20-1 Endocrine System. 20-2 Endocrine Glands The endocrine system is made of glands and tissues that secrete hormones. Endocrine glands are ductless organs,
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Slide 1 20-1 Endocrine System Slide 2 20-2 Endocrine Glands The endocrine system is made of glands and tissues that secrete hormones. Endocrine glands are ductless organs, producing their chemical messengers (hormones) and secreting them directly into the bloodstream, whereas other glands (exocrine glands) produce their chemicals and excrete them into a duct (ex. digestive enzymes, sweat). Slide 3 20-3 Hormones are chemicals that influence metabolism of cells, the growth and development of body parts, and homeostasis. Hormones can be classified as protein or steroids. Slide 4 20-4 There is a close association between the endocrine and nervous systems. Hormone secretion is usually controlled by either negative feedback or antagonistic hormones that oppose each others actions, and results in maintenance of a bodily substance or function within normal limits. Slide 5 20-5 The endocrine system Slide 6 20-6 Chemical Signals A chemical signal is any substance that affects cell metabolism or behavior of the individual. Chemical signals can be used between body parts, between cells, and between individual organisms (pheromones). Underarm secretions may be slightly attractive and may be involved in synchronizing the menstrual cycles of women who live together. Slide 7 20-7 Chemical signals Slide 8 20-8 Chemical signals Slide 9 20-9 The Action of Hormones Steroid hormones enter the nucleus and combine with a receptor protein, and the hormone-receptor complex attaches to DNA and activates certain genes. Transcription and translation lead to protein synthesis. Slide 10 20-10 Action of a steroid hormone Slide 11 20-11 Hormones trigger changes in their target cells when they bind to receptor proteins on or within the cells. A model of a hormone (A) bound to its protein receptor (B). Each hormone of the endocrine system has a unique molecular shape, which fits into a specific receptor protein on its target cells. Slide 12 20-12 Peptide hormones are usually received by a hormone receptor protein located in the plasma membrane. Most often the reception of a peptide hormone leads to activation of an enzyme that changes ATP to cyclic AMP (cAMP). cAMP, as a second messenger, then activates an enzyme cascade. Hormones work in small quantities because their effect is amplified by enzymes. Slide 13 20-13 Action of a peptide hormone Slide 14 20-14 Hormone production will be regulated in most cases by negative feedback systems. Once the desired outcome is reached, the outcome will inhibit the hormone release. Hormones are also classified as: Tropic: have endocrine glands as their target Non-tropic:dont have endocrine glands as their target Slide 15 20-15 The endocrine system Slide 16 20-16 Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland The hypothalamus regulates the internal environment through the autonomic system and also controls the secretions of the pituitary gland. The pituitary has two portions: the anterior pituitary and the posterior pituitary. Slide 17 20-17 Posterior Pituitary The posterior pituitary stores and releases the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin produced by the hypothalamus. ADH is secreted during dehydration and causes more water to be reabsorbed by the kidneys; the secretion of ADH is regulated by negative feedback. Oxytocin causes uterine contractions and milk release, and is controlled by positive feedback. Slide 18 20-18 Posterior Pituitary ADH is released when the blood plasma concentration is high (and blood pressure is low). ADH stimulates the kidneys to absorb more water, which dilutes the blood plasma (and increases blood pressure). Slide 19 20-19 Anterior Pituitary The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary by producing hypothalamic- releasing hormones and hypothalamic- inhibiting hormones. The anterior pituitary produces six hormones. Four of these six hormones have an effect on other endocrine glands: 1)Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulates the thyroid to produce thyroid hormones; Slide 20 20-20 2) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce cortisol; 3&4) the gonadotropic hormones (FSH and LH) stimulate the gonads to produce sex cells and hormones. In these three instances, the blood level of the last hormone exerts negative feedback control over the secretion of the first two hormones. Slide 21 20-21 Slide 22 20-22 The