managing crowds safely - .this booklet aims to provide practical guidelines on managing crowd safety

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  • Page1of63

    Health and Safety Executive

    Managing crowds safelyAguidefororganisersateventsandvenues

    This is a free-to-download, web-friendly version of HSG154 (Second edition, published 2000). This version has been adapted for online use from HSEs current printed version.

    Youcanbuythebookatwww.hsebooks.co.ukandmostgoodbookshops.

    ISBN 978 0 7176 1834 7Price 17.50

    Thisbookletaimstoprovidepracticalguidelinesonmanagingcrowdsafetyinasystematicwaybysettingoutanapproachwhichcanbeutilisedbyorganisersofanyeventorvenue.GuidanceistargetedatallownersandoperatorsinallpublicvenueswheretheHSWActapplies.Thevenuemaybeusedregularly,(egshoppingcentresandsportsgrounds,oroccasionally(egfireworksdisplaysandagriculturalshows).Theguideisaimedatorganisers,butwillalsobeofinteresttovenuestaffandcontractors

    HSE Books

  • Page2of63

    Health and Safety Executive

    Crown copyright 2000

    Firstpublished1996

    ISBN9780717618347

    Allrightsreserved.Nopartofthispublicationmaybereproduced,storedinaretrievalsystem,ortransmittedinanyformorbyanymeans(electronic,mechanical,photocopying,recordingorotherwise)withoutthepriorwrittenpermissionofthecopyrightowner.

    Applicationsforreproductionshouldbemadeinwritingto:TheOfficeofPublicSectorInformation,InformationPolicyTeam,Kew,Richmond,SurreyTW94DUore-mail:licensing@opsi.gov.uk

    ThisguidanceisissuedbytheHealthandSafetyExecutive.Followingtheguidanceisnotcompulsoryandyouarefreetotakeotheraction.Butifyoudofollowtheguidanceyouwillnormallybedoingenoughtocomplywiththelaw.Healthandsafetyinspectorsseektosecurecompliancewiththelawandmayrefertothisguidanceasillustratinggoodpractice.

  • Managingcrowdssafely Page3of63

    Health and Safety Executive

    ContentsIntroduction 4

    Planning 7

    Assessingrisks 16

    Puttingprecautionsinplace 26

    Emergencyplanningandprocedures 35

    Communication40

    Monitoringcrowds 46

    Review 49

    Appendix:relevantlegislation 52

    References 60

    Furtherinformation 62

  • Managingcrowdssafely Page4of63

    Health and Safety Executive

    IntroductionThe guide and its aims

    1 Crowdsareunavoidableoccurrencesofeverydaylife;problemsintheirsafemanagementarenot.Thisguideaimstoprovidepracticalguidancetohelpthoseorganisingeventstomanagecrowdsafetyinasystematicway.Itdoesnotspecifyaparticularwayofachievingcrowdsafety,butsetsoutageneralapproach.

    2 Althoughprimarilyaimedatorganiserswhohaveoverallresponsibilityfortheevent,theguidewillbeofusetoothersinvolvedintheevent,suchasvenuestaffandcontractors.

    3 Thereispotentialforminorormajorinjuryoccurringthroughthedynamicsofcrowdbehaviour,aspasttragedieshavedemonstrated.Measuresshouldbetakenbytheorganisersofeventstoensurethatthereiseffectiveandsafecrowdmanagementsothatovercrowdingdoesnotoccur.

    4 Crowdingoccursasaresultofanexcessivelylargenumberofpeoplegatheringinaspecifiedarea.Largenumbersgatherroutinelyinsuchplacesasshoppingmalls,trainstations,busstationsetc.However,theyalsogather,ofteningreaterdensity,whereparticularattractionsoreventsaretakingplace,suchasatsportingevents,concerts,theatres,cinemasandfestivals.Atsucheventstheremaybegreaterriskstotheirsafety.

