High Speed Trains Overview

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    High Speed TrainsGeneral Overview

    Jos A. Jimnez-Redondo Ph. Dr. EngineerDirector of Trains & Technological Innovation

    Renfe, High Speed - Long Distance Services

    Madrid, Spain

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    High Speed TrainsGeneral overview

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    Contents

    Main characteristics

    Basic requirements, standards and certification Types of trains

    Technology

    Maintenance

    Economic aspects

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    Main characteristics (2/2)

    ETR500

    ICE3

    TGV Duplex

    N700

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    Contents

    Main characteristics

    Basic requirements, standards and certification Types of trains

    Technology

    Maintenance

    Economic aspects

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    Basic requirements

    Commercial.

    Technical and safety.

    Operation and maintenance.

    Compatibility with the infrastructure.

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    Commercial requirements (1/3) Journey time.

    Number of commercial classes.

    Number of seats and layout.

    Types of seats: rotating seats, reclining seats, etc.

    Level of service for disabled passengers. On-board catering services.

    Buffet car equipment.

    Features of the air-conditioning equipment.

    Level of on-board entertainment: audio-video, Internet, etc.

    Level of customer service. Other commercial aspects: luggage registration, goods zone, public

    telephones, nursery, etc.

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    Commercial requirements (2/3)

    Journey time: < 2h 30 for 400 miles (650 km)

    Commercial classes: 2 or 3 (e.g. club-business-tourist)

    Seats and layout: 10% - club, 20% - business

    70% - tourist Types of seats: rotating seats & reclining seats

    Disabled passengers: 2

    Catering services: lunch at seat (e.g. club & business)

    Air-conditioning features: 25 C + 41% RH car interior

    (Spanish requirements) with 40 C + 43% RH exterior

    Entertainment: audio-video

    Other aspects: goods zone, public telephone, nursery

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    Commercial requirements (3/3)

    Business cars

    Catering area Club car

    Buffet car

    Catering area

    Luggage room

    Disabled passengers

    Tourist cars

    Cafe-bar

    AVE Class 103 layout

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    Technical and safety requirements (1/3)(European requirements)

    Compliance with UIC standards.

    Compliance with TSI (Technical Specifications forInteroperability).

    Compliance with railway EN standards.

    Compliance with national standards.

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    Technical and safety requirements (2/3)

    Oficial Journal of the European Communities

    Commision Decision

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    adif: Spanish Infraestructu re Manager

    Technical and safety requirements (3/3)

    (National standard)

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    Operation and maintenance requirements

    Compliance with reliability standards.

    Compliance with availability standards.

    Compliance with standards of cleanliness and comfort.

    Good maintainability (Achieving the appropriate level of ease of

    maintenance).

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    Compatibility with the infrastructure (1/2)

    Compliance with the gauge.

    Compatibility with the track: respecting wheel/rail forces.

    Respecting the minimum curve radius of workshops.

    Compatibility between the access doors and platforms.

    Voltage and frequency of the power station.

    Compatibility with the catenary: height, zigzag and forces.

    In-cab signaling systems: ETCS, LZB , TVM, etc.

    Respecting the level of harmonics and compliance with theelectromagnetic compatibility standards.

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    Compatibility with the infrastructure (2/2)

    Only passengers

    AVE Mad - Sev12.5 per thousand

    AVE Mad - Bar25 - 36 per thousand

    DB: Hann-Wrzburg12.5 per thousand

    LZB system

    Mixed traffic:

    freight + passengers

    Catenary zig-zag: 7.87 ins (200 mm)

    LZB system

    Catenary zig-zag: 11.81 ins (300 mm)

    Only passengers

    TGV - PSE35 per thousand

    Only passengers

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    Certification (1/6)

    In Spain there has been an evolution to the ETH (Technical

    Specification for Homologationpublished in August 2009). ETH specifications have been prepared by expert groups, led by the

    Transport Ministry (Ministerio de Fomento).

    ETH is compliant with UIC, TSI, EN and national standards.

    ETH includes all the mandatory requirements to certify a rail vehicle:

    trainsets, locomotives, cars, wagons and special vehicles.

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    Technical Specification forHomologation (ETH)

    (Mandatory after February 2010)

    Certification (2/6)

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    Insignificant Marginal Critical Catastrophic

    Frequent Risk undesired Risk intolerable Risk intolerable Risk intolerable

    Probable Risk tolerable Risk undesired Risk intolerable Risk intolerable

    Occasional Risk tolerable Risk undesired Risk undesired Risk intolerable

    Remote Risk negligible Risk tolerable Risk undesired Risk undesired

    Improbable Risk negligible Risk negligible Risk tolerable Risk tolerable

    Highlyimprobable

    Risk negligible Risk negligible Risk negligible Risk negligible

    Consequences of an accident

    Certification (3/6)

    Safety requirements based on the concepts: Tolerable Hazard Rate (THR)Safety Analysis: Risk matrix to evaluate Frequency Consequences

    of an accident.

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    Safety Levels: Range of Tolerable Hazard Rate (TRH)

    Consequences of an

    accidentFrequency THR (h-1)

    Insignificant Occasional-Probable 10-3 .. 10-5

    Marginal Remote 10-5 .. 10-7

    Critical Improbable 10-7 .. 10-9

    Catastrophic Improbable 10-7 .. 10-9

    Certification (4/6)

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    Certification: Signal ing (5/6)

    Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSI): Control-Command and Signaling. EN standards:

    EN 50126: Specification and demonstration of Reliability, Availability, Maintainabilityand Safety (RAMS).

    EN 50128: Communication, signaling and processing systems. Software for railway

    control and protection systems. EN 50129: Communication, signaling and processing systems. Safety related

    electronic systems for signaling railway applications.

    The ERTMS system requires level 4 in the Safety Integrity Level (SIL).

    (in accordance withstandard EN 50129).

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    Certification: Signal ing (6/6)

    According to the standards, the design and validation are carried out by

    means of what is called a V diagram.

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    Contents

    Main characteristics

    Basic requirements, standards and certification Types of trains

    Technology

    Maintenance

    Economic aspects

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    Types of trains

    Concentrated power, with one or two end power heads.

    Distributed power, with the technical equipment under the

    carbodies.

    Conventional trains, with two trucks per car.

    Articulated trains, with trucks shared between every two cars.

    Tilting trains, with active and natural systems.

    Variable gauge trains. The trains can change the distance between

    wheels (gauge) in a specific facility.

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    Concentrated/distributed power (1/3)

    Advantages of distr ibuted power: Higher passenger capacity for a fixed length train. Reduced axle load, more evenly distributed along the train. Higher number of drive axles: higher acceleration and

    better adhesion. Possibility of installing a higher traction power.

    Drawbacks: Lower performance in cross wind conditions. Higher possibility of electrical failures produced by the

    entrance of water, snow and ice, due to: loss of airtightness in the electrical blocks. entrance of moisture in non airtight electrical blocks under the

    carbodies.

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    Concentrated/distributed power (2/3)

    Concentrated power

    Distributed power

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    ICE 2, Power head

    ICE 3, 4 - car subunit

    End car Transformer car Converter car Trailer car

    Main Transformer5.

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