Endocrine System CHAPTER 13. 2 Endocrine System Overview Endocrine system –Consists of ductless glands Secrete hormones directly into bloodstream –Affect.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Endocrine System CHAPTER 13 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> 2 Endocrine System Overview Endocrine system Consists of ductless glands Secrete hormones directly into bloodstream Affect the function of specific body organs Regulates many intricate body functions </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> 3 Pituitary Gland Referred to as master gland Secretes hormones that control functions of other glands Known as hypophysis Has two distinct lobes with specific functions </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> 4 Pituitary Gland Anterior Pituitary Gland = Adenohypophysis Secretes Growth Hormone (GH) Also called Somatotropic Hormone (STH) Regulates growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues Secretes Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) Stimulates normal growth and development of adrenal cortex and secretion of corticosteroids </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> 5 Pituitary Gland Anterior Pituitary Gland Secretes Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Promotes and maintains normal growth and development of the thyroid gland Stimulates secretions of the thyroid hormones Secretes Lactogenic Hormone (LTH) Also called Prolactin Promotes development of breasts during pregnancy Stimulates secretion of milk from breasts after delivery of baby </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> 6 Pituitary Gland Anterior Pituitary Gland Secretes Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Stimulates secretion of estrogen and production of eggs in the female ovaries Stimulates production of sperm in the male testes Secretes Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Stimulates female ovulation and the secretion of testosterone in the male Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH) Controls intensity of pigmentation in pigmented cells of the skin </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> 7 Pituitary Gland Posterior Pituitary Gland = Neurohypophysis Secretes Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) Decreases excretion of large amounts of urine Increases reabsorption of water by the renal tubules Secretes Oxytocin (OT) Stimulates contraction of the uterus during childbirth Stimulates release of milk from the breasts of lactating women in response to the suckling reflex of the infant </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> 8 Pineal Gland Tiny, pinecone-shaped gland Located behind dorsal aspect of midbrain region Plays a part in supporting bodys biological clock Regulation of patterns of eating, sleeping, and reproduction Secretes melatonin Induces sleep </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> 9 Thyroid Gland Located in front of the neck just below the larynx, on either side of the trachea Consists of a right and left lobe </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> 10 Thyroid Gland Secretes Triiodothyronine (T 3 ) Helps regulate growth and development of body Helps control metabolism and temperature Secretes Thyroxine (T 4 ) Helps maintain normal body metabolism Secretes Calcitonin Helps regulate the level of calcium in the blood </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> 11 Parathyroid Glands Four tiny rounded bodies located on dorsal aspect of thyroid gland Secrete Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) Also known as parathormone Regulates level of calcium in blood </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> 12 Thymus Single gland located in mediastinum near the middle of the chest, just beneath sternum Large in fetus and infants, shrinks with age Secretes thymosin and thymopoietin Stimulates production of T cells that are involved in the immune response </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> 13 Adrenal Glands Two small glands, one positioned atop each kidney Also known as suprarenal glands Consists of an adrenal cortex and an adrenal medulla Each has independent functions </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> 14 Adrenal Glands Adrenal cortex secretes corticosteroids Mineralocorticoids Regulate how mineral salts (electrolytes) are processed in the body Glucocorticoids Influence metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body Necessary for maintaining normal blood pressure Have an anti-inflammatory effect on the body Increase glucose available during fight-or-flight responses by the body </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> 15 Adrenal Glands Adrenal cortex secretes Gonadocorticoids Sex hormones secreted in small amounts Contribute to secondary sex characteristics in males and females </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> 16 Adrenal Glands Adrenal medulla secretes catecholamines Epinephrine = adrenaline Sympathiomimetic agent Increases heart rate and force of heart muscle contraction Dilates bronchioles in the lungs Decreases peristalsis in the intestines Raises blood glucose levels by causing the liver to convert glycogen into glucose </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> 17 Adrenal Glands Adrenal medulla secretes Norepinephrine = noradrenaline Known as a sympathomimetic agent Produces a vasoconstrictor effect on the blood vessels, thereby raising blood pressure </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> 18 Pancreas Elongated gland located in upper left quadrant