endocrine system. function of endocrine system endocrine glands - secrete chemicals, hormones,...
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- Endocrine System
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- Function of endocrine system Endocrine glands - Secrete chemicals, hormones, directly into bloodstream. - Ductless glands Exocrine glands - Secrete substance through a duct i.e.Sweat, salivary, lacrimal and pancreas. Hormones = chemical substances that coordinate and direct target organ cells (only specific cells respond)
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- Negative Feedback Drop in hormone level triggers chain reaction: 1. Blood level of hormone falls 2. Brain gets message and sends out hormone to stimulate gland 3. Gland secretes more hormone 4. When blood levels of hormone increase, the brain hormones stop
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- Nervous Control In some cases, sympathetic nervous system causes direct release of hormone from gland i.e. stress may cause the adrenal medulla to secrete adrenaline
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- Pituitary Gland Tiny size of a grape Base of brain Connected to hypothalamus Anterior / Posterior lobes Cranial cavity Master Gland
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- Anterior Pituitary Lobe GH Growth hormone (somatotropin) responsible for growth and development Prolactin develops breast tissue, stimulates production of milk after childbirth TSH Thyroid stimulating hormone stimulates thyroid cells to produce thyroid hormone = thyroxine (low TSH treated with synthroid) ACTH Adrenocortiocotropic hormone stimulates adrenal cortex
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- Anterior Pituitary contd FSH Follicle stimulating hormone stimulates growth of follicle and production of estrogen in females and sperm in males LH Luteinizing hormone stimulates ovulation and formation of corpus luteum, which produces progesterone in females
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- Posterior Pituitary Lobe Vasopressin converts to ADH (antidiuretic hormone) in the bloodstream, acts on kidney to concentrate urine and preserve water in the body Oxytocin released during childbirth causing contractions of the uterus
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- Thyroid Gland 1. Butterfly-shaped mass of tissue. 2. On either side of larynx, in front of the trachea. 3. H-shaped.
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- Thyroid stimulating hormone (stimulates cellular metabolism) Main hormone Thyroxine controlled by secretion of TSH controls rate of metabolism Calcitonin controls calcium ion concentration in the body prevents hypercalcemia
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- Parathyroid Glands 4 glands size of a grain of rice Attached to posterior thyroid Produce parathormone which helps control blood calcium, prevents hypocalcemia.
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- Thymus Gland Endocrine and lymphatic organ Behind (posterior) sternum, above and in front of heart Begins to disappear at puberty Produces Thymosin reacts upon lymphoid tissue to produce T-lymphocytes
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- Adrenal Glands Adrenal Glands above kidneys Adrenal cortex secretes corticoids (anti-inflammatory hormones) and sex hormones Androgens Male sex hormones Adrenalin hormone from adrenal medulla, powerful cardiac stimulant, fight or flight hormone response to stress Adrenal Medulla also secretes nor epinephrine increases BP and heart rate and constricts blood vessels.
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- Gonads Gonads ovaries in female and testes in male Estrogen Development of female reproductive organs, secondary sex characteristics (breasts, pubic hair, menstrual cycle) Progesterone Plays a part in the menstrual cycle Testosterone Male reproductive organs and secondary sex characteristics (chest hair, deep voice, increased muscle mass)
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- Pancreas Pancreas abdominal cavity behind the stomach Endocrine and exocrine functions also part of digestive system Islets of Langerhans Insulin production. Insulin promotes utilization of glucose by the cells lowers blood sugar levels
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- Other hormones Prostaglandins Tissue hormones - can cause constriction of blood vessels and muscle contractions - can be used to induce labor.
