managing crowds

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EIGHT POINT CROWD MANAGEMENT AND EVENT PLANNING MODEL® Larry B. Perkins, CFE, CPP, CMP Lulu Press, Inc Morrisville, North Carolina www.lulu.com/Crowd Safety

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  • 1.ALSO BY LARRY B. PERKINS Crowd Safety and Survival, Practical Event and Public Gathering Safety Tips (2005) Jake the Cowhand Jasper Rabbit Crowd Management; In the Eye of the Storm Day of Event Cancellation Procedures Crowd Safety Tips Staying Cool in Hot Situations (2005) Mirror, Mirror: Reflections of the Soul, Spirit, and Will (2007)

2. EIGHT POINT CROWD MANAGEMENTAND EVENT PLANNING MODELLarry B. Perkins, CFE, CPP, CMPLulu Press, Inc Morrisville, North Carolinawww.lulu.com/Crowd Safety i 3. 7/3/2007 10:15 AMEIGHT POINT CROWD MANAGEMENT AND EVENTPLANNING MODELEIGHT POINT CROWD MANAGEMENT AND EVENTPLANNING MODEL, PUBLISHED BY LULU PRESS, INCCopyright 2007 by Larry B. Perkins, CFE, CPP, CMPLibrary of Congress Control Number: PendingISBN PendingCover Design by Larry B. PerkinsMyBook, MB, and Band of Writers are trademarks of Band ofWriters Coalition Publishers. A three in One Project and thePERC System, Crowd Safety Tips, Staying Cool in HotSituations, Day of Event Cancellation Procedures andEight Point Crowd Management and Event Planning Modelare protected by copyrightALL RIGHTS RESERVEDNo part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in aretrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,without the prior permission of the author.While every precaution has been taken in the preparation ofthis book, the publisher/author assumes no responsibility forerrors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use ofinformationFor Information:Band of Writers Coalition, 510 Berlin Way, Suite 1, Morrisville,NC 27560 or visit www.lulu.com/CrowdSafetyPrinted in the United Sates of America First Edition1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10ii 4. WARNINGiii 5. WARNINGWARNINGWhen life is imperiled or a dire situation is at hand, safealternatives may not exist. To deal with the worst casescenarios presented in this book, we highly recommend-insist, that the best course of action is to consult aprofessionally trained expert.While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy ofthecontents,suggestions,recommendations,andinformation contained herein, we are not responsible andassume no liability for any damages caused or alleged to becaused, directly or indirectly, incidentally or consequentially,to any person, firm, or third party using the informationcontained in this book. The information is provided withoutwarranty. iv 6. Eight Point Crowd Management and Event Planning ModelThe author is not attempting to provide legal, medical, orother professional services or advice in this book. Thetechniques, illustrations, and data contained herein arestrictly informational. It is strongly recommended that legal,medical, and other expert assistanceand/or the services ofa competent professionalbe sought prior to engaging inany of the acts, or circumstances, referred to within thisbook. Further, some facilities prohibit certain objects, foods,materials, and personal itemssuch as cameras, weaponry,certain types of shoes, cell phones, sticks, video and audiorecording devices, backpacks, bags, containers, plastic,chains, noise makers, and beverages.v 7. EIGHT POINT CROWD MANAGEMENT AND EVENT PLANNING MODELThe following model will help you identify crowdmanagement and event planning variables, gather andanalyze information, plan specific actions based upon theinformation gather and your facilitys and personnelabilities to execute the event being considered orBeing by defining which crowd management concepts arecritical for our facility? In what areas do you see roomfor improvement?At the conclusion of an event, its important to conduct apost event audit of your plan. This audio is invaluable asit identifies weakness in the thinking and approach to theprogram developed, methods of analyzing data collected,sub-por planning and executing. Its a road map thatidentifies needed repairs.1 8. LARRY B. PERKINSEIGHT POINT CROWD AND EVENTENGINEERING MODELRisk Management ComponentsSection AShaping Crowd BehaviorSection BDeveloping an Event PlanSection CEight Point Crowd and Event PlanningModel1. Investigationi. (Data collection)2. Analyzingi. (Data collected and identify variables)3. Plani. (a written plan that list goals and objectives for the event and which sets counteract measures to curtail unwanted variables that maintains a desired event environment)4. Communicationi. Meetings, briefings through various forms; written, radio, town hall, promoters, stakeholders, external interest groups, etc.)5. Executioni. Putting the plan in motion, and directing the show.6. Supervising the Plani. The role of each manager/supervisor in the plan. And the chain of command for making adjustments to the plan as needed? 