of the abdomen Behind the stomach Extends horizontally across the body Beginning at first part of small intestines and ending at edge of spleen </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> 19 Pancreas Islets of Langerhans secrete: Glucagon Increases blood glucose levels by stimulating liver to convert glycogen into glucose when blood sugar is extremely low Insulin Makes it possible for glucose to pass from blood through cell membranes to be used for energy Promotes conversion of excess glucose into glycogen for storage in the liver for later use </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> 20 Ovaries Female sex glands = female gonads Pair of almond shaped glands Located in upper pelvic cavity, on either side of lateral wall of uterus Near fimbriated ends of the fallopian tubes Responsible for producing mature ova and releasing them at monthly intervals during ovulation </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> 21 Ovaries Hormones secreted by the ovaries Estrogen Promotes maturation of ovum in the ovary Stimulates vascularization of uterine lining each month to prepare for implantation of a fertilized egg Contributes to secondary sex characteristic changes in female with onset of puberty Progesterone Primarily responsible for changes within the uterus in anticipation of a fertilized ovum Responsible for development of maternal placenta after implantation of a fertilized ovum </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> 22 Testes Testes = male gonads = testicles Two small ovoid glands located in scrotum Primary organs of male reproductive system Responsible for production of sperm and secretion of androgens (male steroid hormones) Secrete testosterone Responsible for secondary sex characteristic changes that occur in male with onset of puberty Responsible for maturation of sperm </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS Pituitary Gland </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> 24 Acromegaly Pronounced (ak-roh-MEG-ah-lee) Defined Chronic metabolic condition characterized by the gradual, noticeable enlargement and elongation of the bones of the face, jaw, and extremities, due to hypersecretion of the human growth hormone after puberty </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> 25 Diabetes Insipidus Pronounced (dye-ah-BEE-teez in-SIP-ih-dus) Defined Deficiency in secretion of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) by posterior pituitary gland Characterized by large amounts of urine and sodium being excreted from the body </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> 26 Dwarfism Pronounced (DWARF-ism) Defined Generalized growth retardation of body due to deficiency of human growth hormone Also known as congenital hypopituitarism or hypopituitarism </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> 27 Gigantism Pronounced (JYE-gan-tizm) Defined Proportional overgrowth of bodys tissue due to hypersecretion of human growth hormone before puberty </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> 28 Hypopituitarism Pronounced (high-poh-pih-TOO-ih-tah-rizm) Defined Complex syndrome resulting from absence or deficiency of pituitary hormone(s) </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS Thyroid Gland </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> 30 Cancer, Thyroid Gland Pronounced (CAN-sir, THIGH-royd gland) Defined Malignant tumor of the thyroid gland Leads to dysfunction of gland and inadequate or excessive secretion of thyroid hormone </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> 31 Goiter, Simple; Nontoxic Pronounced (GOY-ter simple; nontoxic) Defined Hyperplasia of thyroid gland Results from a deficient amount of iodine in diet, required for synthesis of T3 and T4, thyroid hormones produced by the thyroid gland </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> 32 Pronounced (high-per-THIGH-royd-izm) Defined Hypertrophy of thyroid gland resulting in excessive secretion of thyroid hormone Causes extremely high body metabolism, thus creating multisystem changes Graves Disease (Hyperthyroidism) </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> 33 Graves Disease Hyperthyroidism Three distinguishing characteristics Hyperthyroidism Thyroid gland enlargement (goiter) Exophthalmia Unnatural protruding of the eyes </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> 34 Hypothyroidism Pronounced (high-poh-THIGH-royd-izm) Defined Condition in which there is a shortage of thyroid hormone causing an extremely low body metabolism due to a reduced usage of oxygen </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> 35 Hypothyroidism Most severe form known as myxedema Water retention all over body in connective tissues Person has puffy appearance and thick tongue Reduced metabolic rate </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> 36 Thyroiditis (Hashimotos) Pronounced (thigh-royd-EYE-tis) (HASH-ee-moh-TOZ) Defined Chronic inflammation of the thyroid gland, leading to enlargement of the thyroid gland </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> 37 Thyrotoxicosis (Thyroid Storm) Pronounced (thigh-roh-toks-ih-KOH-sis) Defined Acute, sometimes fatal, incident of overactivity of the thyroid gland resulting in excessive secretion of thyroid hormone </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS Parathyroid Gland </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> 39 Hyperparathyroidism (Hypercalcemia) Pronounced (high-per-pair-ah-THIGH-royd-izm) (high-per-kal-SEE-mee-ah) Defined Overactivity of any one of the parathyroid glands Leads to