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  • Future Waste Tyre Recovery and Recycling Options for Canterbury

    Recovered Materials Foundation, June 2005 1

    Future Waste Tyre Recovery and Recycling Options for

    Canterbury

    Scoping Report for the Canterbury Waste Subcommittee

    June 2005

    Prepared by: Sarah Gordon

    Recovered Materials Foundation

  • Future Waste Tyre Recovery and Recycling Options for Canterbury

    Recovered Materials Foundation, June 2005 2

    Future Waste Tyre Recovery and Recycling

    Options for Canterbury

    Contents

    1. Introduction 2. Background

    2.1 History 2.2 Research and Investigation

    3. Current Estimated Volumes of Waste Tyres in Canterbury

    3.1 Canterbury Territorial Local Authorities 3.2 Tyre Track 3.4 Local Manufacture

    3.5 Imported and Exported Tyres 3.5.1 Imported New and Used Tyres 3.5.2 Exported Used Tyres

    3.6 Retreading 3.7 Tyre Retailers 3.8 Summary

    4. Current End of Life Options for Tyres

    4.1 Canterbury Landfills 4.1.1 Burwood Landfill 4.1.2 Kate Valley Landfill 4.1.3 Redruth Landfill 4.1.4 Cleanfill Pits

    4.2 Shredding and Chipping 4.3 Silage Contracting 4.4 Tyre Shredding, Chipping and Crumbing 4.5 Other Low Volume Uses for Tyres

    5. Current Collection and Processing Infrastructure in Canterbury 6. Potential End of Life Options for Tyres

    6.1 Tyre Pyrolysis 6.2 Tyre Encapsulation 6.3 Tyre Derived Fuel

    7.Conclusion 8. Recommendations Appendix 1: Summary of Used Tyre Imports for the year ending April 2005

  • Future Waste Tyre Recovery and Recycling Options for Canterbury

    Recovered Materials Foundation, June 2005 3

    Future Waste Tyre Recovery and Recycling Options for Canterbury

    1. Introduction The Canterbury Waste Sub-committee has requested the Recovered Materials Foundation (RMF) to investigate and report on practical issues and options for recovery and recycling of waste tyres in Canterbury. The RMF proposed this to be undertaken in three stages:

    1. To undertake a scoping report to identify key issues and options and recommendations for further investigation / implementation.

    2. Subject to the outcomes from the scoping report, undertake further

    research where there is insufficient information, and further analysis into most viable options, including a SWOT analysis of business and market opportunities.

    3. Development of business and marketing plans to establish operations to

    facilitate the recovery and end uses for waste tyres.

    This initial scoping report aims to summarise past and current issues with waste tyres, identify and interview key players, and recommend the most viable options and plans for further investigation. These are considered in local, regional and national contexts. This scoping report is intended to provide an overview of all past and current issues with waste tyres. This is certainly not a new issue for Christchurch city, although it may be for the other Canterbury Territorial Local Authorities (TLAs). A considerable amount of work was undertaken in 1998 by the RMF in researching options for waste tyres, and by the Christchurch City Council (CCC) in implementing restrictions on the acceptance and disposal of tyres at its Burwood Landfill. While this is historic and relates only to Christchurch, it is very relevant to summarise this for the benefit of the other Councils and also to note any major differences between then and now. Therefore the initial background information is focused on Christchurch information and statistics. However, it is expected that this information can be applied to other TLAs on a per capita basis.

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    Recovered Materials Foundation, June 2005 4