7. Crisis Management Programa. Should something happen whats the plan? Who will respond, whos in2 9. Eight Point Crowd Management and Event Planning Model charge? (Suggested reading Day of Event Cancellation Procedures and The Manger on Duty and other emergency preparedness books) 8. Assessing the Plan a. Debriefings, walk-through facility, review incident, guest complaints, financial, medical and reports The Four Critical Periods for Injures and Death (Times and Hotspots )Section D Design Training for Crowd ManagersSection E Facility/Event use Policies & ProcedureSection F Action PlanSection GOBJECTIVE:Provide structure to Crowd Management and EventPlanning for the protection of life and propertyDUTY OF CARE, BREACH OF DUTY, ACTUAL CAUSE,PROXIMATE CAUSE AND DAMAGESHere, you have a duty to protect. However you inviteguests into your facility, there is an encumbered dutyplaced upon you and the facility. Again, I am notproviding legal services, but merely sharing informationIve discovered by providing expert testimony in courtinvolving Crowd Management and Event Planning, andknowledge Ive gained from nearly 30 years of industrialexperience, teaching and study.DUTY OF CARE AND BREACH OF DUTY:For this section, we will focus on the duty of care andbreach of duty for as it relates to Crowd Management andEvent Planning.3 10. LARRY B. PERKINSOne of the first things you will want to ask yourself is ifsomething happens at your facility is: Was thisreasonably foreseeable and could this incident/accidentcould have been avoided? Looking at the Eight PointsPlanning Model below will help you answer thosequestions. That is, did you investigate fully (collect all theavailable data pertaining to this evencalled otherbuildings, questioned the promoted, looked at the history,etc.) and did you analyze the data properly and did youplan, execute the plan and supervise accordingly?If a tragedy was the result of negligence, you may be helpaccountable. As the representative of the owners, facilitymanagement and operators, you owe the very same dutiesto investigate, plan and supervise the activities to thenumber of guests that have been invited to the facility areduties imposed on all those in responsible charge.Good and accepted planning practices require that venuemanagement, who anticipates opening his/her propertyfor sports and entertainment, to know who manyspectators the facility is expected to draw. Thus they mustconduct a thorough investigation of the nature of theactivities expected to take place at their venues todetermine whether the facility is adequate for theproposed functions and physical layout is appropriate.Furthermore, such investigation is required to establishsafe and adequate plans for supervision, and discharge ofthe patrons as they leave the facility, to include late hoursafter the venue has closed and that the crowd of has notyet departed from the propertySuch an investigation would include, at the very least,determining the number of guest anticipated. Thisinformation is necessary so that the landowner can judgethe number and type of guests to expect; and make otherplans and arrangements for the safety of the expected4 11. Eight Point Crowd Management and Event Planning Modelguests such as determining the proper number andpositioning of security personnel; and assure that themeans of egress to the night club is safe and adequate inlight of the numbers expected and activities.Good and accepted practice requires careful monitoringof guests throughout the venueinside and out forsigns of adverse crowd behavior activities. This is not a"police" function but rather a duty imposed on the facilitymanagement, who must be trained in crowd management.Can you prevent all incidents? The answer is no.However, what other measures did you take to deterincidents, or to find assistance if need.One thing to not over look in the planning phase is thedeterrence of Uniformed personnel. The uniform issign of deterrent to the casual person, not those who areintend on committing harm or causing problems.Additionally, security personnel may be able to provide adescription of the person committing the offense even ifthey are unable to stop or prevent it at the moment.Have you received appropriate training in CrowdManagement as required by the National Fire ProtectionAssociation, NFPA Crowd Managers, Assembly Occupancies31-2.1, A 31-2.1, SFPE Handbook of Fire ProtectionEngineering, Section, Chapter 15:There shall be trained Crowd Managers or Crowd Manager Supervisors .. . who shall have received appropriate training in crowd managementtechniques with emphases on time, space, energy andinformation.Have you conducted an assessment of appropriateness ofsecurity services as they relate to the needs of your venue? 5 12. LARRY B. PERKINSThis is separate from the duty of such security personnelto discharge their duties.Facility management must be sure that those providingsecurity have the required training and expertise, and thatthey are able to communicate, and that they are aware ofthe rules and policies of the facility they have beenretained to protect as well as its physical layout.Have you provided proper written and verbal instructionsthe management of the company youre employing andsecur