high levels of calcium in blood and low levels of calcium in bones </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> 40 Hypoparathyroidism Pronounced (high-poh-pair-ah-THIGH-royd-izm) Defined Decreased production of parathyroid hormone resulting in hypocalcemia Characterized by nerve and muscle weakness with muscle spasms or tetany </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS Adrenal Glands </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> 42 Addisons Disease Pronounced (AD-ih-sons dih-ZEEZ) Defined Life-threatening disease process due to failure of the adrenal cortex to secrete adequate mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids Resulting from an autoimmune process, a neoplasm, an infection, or a hemorrhage in the gland </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> 43 Pronounced (PRYE-mary al-doss-STAIR-ohn-izm) Defined Condition characterized by excretion of excessive amounts of aldosterone Leads to an increased volume of blood and hypertension Causes body to retain extra sodium and excrete extra potassium Conns Disease (Primary Aldosteronism) </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> 44 Cushings Syndrome Pronounced (CUSH-ings SIN-drom) Defined Cluster of symptoms in the adrenal gland as a result of an excessive amount of cortisol or ACTH circulating in blood </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> 45 Cushings Syndrome Symptoms Central obesity Round moon face Edema Hypertension Supraclavicular fat pads (buffalo hump) Muscular weakness and wasting Skin infection Poor wound healing Low potassium level Emotional changes </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> 46 Pheochromocytoma Pronounced (fee-oh-kroh-moh-sigh-TOH-mah) Defined Vascular tumor of adrenal medulla Produces extra epinephrine and norepinephrine Leads to persistent or intermittent hypertension and heart palpitations </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> 47 Virilism Pronounced (VEER-il-izm) Defined Development of male secondary sex characteristics in the female due to the excessive secretion of adrenocortical androgens from the adrenal cortex </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> 48 Virilism Symptoms Excessive hair on the body and face (hirsutism) Absence of menstruation Deepening of the voice Acne Oily skin Muscular hypertrophy Atrophy of the breasts and uterus Ovarian changes </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> PATHOLOGICAL CONDITIONS Pancreas </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> 50 Diabetes Mellitus Pronounced (dye-ah-BEE-teez MELL-ih-tus) Defined Disorder of pancreas in which beta cells of islets of Langerhans of the pancreas fail to produce an adequate amount of insulin Results in bodys inability to appropriately metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> 51 Diabetes Mellitus Classifications Type I Diabetes Formerly known as Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) Usually occurs before age of 30 Sudden onset Controlled with insulin injections Individuals are prone to developing ketosis </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> 52 Diabetes Mellitus Classifications Type II Diabetes Formerly known as Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) Usually appears in adults after age of 40 Majority of these individuals are obese Usually controlled through diet and exercise </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> 53 Diabetic Retinopathy Pronunciation (dye-ah-BET-ik ret-in-OP-ah-thee) Defined Disorder of blood vessels of retina in which capillaries of the retina undergo localized areas of bulging (microaneurysms), hemorrhages, leakage, and scarring Consequence of 8-10 year duration of diabetes mellitus </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> 54 Gestational Diabetes Pronounced (jess-TAY-shun-al dye-ah-BEE-teez) Defined Disorder in which women who are not diabetic before pregnancy develop diabetes during the pregnancy Inability to metabolize carbohydrates Results in hyperglycemia </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> 55 Pancreatic Cancer Pronounced (pan-kree-AT-ik CAN-sir) Defined Life-threatening primary malignant neoplasm typically found in head of pancreas </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> 56 Pancreatitis Pronounced (pan-kree-ah-TYE-tis) Defined Acute or chronic destructive inflammatory condition of the pancreas Creates symptoms that vary from mild self-limiting pancreatic edema to massive necrotizing hemorrhagic pancreatitis </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures Endocrine System </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> 58 Thyroid function tests Tests that measure blood levels of hormones T 3, T 4, and TSH Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) Blood Test Measures concentration of TSH in blood Used to differentiate primary hypothyroidism from secondary hypothyroidism Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> 59 Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS) Blood glucose sample taken usually early in the morning after the person has been without food or drink since midnight Diagnostic Techniques, Treatments, and Procedures </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> 60 Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) Test that evaluates persons ability to tolerate a concentrated oral glucose load by measuring glucose levels: Prior to glucose administration 30 minutes after glucose administration 1, 2, and 3 hours af...</li></ul>

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