    5 Thisguidanceaddresses:

    n events,bothsportingandnon-sporting,atfootballstadiaandothersportsgrounds;

    n eventsatsitesnotdesignedforthepurposesuchasparksorindustrialunits,egafaironatowncommonorapublicair-showonanairfield;and

    n eventsinstreetsorbuilt-upareas,egstreetfairs,carnivalprocessions,NewYearcelebrations.

    6 Forthepurposeofthispublication,theorganiseristakentobeanyonewhohasprimeresponsibilityfortheevent.Thearrangementsthemselvesmayinvolveanumberofpeople,dependinguponthecontractualarrangementsunderwhichtheeventistoberun.

    7 Inordertosuccessfullyruntheevent,organisersmayemploystafforusevolunteers.Theymayhireself-employedpeople(suchaslightingmanagers)orcontractors(forstewardingdutiesorerectionofatemporarystand).Theymayalsohireoutplotsforcatering,merchandisingorattractions,suchasfairgroundrides.

    8 Thepartiesinvolvedallhavedutiesunderhealthandsafetylegislation.ThedutiesareoutlinedinthefollowingparagraphsandfurtherdetailsaregivenintheAppendix.Closeliaisonandstrongcommunicationareessentialinensuringthathealthandsafetyresponsibilitiesfortheeventareidentified,assignedandadheredto.Theseincluderesponsibilityforcrowdsafety.

  • Managingcrowdssafely Page5of63

    Health and Safety Executive

    9 If,asaneventorganiser,youareinchargeofabusinessororganisation,youwillhavegeneraldutiesundertheHealthandSafetyatWorketcAct1974(HSWAct)1toensurethatriskstopeopleshealthandsafetyarisingfromworkactivities,includingmembersofthepublic,self-employedpersons,volunteersandcontractors,areproperlycontrolled.Youmayallocateelementsoftheorganisationofyoureventtoothers,egeventstewardsprovidedbyacontractor,butyouwillretainoverallresponsibilityforensuringthesafetyofthevisitingcrowds.

    10 Contractorsandsubcontractors,asemployers,havedutiesundertheHSWActtoensurethehealthandsafetyofmembersofthepublic,whomaybeaffectedbytheirundertaking.Forexample,acontractorwillneedtoensurethatthebarrierstheyareerectingwillnotfalloverandcauseinjurytothecrowd.Theself-employedhavesimilarduties.

    11 TheManagementofHealthandSafetyatWorkRegulations1999(theMHSWRegulations)2generallymakemoreexplicitwhatemployersandtheself-employedarerequiredtodotomanagehealthandsafetylawundertheHSWAct.TheMHSWRegulationssetoutkeystepstoensurethatactivities,includingevents,aremanagedsafely.

    12 TheinformationinthisguideexpandsonthechapteroncrowdmanagementinThe event safety guide,3whichcoversmanyotherissuesfororganiserstoconsiderwhenstaginganevent.

    Section summary

    Thefollowingsectionsprovideadvicethatshouldhelpyourunasafeandsuccessfulevent.Theyshouldalsohelpmeetyourlegalobligationstoprotecttheaudienceandstaff.

    PlanningDescribesimportantmilestonesinplanningyourevent.Asafeandtrouble-freeeventrequiresgoodplanningfromanearlystage.Youneedtoensurethatyourprecautionstomanagecrowdsareadequateandappropriatefortheexpectednumberandtypeofvisitor.Planninginvolvesgatheringbackgroundinformationtoenableboththinkingaheadandassessingrisks,andtimetodevelopormodifyplans.

    Assessing risks Describeshowtosystematicallyidentifyhazardswhichcouldaffectcrowdsafety,egsurgingandswaying,estimatethesizeoftheproblemsanddecidewhatyouneedtodotoaddresstheproblems.Thisprocessisknownasriskassessment,whichinvolvestheidentificationandassessmentofriskstocrowdsafetywithinavenueandthedevelopmentofstepsrequiredtominimisethem.Dependingupontheoutcomeoftheriskassessment,plansmaybemodified.

