MET 103 Shapers 103

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<ul><li> 1. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS WHEN WORKINGWITH SHAPING MACHINES1. Wear approved goggles or face shield.2. Select proper tool for the job.p p j3. Be sure that the tool, tool head, table, and table support are secure before starting the machine.4.4 Remove all wrenches before starting the machinemachine.5. Select the proper speed, feed, and depth of cut according to the kind of material, type of tool, and method of holding the work.6. Stand parallel to the direction of the stroke of the machine when it is operating, and never reach across the table between strokes.7. Do not touch the tool, clapper box, or w/p while the machine is running.8. Make adjustments on the work setup only when the machine is stopped.9. Turn off the machine before leaving it.I NE ER I NGENGT ALEC MECH NICHNOLOGY A METENT DP AR T ME</li></ul> <p> 2. THE SHAPER MACHINE One of the most common and useful m/c found in the machineshop is the shaper. The shaper is used primarily for machining flat surfaces with asingle point tool. Many operations such as cutting external and internal key-way,dovetail, T-slots, gear racks, grooves, and miscellaneousshapes can be machined on the shaper. In this machine, the cutting tool reciprocates or movesbackward and forward. Cutting takes place only on the forward stroke. I NE ER I NG ENGTAL ECMECH NIC HNOLOGYAMET EN TD P A R T ME 3. TYPES OF SHAPERSThree types of shapers commonly found in a machine shop are1 . crank, 2. gear, &amp; 3. hydraulicThe size of a shaper is determined by the largest cube which it canm/c.m/c1.CRANK SHAPERMost commonly used.Its ram is given reciprocating motion by means of a rocker arm operated by a crank pin from the main driving gear, or "bull wheel."The forward stroke of the shaper occurs when the crank pin is in the upper portion of the rocker armThe return stroke occurs when the pin is in the lower portion .The return stroke to be faster than the forward stroke on a 3:2 ratio.I NE ER I NGENGT ALEC MECH NICHNOLOGY A METENT DP AR T ME 4. I NE ER I NGENGT ALECFigure 1. The main parts of a crank shaper MECH NICHNOLOGY A METENT DP AR T ME 5. Main parts of a Crank shaperENGI NE ER I NG T ALEC MECH NICHNOLOGY A METENT DP AR T ME 6. I NE ER I NGENGT ALEC MECH NICHNOLOGY A METCRANK SHAPERENT DP AR T ME 7. CRANK SHAPER.I NE ER I NGENGT ALEC MECH NICHNOLOGY A METENT DP AR T ME 8. THE MAIN PARTS OF A CRANK SHAPER1. The ram2. The tool head3. The C3 Th Cross feed traverse crank f dtk4. Table I NE ER I NG ENGTAL ECMECH NIC HNOLOGYAMET EN TD P A R T ME 9. 2. GEAR SHAPERThe gear shaper obtains the drive for the ram from agear and a rack connected to the ram. This shaperalso has a mechanism that provides a quick returnfor the ram.3. HYDRAULIC SHAPERThe hydraulic shaper is driven by the movement of apiston in a cylinder of oil and is controlled by a valvemechanism connected with the oil pump. I NE ER I NG ENGTAL ECMECH NIC HNOLOGYAMET EN TD P A R T ME 10. CALCULATIONS OF SHAPER CUTTING SPEEDSInch Speed CalculationsTo obtain number of strokes per minute.N = (CS *7)/ LWhereN = number of strokes per minute bf t k i tL = length of work plus 1 in. for tool clearanceCS = cutting speed of metal in feet per minuteI NE ER I NGENGT ALEC MECH NICHNOLOGY A METENT DP AR T ME 11. CALCULATIONS OF SHAPER CUTTING SPEEDSMetric Speed CalculationsStrokes per minute N = (CS*0.6)/LWhere N = number of strokes per minute L = length of work plus 0.025 m for tool clearance g CS = cutting speed of metal in meter per minute I NE ER I NG ENGTAL ECMECH NIC HNOLOGYAMET EN TD P A R T ME 12. SELECTING AND MOUNTING SHAPING TOOLSShaper Cutting ToolsTwo basic kinds are used.1. Forged tools 2. Tool bits1. Forged tools : This tools are heavy tools.2. Tool bits are more widely used than forged tools because of their lower costcost. I NE ER I NG ENGTAL ECMECH NIC HNOLOGYAMET EN TD P A R T ME </p>