Melani Shahin, FCRH 2018 Summer 2017 Research Grant Proposal Shahin, FCRH 2018 Summer 2017 Research Grant Proposal Music and Philosophy 2 Werckmeister. Most scholarly literature on Werckmeister is

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Melani Shahin, FCRH 2018 Summer 2017 Research Grant Proposal Music and Philosophy 1 Andreas Werckmeister (1645-1706) was a provincial organist who spent his life in the Harz Mountain region of Germany, but he fancied himself a musical theorist and philosopher of the first order. Werckmeister wrote a number of treatises concerning music theory, organ playing, and the tuning of keyboard instruments. While Werckmeisters treatises nominally address practical musical issues, what is most interesting about them has been neglected: his detailed philosophical commentaries on music and the paradoxes of tuning. Scholars have studied the influence of his mathematically rational keyboard temperament (tuning) systems on the musical practice of eminent Baroque musicians such as J.S. Bach. But the more important questions have been ignored: what were Werckmeisters philosophical motivations for solving the paradoxes of tuning? And why was the temperament of keyboard instruments, in particular, significant to him? These questions have been neglected not only because Werckmeister is remembered as a lowly organist (rather than as a philosopher), but also because his treatises complicate the standard narrative that links eighteenth century music with scientific rationalism. Indeed, Werckmeisters seemingly rational temperament systems have their philosophical basis in the Renaissance-era tradition which links music and number with magic. By analyzing the philosophical content of Werckmeisters treatises, I intend to show how ordinary musicians like Werckmeister used antiquated music theory not only for practical purposes, but also as a tool for negotiating their marginal social position -- just as scientists conducted rational musical experiments to distinguish their work from alchemy practiced by magicians. This project will be a unique scholarly contribution for three reasons: first, it will seriously consider the philosophical content of Werckmeisters treatises, and contextualize this content within a broader debate about magic and rationalism; second, it will examine the professional tensions at stake in this debate; third, it will fill a gap in English language scholarship on Melani Shahin, FCRH 2018 Summer 2017 Research Grant Proposal Music and Philosophy 2 Werckmeister. Most scholarly literature on Werckmeister is in German, and most of his treatises are not translated into English. Existing scholarship, however, in both German and English neglect the issues that I intend to study. During this semester I have been conducting primary source archival research on Werckmeister in the Drexel Collection at the New York Public Library. In particular, I have translated sections of Werkcmeisters Musicalische-Paradoxal Discourse (1707). In this text, he writes about God as the creator of all harmony, secret musical knowledge, numbers, true and false Christianity, and paradoxes of tuning. The connection between these topics is far from obvious, and so my project focuses on locating the eclectic philosophical content of Werckmeisters treatise within a broader cultural and philosophical context. To that end, I have studied and translated the historical sources to which Werckmeister refers, as well as the texts of his contemporaries. For instance, I translated sections of Athanasius Kirchers Latin Musurgia Universalis (1650), as well as Andreas Hirschs German translation of the Mursurgia Universalis (1662) to locate the source of Werckmeisters idea that God created the universe according harmonious musical proportions. I also translated portions of organist Johann Heinrich Buttstedts treatise Ut, mi, sol, re, fa, la, tota musica et harmonia aeterna (1716) from German. This text provides insight into how magical, theological approaches to music were defended against critiques from theorists such as Johann Mattheson, who desired to rationalize music theory. Furthermore, I have read extensively about the history of science in the early-modern period. During the Scientific Revolution, music was considered a mathematical science, and was studied by all major scientists including Isaac Newton. Scientists, however, studied music experimentally in order to distance their work from the speculative philosophy of mere organists like Werckmeister. While my current research has begun to contextualize Werckmiesters treatises Melani Shahin, FCRH 2018 Summer 2017 Research Grant Proposal Music and Philosophy 3 within a broader discourse about music and magic during the eighteenth century, there remain many texts and questions that I have not had the opportunity to study and investigate. This summer I intend to extend my research into Werckmeisters musical thinking by continuing my primary source work in the Drexel Collection. The Drexel Collection contains, in addition to