methods for sequestration

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Methods for sequestration. Summary Global Carbon Cycle (Accum in Atm. = Inputs Outputs) 3-4 GtC/y = 6 GtC/y 1 GtC/y land 2 GtC/y ocean. Reduction of CO2 flux in the atmosphere. Natural Sequestration processes can be enhanced Geoengineeering Biofuels Increased terrestrial storage. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Methods for sequestration.

Methods for sequestration.Summary Global Carbon Cycle (Accum in Atm. = Inputs Outputs) 3-4 GtC/y = 6 GtC/y 1 GtC/y land 2 GtC/y ocean

Reduction of CO2 flux in the atmosphereNatural Sequestration processes can be enhancedGeoengineeeringBiofuelsIncreased terrestrial storagewww.chemtrails911.com/.../050908geo2.jpg

Geoengineering:Ships burning sulfurPlanes making contrails with cloud particlesAluminized balloonsSpace based mirrorsAerosol gunsCarbon sequestrationReforestationGeoengineering: Nutrient pumps driven by wave action to increase algal growth removing CO2

Photosynthesis: CO2 + H2O = CH2O (algal biomass) + O2Net photosynthesis removes CO2 from the atmospherewww.american.com/.../FeaturedImage

Biomass Barrier to sequester CO2

http://tbi.montana.edu/facultystaff/gerlach/gerlach_clip_image002_0000.jpgwww.opg.com/safety/images/tree2.jpg

The Role of Forests Forest soils and vegetation store about 40 percent of all carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, more than any other ecosystem. However, land use change, primarily tropical deforestation, currently releases an estimated 1.6 billion tons of carbon to the atmosphere each year, equivalent to 25 percent of emissions from fossil fuel combustion.

: www.treehugger.com/files/2007/11/scientists_c...

Ocean acidification

http://www.europeanenergyforum.eu/graphs/dd20080219-19.jpg

noliesradio.org/images/geoengineering.jpg five methods for the direct injection of CO2 into the ocean:Dry ice released at the ocean surface from a ship (Nakashiki et al., 1991). Liquid CO2 injected at a depth of about 1000 m from a pipe towed by a moving ship and forming a rising droplet plume (Ozaki et al., 1995). Liquid CO2 injected at a depth of about 1000 m from a manifold lying on the ocean bottom and forming a rising droplet plume (Liro et al., 1992). A dense CO2 -seawater mixture created at a depth of between 500 and 1000 m forming a sinking bottom gravity current (Haugan and Drange, 1992). Liquid CO2 introduced to a sea floor depression forming a stable "deep lake" at a depth of about 4000 m (Ohsumi, 1995).The relative merits of each scenario involve issues of sequestration efficiency, cost and technical feasibility, and environmental impactMethods for marine sequestrationIn terms of capacity, the oceans are by far the largest potential location for storage of captured CO2. The oceans already contain some 40,000 GtC of carbon, mainly as stable carbonate ions, and have a virtually unlimited capacity to absorb even more.Natural ocean uptake of CO2 is a slow process that works over millennia to balance atmospheric and oceanic concentrations of CO2. Anthropogenic emissions of carbon have upset this balance, and there is currently an estimated net flow of 2 GtC per year from the atmosphere to ocean surface waters, which are eventually transferred to the deeper ocean. Indeed, roughly 90% of present-day emissions will eventually end up in the ocean, but we know little about the effect on marine organisms and ecosystems (Chargin and Socolow 1997).As with natural absorption, direct injection of CO2 increases the acidity of the oceanbut at a rate that may not give marine organisms time to adapt. By applying what they deem an acceptable increase in average ocean water acidity, scientists have estimated the storage capacity of the ocean at roughly 1,000 to 10,000 GtC. If 100% of global carbon emissions were captured and stored in the ocean, this would imply roughly 200 to 2,000 years of emissions storage.www.minimumsecurity.net/stephaniemcmillan/cod

www.formatkenya.org/photos/carbon%20sequestra.

www.treehugger.com/carbon-sequestration-usa-t...

growingnewlife.com/web_images/biochar2.jpg

www.biochar.org/.../steiner-charcycle.jpg

www.celsias.com/.../admin/Soils_Picture.jpg

www.eco-cement.com/images/graphics/carbon%20c

How Much Carbon Sequestration Would Occur as a Result of Improving Soils?

www.southwestclimatechange.org/files/cc/figur...

gs-press.com.au/.../MBD_Loy_Yangbetter-600x0.jpg

http://www.ocean.com/resources/00co2/sea-carbon-cycle.jpg

http://www.ocean.com/resources/00co2/sea-injection.jpg?0.7918653312350594

http://www.powerplantccs.com/includes/site_img/oce.jpg

http://www.eoearth.org/images/7/77/EOR_Carbon_Sequestration.png

http://www.climatescience.gov/Library/stratplan2003/final/graphics/images/SciStratFig7-5.jpg

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