High Speed Trains (1)

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    HIGH SPEED TRAINSBY

    v.vaibhav, (vvaibhavgr8@gmail.com)

    E.C.E,

    GITAM UNIVERSITY.

    PH: 9299955182

    G.BHARGAV TEJA

    E.C.E,

    GITAM UNIVERSITY.

    V.SURYA TEJA (surya.vudayagiri@gmail.com)

    2/4 c.s.e,

    BHIMAVRAM INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

    mailto:vvaibhavgr8@gmail.commailto:vvaibhavgr8@gmail.commailto:vvaibhavgr8@gmail.commailto:surya.vudayagiri@gmail.commailto:surya.vudayagiri@gmail.commailto:surya.vudayagiri@gmail.commailto:surya.vudayagiri@gmail.commailto:vvaibhavgr8@gmail.com
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    ABSTRACT:

    H igh-speed rail (HSR) is a type ofpassenger

    rail transport that operates significantly faster

    than the normal speed of rail traffic. Specificdefinitions by the European Union include

    200 km/h (120 mph) for upgraded track and

    250 km/h (160 mph) or faster for new

    track.[1]In Japan, Shinkansen lines run at

    speeds in excess of 260 km/h (160 mph) and

    are built using standard gauge track with no at-

    grade crossings.[2]In China, high-speed

    conventional rail lines operate at top speeds of

    350 km/h (220 mph),[3]and one Maglev

    Line in Shanghai reaches speeds of 431 km/h

    (268 mph). The world record for conventional

    high-speed rail is held by the V150, a specially

    configured version of Alstons TGVwhich

    clocked 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph) on a test run.

    The world speed record for Maglev is held by

    the Japanese experimental MLX01: 581 km/h

    (361 mph).[4]

    While high-speed rail is usually designed for

    passenger travel, some high-speed systems

    also carry some kind offreight service. For

    instance, the French mail serviceLa

    Posteowns a few special TGV trains for

    carrying postal freight.

    1. INTRODUCTION

    When English inventor Richard

    Trevithick introduced the steam locomotive on

    21 February 1804 in Wales, it achieved a speed

    of 8 km/h (5 mph). In 1815, Englishman

    George Stephenson built the world's first

    workable steam locomotive. In 1825, he

    introduced the first passenger train, which

    steamed along at 25 km/h (16 mph). Today,

    trains can fly down the tracks at 500 km/h (311

    mph). And fly they do, not touching the tracks.

    There is no defined speed at which

    you can call a train a high speed train but trainsrunning at and above150 km/h are called High

    Speed Trains.

    .

    THE DECLINE OF RAIL AS A FORM OF

    PASSENGER TRANSPORT

    Since the automobile has become

    more widespread with the existence of

    motorways, cars may reach speeds of up to 75

    mph (120 km/h) or thereabouts depending on

    local laws. Standard mainline railway trains

    running at 100 mph (160 km/h) have found it

    difficult to compete with the car, as once

    journey time to and from the station and

    waiting for the trains had been calculated, rail

    travel did no longer offer a significant journeytime advantage over the car. In order to attract

    people to railways ticket prices had to be at the

    lowest possible, meaning minimal profits. No

    one would want to build a brand new railway

    line; the interest payments would crush any

    company. All this has meant that in the early-

    mid 20th century new railways were unheard of

    and some small lines were often closed down

    because they made a loss.

    It seems quite exciting for rail that

    now today railways are making a come-back.

    Thousands of miles/km of new railways has

    been built in the last decade, and new lines are

    under construction all over the world. Since

    1981, over 1000 km (600 miles) of new track

    has been laid for high speed trains in France.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passenger_rail_transporthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passenger_rail_transporthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Unionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail#cite_note-GeneralDefinition-EU-0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail#cite_note-GeneralDefinition-EU-0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail#cite_note-GeneralDefinition-EU-0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shinkansenhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail#cite_note-Shinkansen-book-1http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail#cite_note-Shinkansen-book-1http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail#cite_note-Shinkansen-book-1http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail_in_Chinahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail_in_Chinahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail#cite_note-China1-2http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail#cite_note-China1-2http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail#cite_note-China1-2http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shanghai_Maglev_Trainhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shanghai_Maglev_Trainhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V150_(train)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TGVhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MLX01http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail#cite_note-3http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail#cite_note-3http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail#cite_note-3http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freighthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Poste_(France)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Poste_(France)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Poste_(France)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Poste_(France)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SNCF_TGV_La_Postehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SNCF_TGV_La_Postehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Poste_(France)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_Poste_(France)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freighthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail#cite_note-3http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MLX01http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TGVhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/V150_(train)http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shanghai_Maglev_Trainhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shanghai_Maglev_Trainhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail#cite_note-China1-2http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail_in_Chinahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail_in_Chinahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail#cite_note-Shinkansen-book-1http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shinkansenhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-speed_rail#cite_note-GeneralDefinition-EU-0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Unionhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passenger_rail_transporthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Passenger_rail_transport
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    PROBLEMS RUNNING ON EXISTING

    RAILWAYS

    The primary problem with existing

    railways is that they can have tight curves. Thecentrifugal forces on an object going round a

    bend are the function of the square of velocity,

    i.e., double the speed, quadruple the

    centrifugal forces, triple the speed, centrifugal

    forces increase by nine-fold. Therefore even

    what might appear mild curves provide

    problems at speed.

    Other key problems are that runningon existing railway; the new fast trains have to

    be scheduled in around the conventional trains.

    This can be a tricky thing, especially on a busy

    network; fast trains can easily become stuck

    behind slow running ones, resulting in delays.

    Safety is also a paramount

    consideration. Although since initial

    construction 100 years ago the track will have

    been replaced many times, the foundations of

    the railways are the same which means after

    heavy rains for example the track may sag

    slightly and lose some alignment, a real

    problem only at high speed. Level crossings

    also pose a problem.

    2. HIGH SPEED LINES

    To have a high speed rail system,

    making the high speed trains is really the tip of

    an iceberg. What really makes systems a

    success or failure is the railway that they run

    at. Railways like roads have speed restrictions,

    and like on roads, often the speed restrictions

    are below the top speed of the train. Building a

    fast train is easy, but its building tracks good

    enough to allow trains to safely and smoothly

    travel at 160-200 mph or 250-320 km/h, which

    are also long enough to allow the trains to

    accelerate up to these speeds (often many

    miles) and decelerate, is quite difficult

    2.1 FEATURES OF A HIGH SPEED

    RAILWAY

    No level crossings (gradecrossings)

    Fenced off Concrete foundations Wide spacing between lines Curves of radius less than 5km are avoided and are tilted

    Gradients more than onconventional railway line

    Through stations areconstructed with 4 tracks

    Tunnels avoidedLevel crossings are the most common reason

    for accidents on railways, where road vehicles

    break down or get stuck on the railway and the

    train crashes through them

    All high speed lines are fenced off. Indeed in

    the UK all railway lines are fenced off anyway,

    however on continental Europe many railway

    lines are easy to get onto. High speed lines are

    fenced off for obvious reasons, to eliminate the

    risk of any animal or people wandering onto

    the railway line.

    Foundations for high speed lines are much

    deeper than conventional railways. Usually a

    layer of concrete and tarmac is put down (like

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    make it tilt but use existing railway lines, or

    they invest money in a new railway but don't

    need to spend money on expensive tilting

    mechanisms. This is why TGV and bullet

    trains do not tilt, because they have their owndedicated high speed railway lines where

    curves are built with very high radii.

    It is worth pointing out that the

    centrifugal force is a function of v2/r where

    v is the velocity and r is the radius. This

    means that if you do

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