    Putting precautions in placeGivesexamplesofpracticalprecautionsthatcanbetakentoaddresspotentialhazardsidentifiedthroughyourriskassessment.Describesarrangementsfortheselectionandtrainingofstaff.

    Emergency planning and proceduresSetsoutissuestoconsiderwhenplanningforthesafemanagementofcrowdsintheeventofanemergency,egduetofireorbombthreat.Suchplansareveryimportantasanemergencycouldinvolverapid,large-scalemovementofpeoplewithpotentialforovercrowding.

  • Managingcrowdssafely Page6of63

    Health and Safety Executive

    CommunicationDescribesimportanceofgoodcommunicationandgivespracticalexamples.Effectivecommunicationisparticularlyimportantinthesafemanagementofcrowds.Provisionofclear,unambiguousinformationtovisitorscanhelppreventdangeroussituationsarising.Goodcommunicationbetweenstaffassistsarapidandappropriateresponseifproblemsarise.

    Monitoring crowds Coverstheactionsinvolvedinimplementingyourplansandcheckingtomakesuretheyhavebeenimplementedcorrectly.Wherecrowdactivitymaydevelopintohazardousovercrowding,monitoringshouldbeinplacetoidentifypotentialproblemsandquicklysortthemout.Thissectiongivesexamplesofpracticalapproachestocrowdmonitoring.

    ReviewSetsoutwaystoformallyreviewthecrowdsafetysystemofyoureventandexplainstheneedtodoso.Reviewscanbeadebriefafteranevent,partofaninvestigationfollowingacrowd-relatedincident,orscheduledroutineexamination.Subsequently,planscanbemodifiedandfutureplansupdatedaccordingtotheoutcomeofyourreview.Reviewingone-offeventsorregularreviewofsafetymeasuresatyourvenueprovidesimportantfeedbackforimprovingcrowdsafetystandardsandcheckingthatyourprecautionscontinuetobeappropriate.

  • Managingcrowdssafely Page7of63

    Health and Safety Executive

    Planning13 Goodplanningfromanearlystagewillhelpyourunyoureventsafely.Youneedtoallowsufficienttimetogatherinformation,consultandobtainadviceandputinplaceeffectiveprecautionstomanagecrowdsafety.Thesaferunningofyoureventshouldbegivenequalprioritytootherbusinessaims.

    14 Itisimportanttoinvolvestaffrepresentingdifferentfacetsoftheevent,egtechnicalstaff,security,merchandise.Whereappropriate,representativesofrelevantoutsidebodies,suchaslocalauthoritiesandemergencyservices,shouldbebroughtintotheplanningprocess.15 Tominimisetheriskofovercrowding,youneedtoconsidertheactivities,movementanddynamicsofthecrowdatvariouspartswithinthevenue,attheentranceandexits,onthepedestrianroutestoandfromthevenueandatthetransportandparkingfacilities.

    First steps

    16 Asanearlypriority,youneedtoestablishthatyoucanmanagecrowdsafetyforthetypeofeventandatthevenueyouhavechosen.Anacceptablelevelofcrowddensityvariesaccordingtothevenue.Apreliminarywalkaroundyourproposedvenue,carryingoutavisualinspection,isessentialtofindoutboththesuitabilityandtheacceptablelevelofcrowddensityforyourevent.Keyissuestoconsideratthisstageareconsideredbelow.

    Expected turnout17 Whenforecastingyourexpectedturnout,youmayfindithelpfultoconsider:

    n attendanceonpreviousoccasions;n numbersvisitingsimilarevents;n proposedlevelofpublicity;n advanceticketsales;n theeffectofBankHolidays,schoolholidaysorgood/badweather;n whethersomedaysaregoingtobeparticularlybusy,egfirstorfinaldays;n whetheranyextravisitorswillattendspecialattractionstakingplaceatthe

    event;andn allowanceforu

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