayringerandJimElleringUniversityofWisconsinMadison RobertLasseter

  • ii

    PREFACE

    TheCaliforniaEnergyCommissionEnergyResearchandDevelopmentDivisionsupportspublicinterestenergyresearchanddevelopmentthatwillhelpimprovethequalityoflifeinCaliforniabybringingenvironmentallysafe,affordable,andreliableenergyservicesandproductstothemarketplace.

    TheEnergyResearchandDevelopmentDivisionconductspublicinterestresearch,development,anddemonstration(RD&D)projectstobenefitCalifornia.

    TheEnergyResearchandDevelopmentDivisionstrivestoconductthemostpromisingpublicinterestenergyresearchbypartneringwithRD&Dentities,includingindividuals,businesses,utilities,andpublicorprivateresearchinstitutions.

    EnergyResearchandDevelopmentDivisionfundingeffortsarefocusedonthefollowingRD&Dprogramareas:

    BuildingsEndUseEnergyEfficiency

    EnergyInnovationsSmallGrants

    EnergyRelatedEnvironmentalResearch

    EnergySystemsIntegration

    EnvironmentallyPreferredAdvancedGeneration

    Industrial/Agricultural/WaterEndUseEnergyEfficiency

    RenewableEnergyTechnologies

    Transportation

    MicrogridDemonstrationProjectisthefinalreportfortheMicrogridDemonstrationProject(contractnumber50008009)conductedbySacramentoMunicipalUtilityDistrict.TheinformationfromthisprojectcontributestoEnergyResearchandDevelopmentDivisionsEnergySystemsIntegrationProgram.

    FormoreinformationabouttheEnergyResearchandDevelopmentDivision,pleasevisittheEnergyCommissionswebsiteatwww.energy.ca.gov/research/orcontacttheEnergyCommissionat9163271551.

  • iii

    ABSTRACT

    Amicrogridisanetworkofgeneratorslinkedtogethertoservebuildingswithelectricity;somesystemsalsoprovideheatingandcooling.Oneadvantageofamicrogridisreliability.Amicrogridcanoperatewhileconnectedtothemainutilitygridanditcanimmediatelydisconnectifthepowergoesout.Themicrogridstillprovidessomeelectricity,heat,andcoolingevenwhenisolatedfromtheutility.Amicrogridcanalsooffercustomershigherqualitypower.Thesystemcandisconnectwheneverthemaingridspowerqualitythreatensthestableoperationofsensitiveequipmentsuchascomputersandotherelectronics.

    ThisresearchdemonstratedamicrogridattheSacramentoMunicipalUtilityDistrict.Theprojectinvolvedthedesign,construction,anddemonstrationofamicrogridbasedoncombinedheatandpowertechnology.ThemicrogridwasintegratedwiththeSacramentoMunicipalUtilityDistrictscentralheatingandcoolingequipment,includingachilledwaterstoragetank.Afastresponsestaticswitchenabledthemicrogridtoisolateitselffromthegridwithoutelectricaldisturbancesoneithersideandthenreconnectwhentheutilityrestoredhighqualitypower.Theprojectalsoincludedplansforcommissioningthemicrogrid,monitoringitsoperation,analyzingthemarketforsimilarsystemsanddisseminatingresearchresults.

    Researchersplannedtodocumentanyabnormaleventsandcorrectiveactionstakenoncethemicrogridisoperating,aswellastoexplainwhatthedatasayaboutthemicrogridsperformance.Researchersalsointendedtodevelopaplantotransferthemicrogridtechnologytokeydecisionmakersandthegeneralpublic,andtoimplementafocusedmarketingprogramtoeducatecustomersinallmarketsectorsaboutthebenefitsofcombinedheatandpower.

    Keywords:microgrid,combinedheatandpower,distributedenergyresources,energy

    Pleaseusethefollowingcitationforthisreport:

    Rawson,Mark;JeffBerkheimer.(SacramentoMunicipalUtilityDistrict).2012.MicrogridDemonstrationProject.CaliforniaEnergyCommission.Publicationnumber:CEC5002014045.

  • iv

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    Acknowledgements...................................................................................................................................i

    PREFACE...................................................................................................................................................ii

    ABSTRACT..............................................................................................................................................iii

    TABLEOFCONTENTS.........................................................................................................................iv

    LISTOFFIGURES..................................................................................................................................vi

    LISTOFTABLES....................................................................................................................................vi

    EXECUTIVESUMMARY........................................................................................................................1

    Introduction........................................................................................................................................1

    ProjectPurpose...................................................................................................................................1

    ProjectResults.....................................................................................................................................2

    ProjectBenefits...................................................................................................................................3

    CHAPTER1:Introduction......................................................................................................................5

    1.1 ProblemStatement.....................................................................................................................5

    1.2 ProjectGoalsandResearchObjectives....................................................................................6

    1.2.1 Goals....................................................................................................................................6

    1.2.2 ResearchObjectives...........................................................................................................7

    1.3 ProjectApproach........................................................................................................................8

    1.3.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................8

    1.3.2 PrimaryTasks.....................................................................................................................8

    CHAPTER2:PreliminaryDesign.........................................................................................................9

    2.1 Goals............................................................................................................................................9

    2.2 LoadAnalysisandSizing.........................................................................................................9

    2.2.1 HeatingandCoolingLoadProfiles.................................................................................9

    2.2.2 MicrogridSizingandDispatch......................................................................................11

    2.2.3 EconomicAnalysisandDispatchEconomics..............................................................14

    CHAPTER3:FinalDesignandConstruction...................................................................................16

    3.1 DesignProcess..........................................................................................................................16

  • v

    3.1.1 Goals..................................................................................................................................16

    3.1.2 DesignApproach.............................................................................................................16

    3.2 MicrogridFunctionality....................................................................

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