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- Endocrine Disorders - Dwarfism Hypofunction of pituitary in childhood Small size, but body proportions and intellect normal Sexual immaturity Rx Early diagnosis, injection of growth hormone
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- Gigantism Hyperfunction of pituitary Too much growth hormone In preadolescence Overgrowth of long bones leads to excessive tallness
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- Acromegaly Hyperfunction of pituitary too much growth hormone in adulthood Overdevelopment of bones in face, hands and feet Attacks cartilage so the chin protrudes - lips, nose and extremities enlarge Rx drugs to inhibit growth hormone radiation
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- Before After
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- Hyperthyroidism Overactive thyroid gland Too much thyroxin leads to enlargement of gland Symptoms Consuming large quantities of food but lose weight nervous irritability Goiter Enlargement of gland Exophthalmos Bulging of eyeballs Trt Partial or total removal of gland, drugs to reduce include thyroxine radiation
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- Hypothyroidism Not enough thyroxine May be due to lack of iodine (simple goiter) fixed with iodized salt Other cause inflammation of thyroid which destroys the ability of the gland to make thyroxine Symptoms Dry, itchy skin; dry and brittle hair, constipation, muscle cramps at night.
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- Tetany In hypoparathyroidism, decreased calcium levels affect functions of nerves Symptoms Convulsive twitching develops, person dies of spasms in the respiratory muscles, seizures Rx Vitamin D, calcium and parathormone.
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- Addisons Disease Adrenal glands dont produce enough cortisol or aldosterone (steroid hormones) Sxs muscle weakness, darkening of skin (hyperpigmentation), salt craving, irritability, hair loss, depression, weight loss, n/v/d, hypoglycemia, low BP Steroid abuse = liver damage, heart disease, testicular changes, breast growth in males
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- Diabetes Mellitus Cause Decreased secretion of insulin Symptoms Polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia, weight loss, blurred vision, and possible diabetic muscles. If not treated, excess glucose in blood (hyperglycemia) and secreted in urine (glycosuria) If too much insulin given, blood sugar can get too low (hypoglycemia) and person can develop insulin shock. Type II diabetes is not insulin- dependent Most common, usually familial, occurs later in life, usually treated with diet. Test for diabetes Blood sample at home, normal blood sugar is 80-100 mg. screening=urinalysis
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- Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Causes: Too much food, too little insulin or diabetes medicine, illness or stress. Onset: Gradual, may progress to diabetic coma. Symptoms: Extreme thirst, frequent urination, dry skin, hunger, blurred vision, drowsiness, and nausea. What can you do? Take blood glucose tests, and if over 250 mg/dL for several tests, call your doctor.
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- Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Glucose) Causes: Too little good, too much insulin or diabetes medicine, or extra exercise. Onset: Suddon, may progress to insulin shock. Symptoms: Shaking, fast heartbeat, sweating, anxious, dizziness, hunger, impaired vision, weakness fatigue, headache, and irritablility. What can you do? Drink glass of orange juice or skim milk, or eat several hard candies, test your blood glucose; if symptoms dont stop call your doctor, within 30 minutes after symptoms go away, eat a light snack (a peanut butter or meat sandwich and a glass of mik.
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- Endocrine Terminology 1. Thyroxine Regulates body metabolism 2. Adrenalin Stimulates the heart to beat faster 3. Parathyroid Regulates use of calcium 4. Parathormone Control use of calcium phosphorus 5. Insulin Secreted by pancreas 6. Calcitonin Affects neuromuscular functioing, blood clotting, and holds cells together 7. Estrogen Governs reproduction and fertility 8. Oxytocin Causes the uterus to contract during labor 9. Gonad Sex gland 10. ATCH Hormone secreted by the pituitary gland
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- Endocrine Terminology Cont. 11. Acromegaly Enlargement of bones of the extremities. 12. Adenectomy Removal of any gland. 13. Adenoidectomy Removal of the adenoids. 14. Adrenogenic Originating in the adrenals. 15. Dwarfism Condition of being abnormally small. 16. Endocrine Ductless; to secrete within. 17. Endocrinotherapy Treatment with endocrine preparation. 18. Exocrine To secrete through a duct. 19.Goiter Enlarged thyroid gland.
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- Endocrine Terminology Cont. 20. Goitrogens Any substance that causes a goiter. 21. Lymphycytopenia Deficiency of lymph cells. 22. Pancreatolysis Breakdown of the pancreas. 23. Parathyrotoxicosis Poisonous condition of the parathyroid. 24. Pinealoma Tumor of the pineal gland. 25. Pituitarigenic Originating in the pituitary. 26. Thyroadenitis Inflammation of the thyroid gland.
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