a complete collection of Werckmeisters treatises, primary sources of theorists contemporary to Werckmeister as well as historical sources that he himself read. It is critical for me to stay in New York City to conduct this research because this kind of collection is not available anywhere else in the United States. Having an opportunity for sustained archival research in the Drexel Collection will allow me to follow lines of inquiry I could not pursue this semester. In addition to translating more of Werckmeisters treatises, I intend to study more of the magical and scientific sources he references. I will also examine more closely the critical reception of Werkcmeisters treatises by mid-eighteenth century theorists. By doing so, I will clarify and expand upon my idea that music played a central role in the contentious debate between the magical thinking and rationalism. I also intend to study the culture of organists and organs during the late-seventeenth century to understand why keyboard temperament was such a critical practical and philosophical issue for Werckmeister. During the month of June, I will focus on translating Werckmeisters treatises in order to gain a more comprehensive understanding of his philosophical framework. In particular, I intend to translate Chapters 1-3 of the Musicalische Paradoxal Discourse as well as pages 26-35 of Werckmeisters translation of composer Agostino Steffanis treatise Sendschreiben (1700). I then plan on writing a short paper (5-10 pages) about these translations and their significance to my project questions. During the month of July, I will focus on studying and translating sections from scientific texts Werkcmeister references such as Johannes Keplers Harmonices Mundi (1619) to Melani Shahin, FCRH 2018 Summer 2017 Research Grant Proposal Music and Philosophy 4 understand how Werckmeister appropriated scientific treatises into his magical thinking. I will also translate sections of texts such as Johann Matthesons Das neu-erffnete Orchestre (1713) and Johann Gottfried Walthers Musicalisches Lexicon (1732) to study the critical reception of Werkcmeisters treatises by theorists in the mid-eighteenth century. Again, I will write a short paper that summarizes and contextualizes my findings. During August, I will synthesize my translations, secondary-source research, and papers by writing an extended research paper that builds upon ideas from the twenty-five-page research paper I wrote for my project this semester. I request the full $3,800 for funding. $1,883 of the funding will go toward my research stipend. $1,917 of the funding will go toward evening courses in German at the Deutsches Haus at NYU. Although some of the sources that I will translate are in Latin, the majority of my primary research materials are in German. Translating seventeenth-century German involves many distinct challenges, which slow down the translation process: first, these texts are written in Fraktur script instead of Latin script, which requires great care to decipher; second, these texts contain spelling irregularities and archaic word usages; third, these texts contain large amounts of Latin and Greek. I am not proposing to take these courses for academic credit; rather, continuing to improve my German will enable me to translate in a more nuanced, efficient, and accurate way. These classes will not be a distraction from my research, but will instead improve the quality of my project. I spent this past year taking classes at the Deutsches Haus, in addition to a full course load, and I found the instruction to be invaluable for my current project. Pursuing knowledge of German at a professional level will distinguish my research as an undergraduate student, and improve the competitiveness of my applications to PhD programs in musicology. I also request summer housing for sessions I and II so that I can conduct research in the Drexel Collection, take my German courses, and meet with my advisor to discuss the progress of my project. Melani Shahin, FCRH 2018 Summer 2017 Research Grant Proposal Music and Philosophy 5 Bibliography I. Primary source material a. Sources referenced by Werckmeister (NYPL Collection and Fordham Special Collection primary sources in bold) i. Augustine, St. Augustine on Music: Books I-VI, trans. R. Catesby Taliaferro. Annapolis, MD: The St. Johns Bookstore, 1939. ii. Boethius, Fundamentals of Music (selections). trans. Calvin M. Bower. ed. Claude Palisca. