ENDOCRINE SYSTEM. STRUCTURES  Group of ductless glands that secrete substances directly into the blood stream.  Substances are known as hormones  Hormones

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Endocrine System

Endocrine SystemStructuresGroup of ductless glands that secrete substances directly into the blood stream.Substances are known as hormonesHormones are substances that are frequently referred to as chemical messengers that stimulate many functions through out the body.Functions include: Stimulate exocrine glands, stimulate other endocrine glands, Regulate growth and development, Regulate metabolism, Maintain fluid and chemical balance, Control various sex processes

StructuresPituitary GlandOften called master gland because it produces many hormones that affect other glands.Located at the base of the brainSeparated into two lobes both secrete different hormonesAnterior Lobe: Somatotropin-Growth Hormone, Follicle Stimulating/Luteinizing- Ovulation/Sperm production, Prolactin-production of milk, Melanocyte Stimulating- Stimulates production and dispersion of melanin pigment in the skinPosterior Lobe-Vasopressin-antidiuretic, promotes reabsorption of water in the kidneys and constricts vessels, Oxytocin-Causes contraction of uterus during childbirth, stimulates milk flow from the breastPituitary Gland

StructuresThyroid GlandSits on anterior aspect of tracheaSecretes: Thyroxine-stimulates metabolic rate, physical and mental growth, regulates metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, Calcitonin- absorption of calcium by the bones and lowers blood calcium levelsThyroid Gland

StructuresParathyroid GlandSits on top of thyroid glandSecretes-Parathormone-Regulates the amount of calcium and phosphate in the blood, stimulates kidneys to conserve blood calcium, stimulates calcium absorption in the small intestineParathyroid Gland

StructuresAdrenal GlandSits on top of both kidneysSecretes-Mineralocorticoids-reabsorption of sodium, potassium and water in the kidneys, Glucocorticoids-metabolism of nutrients, increase blood glucose levels, reduce stress and anti-inflammatory, Gonadocorticoids-stimulates either male or female sexual characteristics, Epinephrine-stimulates sympathetic nervous system, fight or flight response, Norepinephrine- Fight or flight responseAdrenal Gland

StructuresPancreasSits below stomach in upper left quadrantSecretes: Insulin-Metabolism of glucose, promotes fatty and amino acid transport into cells, Glucagon-Maintains blood level of glucose by stimulating the liver to release stored glycogenPancreas

StructuresOvariesFound in women sit deep inside the body cavity at the top of the uterusSecrete: Estrogen-promotes growth and development of sex organs, Progesterone-Maintains lining of the uterusOvaries

StructuresTestesFound in males located in the scrotum that hangs from the bodySecretes: Testosterone-Stimulates growth of male sex organs and maturation of spermTestes

StructuresThymusSits center of chest in childrenDisappears during puberty Secretes: Thymosin-stimulates production of lymphocytes and antibodies in early lifeThymus

StructuresPinealLocated in brainSecretes: Melatonin-may delay puberty by inhibiting gonadotropin, may regulate sleep/wake cycles, Serotonin-may prevent vasoconstriction in the brain, inhibits gastric secreationsPineal Gland

Diseases and Conditions

AcromegalyOver secretion of somatotropin causes a benign tumor on the pituitary gland.Bones of the hands, feet and face enlarge, skin and tongue thickens causing slurred speech Treatment is surgical removal of tumor or radiation, however tumor usually returnsShortens life expectancyDisease and Conditions

GigantismOver secretion of somatotropin before pubertyExcessive growth of long bones, extreme tallness, decreased sexual developmentDiseases and Conditions

Diabetes InsipidusDecreased secretion of vasopressinResults in water failing to be reabsorbed by the kidneysIncreases urination, excessive thirst, dehydration, weakness, constipation and dry skinAdminister ADH to correctDiseases and ConditionsDwarfismUnder secretion of somatotropin and can be causes by a tumor, infection genetic factors or injurySmall body size, short extremities, lack of sexual developmentCan be treated if caught early with injections.

Diseases and conditions

GoiterEnlargement of the Thyroid GlandCauses: hyperactive thyroid, iodine deficiency, tumor, over secretion of thyroid stimulating hormone in the pituitary glandThyroid enlargement, difficulty swallowing, cough, choking sensationTreatment is to eliminate the cause Diseases or ConditionsHyperthyroidismOver activity of the thyroid gland which increases BMRSymptoms: extreme nervousness, tremors, irritability, rapid pulse, excessive sweating, heat intoleranceTreatment: radiation or surgical intervention

Diseases and ConditionsHypothyroidismUnder activity of the thyroid glandTwo types Cretinism or MyxedemaSymptoms: course dry skin, slow mental function, fatigue, weakness, intolerance to cold, weight gain, edema, puffy eyes, slow pulse

Diseases and ConditionsGraves DiseaseExtreme form of hyperthyroidismMore common in women than menSymptoms include: strained tense facial expressions, protruding eyeballs, goiter, emotional instability, tachycardia, tremendous appetite with weight lossTreatment: medication, radiation and surgical removal

Diseases and Conditions

Hyperparathyroidism-over production of parathormone due most often to tumorSymptoms: excessive calcium in blood, kidney stones, lethargy, gastrointestinal issues, calcium deposits in vessels and organsTreatment: Removal of tumor, removal of glands, diuretics, low calcium dietDiseases and conditions

Hypoparathyroidism-Underactivity of the parathyroid, causes low levels of calcium in the blood.Symptoms: Constant contraction of muscles, hyperirritability of nervous system, twitching possible deathTreatment: Supplement calcium and vitamin d, surgical removal of parathyroid glandsDiseases and conditions

Addisons Disease-decreased secretion of aldosterone by adrenal glands, interferes with reabsorption of sodium and water resulting in high potassium levels in the bloodSymptoms: dehydration, diarrhea, fatigue, hypotension, mental lethargy, weight loss, excessive pigmentation (bronzing of the skin)Treatment: corticosteroids, control sodium intake, fluid regulationDiseases and conditionsCushings Disease-Over secretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands, caused by tumor or pituitary gland defectSymptoms: hyperglycemia, hypertension, excessive hair growth, poor wound healing, A moon face, obesityTreatment: removal of tumor/glands, hormone replacement therapy

Diseases and ConditionsTreatment: None for Type 1, just manage symptoms through insulin, Type 2 is about weight control and exercise as well as diet correctionsDiabetes Mellitus-chronic disease caused by decreased secretion of insulinTwo types: Type 1 (insulin dependent) occurs early in life, more severe and requires insulin, Type 2 (non-insulin dependent) occurs later in life, not a severe, diet restrictionSymptoms: hyperglycemia, frequent urination, excessive thirst, sugar in urine, weight loss, slow healing skin infections, vision changes


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