    2. Background 2.1 History Waste tyres were accepted from the general public at no charge at the three CCC refuse transfer stations recycling centres until 1998. Up until then they were collected mainly by silage contractors or members of the public wanting them for various low volume uses such as crib walls, planter boxes etc. Commercial quantities were generally not accepted and most of the tyre retailers had direct arrangements with silage contactors, or with a major collector who had stockpiled up to 300,000 tyres with the view to developing a shredding operation to produce a range of marketable products. This changed in 1997 as tyre volumes continued to grow at the transfer stations, eventually requiring them to be taken to landfill where they were stockpiled awaiting a suitable disposal option. Landfilling whole tyres was not an option given their ability to trap landfill gas and float up to the surface. Three main factors were believed to be responsible for the increased volumes of waste tyres. Firstly there was a downturn in silage production due to farmers moving more to baleage, a major drought at the time, and the fact that farms already had sufficient tyres for any silage that was still being made. Secondly there was an increase in imported used tyres lasting only 30-50% as long as a new tyre. Thirdly the cheaper imported used tyres competed with local retreaded car tyres (perceived to be of similar quality and value) so less casings were being reused locally. In addition to this, the collector stockpiling tyres was running out of storage space and had reduced his collection services. This meant that more commercial tyre companies were trying to utilise free disposal services through the refuse transfer stations. In February 1998 the CCC banned acceptance of tyres at the transfer stations and landfill until an appropriate disposal charge for tyres could be established to cover the cost of processing them for disposal or recycling. In March a report to the Council suggested introducing a charge of $2 / tyre or $380 / tonne (compared to the charge of $48.43 for general landfill material) for bulk loads from commercial sources. Response from tyre retailers, manufacturers, used tyre importers, and scrap metal processors (generating waste tyres through car crushing operations) was swift. The Industry Waste Tyre Committee (IWTC) was formed comprising representatives from all aspects of waste tyre generation, collection, disposal and recycling and coordinated through the RMF. Prior to the tyres becoming an issue, the RMF had commissioned a student completing a Masters of Engineering Management at Canterbury University, to

  • Future Waste Tyre Recovery and Recycling Options for Canterbury

    Recovered Materials Foundation, June 2005 5

    undertake research on the current volumes and potential uses for waste tyres. The timely report Scrap Tyre Strategy was completed in February 1998 and also provided useful information and direction for the IWTC. The committee identified and worked through a range of short and long term options for waste tyres. In May it endorsed the $2.00 charge per tyre which was to be passed on to consumers at point of purchase and met six months later. After this the committee disbanded. Since then there have been no apparent issues with tyres in Christchurch, largely due to major dairy conversions on the Canterbury Plains requiring tyres for silage pits (some requiring up to 10,000 tyres / per farm). The use of tyres by silage contractors is discussed later in this report. 2.2 Research and Investigation There exists an incredible amount of information on tyre recycling on an international scale. Many of these studies and reports are summarised in the 1998 Scrap Tyre Strategy Report. Subsequent to this report, the known following reports and studies have been completed in Canterbury:

    Overview of the Waste to Fuel Industry in Christchurch Masters of Environmental Management Thesis (University of Canterbury) by Tim Cosgrove. Completed March 1998. Sponsored by the Recovered Materials Foundation. Project included research and discussion on tyre derived fuel. The possible use of waste tyres as an alternate fuel in the manufacture of cement study for Miburn New Zealand Ltd Scoping study by John Daymond,(deceased) towards a thesis for a Masters Applied Science a Lincoln University. Completed March 1999. Sponsored by RMF and Milburn New Zealand Ltd. Full thesis not completed. Tyre Pyrolysis Consultancy report prepared by LincLab for the Recovered Materials Foundation. Completed in June 2000. Tyre Recycling Project Masters of Environmental Management Thesis (University of Canterbury) by Matthew Wright and Milo Kral. Completed April 2002. Sponsored by the Recovered Materials Foundation and Realize Technology. Project examined viability of utilising tyre tread/ polymer composite in the manufacture of vineyard line posts. Recycled Crumb Rubber use on Sports Turf in North America Report by Brain Way of the New Zealand Sports Turf Institute, partially sponsored by the Recovered Materials Foundation. October 2001.

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    Recovered Materials Foundation, June 2005 6

    At a national level, the Ministry for the Environment commissioned a report by Andrew Sweet from Firecone on Management of End-of-Life Tyres, completed in January 2004. This is a very comprehensive report on current issues with tyre volumes and disposal options. It summarises the current central and local government regulations concerning the management of end-of-tyres, and recommends a range of options for central government to gain better information of waste tyre end uses, improve storage and disposal systems and encourage greater levels of recycling. Key points of particular relevance for Canterbury include:

    That it is extremely difficult to m

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