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1989. iii. Kepler, Johannes. Harmonices Mundi libri V. Linz: 1619. [New York Public Library, Drexel Collection, Drexel 2669.c2.] iv. Kircher, Athanasius. Athanasii Kircheri Fvldensis e Soc. Iesv presbyteri Mvsvrgia vniversalis : sive Ars magna consoni et dissoni, in X libros digesta. Rome: 1650. [Fordham Special Collections, SPEC COLL S.J. 1650 1.] v. Kircher, Athanasius. Musurgia universalis. Reprint der deutschen Teilbersetzung von Andreas Hirsch, Schwbisch Hall, 1662. Herausgegeben von Melanie Wald. Kassel: Brenreiter-Verlag Karl Vtterle GmbH & Co. KG, 2006. vi. Kircher, Athanasius. Arithmologia sive Rome: 1665. [New York Public Library, Science, Industry, and Business Library, OFK (Kircher, A. Athanasii KircheriArithmologia).] vii. Maier, Michael. Michaelis Majeri ... Secretioris natur secretorum scrutinium chymicum (originally published in 1618 as Atalanta Melani Shahin, FCRH 2018 Summer 2017 Research Grant Proposal Music and Philosophy 6 fugiens) Frankfurt: impensis G.H. Oehrlingii, typo J.P. Andre, 1687. [New York Public Library, Lenox Collection, KB p.v.9.] viii. Meibom, Marcus. Antiquae musicae auctores septem. Amsterdam: Ludovicum Elzevirium, 1652. [New York Public Library, Drexel Collection, Drexel 2610 v1/2611 v2.] ix. Plato, Timaeus (excerpts). Strunks Source Readings in Music History. ed. Oliver Strunk. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1950. b. Werckmeister and his contemporaries: colleagues and critics (NYPL Drexel Collection primary sources in bold) i. Bernhard, Christoph. Tractatus compositionis augmentatus. Die Kompositionslehre Heinrich Schtzens in der Fassung seines Schulers Christoph Bernhard. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Hrtel, 1926. ii. Buttstedt, Ut, mi, sol, re fa, la toto musica et harmonia aeterna, Erffurt: O. F. Werther, 1716. [New York Public Library, Drexel Collection, Drexel 2729.] iii. Mattheson, Johann. Das neu-erffnete Orchestre Hamburg, 1713. [New York Public Library, Drexel Collection, Drexel 2692). iv. Mattheson, Johann. Der Vollkommene Capellmeiste. Hamburg: C. Herold, 1739. [New York Public Library, Drexel Collection, Drexel 3253-4). v. Johann Gottfried Walther, Musicalisches Lexicon. Leipzig: W. Deer, 1732. [New York Public Library, Drexel Collection, Drexel 1125.] Melani Shahin, FCRH 2018 Summer 2017 Research Grant Proposal Music and Philosophy 7 vi. Werckmeister, Andreas. Musicae mathematicae Hodegus curiosus, oder Richtiger musicalischer Weg-Weiser. Frankfurt and Leipzig: In Verlegung T. P. Calvisii, 1687. [New York Public Library, Drexel Collection, Drexel 2996.] vii. --. Der edlen Music-Kunst Wrde, Gebrauch und Missbrauch, so wohl aus der heiligen Schrift als auch aus etlich alten und neubewhrten reinen Kirchen-Lehrern. Frankfurt and Leipzig: T. P. Calvisius, 1691. [New York Public Library, Drexel Collection, Drexel 2353.] viii. --. Musicalisches Send-Schreiben. Mhlhausen: J.C. Brckner, 1760. Originally printed in 1700. trans., with commentary, of A. Steffani: Quanta certezza habbia da suoi principii la musica (Amsterdam, 1695). [New York Public Library, Drexel Collection, Drexel 112.) ix. --. Cribrum musicum (1700) and Harmonologia musica (1702). The Original German Treatises with Parallel, Annotated English Translations. Trans. Casey Mongoven. Pendragon Press: Hillsdale, NY 2013. x. --. Musicalische-Paradoxal Discourse, oder Ungemeine Vorstellungen, wie die Musica einen hohen und gttlichen Uhrsprung habe. Quedlinburg: T.P. Calvisius, 1707. [New York Public Library, Drexel Collection, Drexel 127.] II. Secondary source material a. Butt, John. A mind unconscious that it is calculating? Bach and the rationalist philosophy of Wolff, Leibniz and Spinoza The Cambridge Companion to Bach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997. Melani Shahin, FCRH 2018 Summer 2017 Research Grant Proposal Music and Philosophy 8 b. Carter, Tim. Resemblance and Representation: Toward a New Aesthetic in the Music of Monteverdi, Con che soavita: Studies in Italian Opera, Song, and Dance, 1580-1740, ed. Iain Fenlon and Tim Carter (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1995), 118-34. c. Dammann, Rolf. "Zur Musiklehre Des Andreas Werckmeister." Archiv Fr Musikwissenschaft 11, no. 3 (1954): 206-37. doi:10.2307/929862. d. Dear, Peter. Mersenne and the learning of the Schools. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1988. e. Field, J.V. Musical Cosmology: Kepler and His Readers. Music and Mathematics: From Pythagoras to Fractals. eds. John Fauvel, et al., Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003. f. Godwin, Joscelyn. Music. Athanasius Kirchers Theater of the World. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions, 2009. g. Gouk, Penelope. Music, Science, and Natural Magic in Seventeenth Century England. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1999. h. Gouk, Penelope. Making Music, Making Knowledge: The Harmonious Universe of Athanasius Kircher. The Great Art of Knowing: The Baroque Encyclopedia of Athanasius Kircher. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Libraries, 2001. i. Snyder, Kerala J. Dieterich Buxtehude, organist in Lbeck. Rochester, NY : University of Rochester Press., 2007. j. Wolff, Christoph. Bach, the Learned Musician. New York, NY: W.W. Norton & Co., 2000. Melani Shahin, FCRH 2018 Summer 2017 Research Grant Proposal Music and Philosophy 9 k. Yearsley, David. "Alchemy and Counterpoint in an Age of Reason." Journal of the American Musicological Society 51, no. 2 (1998): 201-43. doi:10.2307/831977.

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