next three anterior pituitary hormones do not effect other endocrine glands. After childbirth, prolactin (PRL) causes mammary glands to produce milk. Growth hormone (GH) promotes skeletal and muscular growth. Slide 23 20-23 Hypothalamus and the pituitary Slide 24 20-24 Effects of Growth Hormone The quantity of GH is greatest during childhood and adolescence; GH promotes bone and muscle growth. Pituitary dwarfism results from too little GH during childhood. Giants result from too much growth hormone during childhood. If growth hormone is overproduced in an adult, it causes acromegaly. Slide 25 20-25 Effect of growth hormone Slide 26 20-26 Acromegaly Slide 27 20-27 Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands The thyroid gland is a large gland located in the neck, where it is attached to the trachea just below the larynx. The four parathyroid glands are embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. Slide 28 20-28 Thyroid Gland The thyroid gland requires iodine to produce thyroxine (T 4 ) which contains four iodine atoms, and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) which contains three iodine atoms. Thyroid hormones increase the metabolic rate, and stimulate all body cells to metabolize and use energy at a faster rate. Slide 29 20-29 Effects of Thyroid Hormones If iodine is lacking in the diet, a simple goiter develops. Use of iodized salt helps prevent simple goiters. Hypothyroidism in childhood produces cretinism; in adulthood it causes myxedema. If the thyroid is overactive (Graves disease) an exophthalmic goiter develops. Slide 30 20-30 if too much thyroxine is present hyperthyroidism (Graves disease) jittery, weight loss, fast heart rate, feel warm, mood swings, hair loss, bulging eyes treated by removing a portion of the thyroid gland (surgically or chemically) if too little thyroxine is present hypothyroidism cold, fatigue, dry skin, hair loss, weight gain, sleep a lot (myxedema in adults) in children, leads to abnormal mental and physical development, growth retardation (cretinism in childhood) Slide 31 20-31 if too little iodine in the diet thyroid swells (goiter) iodine is required to synthesize thyroxine swelling is due to the continued stimulation by TSH (no thyroxine made), causes increase in thyroid size in an attempt to make more thyroxine Slide 32 20-32 Simple goiter Slide 33 20-33 Cretinism Slide 34 20-34 Calcitonin The thyroid gland also produces calcitonin, which helps lower the blood calcium level when it is too high. The primary effect of calcitonin is to bring about the deposit of calcium in the bones; it does this by temporarily reducing the activity and number of osteoclasts. When the blood level of calcium is returned to normal, the release of calcitonin is inhibited. Slide 35 20-35 Parathyroid Glands Parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), which raises the blood calcium when it is insufficient, and decreases the blood phosphate level.parathyroid hormone (PTH), PTH acts by stimulating the activity of osteoclasts, thus releasing calcium from bone, and stimulates the reabsorption of calcium by the kidneys and intestine. Insufficient parathyroid hormone will cause serious loss of blood calcium and cause tetany. Slide 36 20-36 Regulation of blood calcium level Slide 37 20-37 Adrenal Glands Adrenal glands sit atop the kidneys and have an inner adrenal medulla and an outer adrenal cortex. The hypothalamus uses ACTH-releasing hormone to control the anterior pituitarys secretion of ACTH that stimulates the adrenal cortex. The hypothalamus regulates the medulla by direct nerve impulses. Slide 38 20-38 The adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine, which bring about responses we associate with emergency situations. On a long-term basis, the adrenal cortex produces glucocorticoids similar to cortisone and mineralocorticoids to regulate salt and water balance. The adrenal cortex also secretes both male and female sex hormones in both sexes. Slide 39 20-39 Adrenal glands Slide 40 20-40 Glucocorticoids Cortisol promotes breakdown of muscle proteins to amino acids; the liver then breaks the amino acids into glucose. Cortisol also promotes metabolism of fatty acids rather than carbohydrates, which spares glucose. Both actions raise the blood glucose level. High levels of blood glucocorticoids can suppress immune system function. Slide 41 20-41 Mineralocorticoids Aldosterone causes the kidneys to reabsorb sodium ions (Na + ) and excrete potassium ions (K + ). When blood sodium levels and blood pressure are low, the kidneys secrete renin; the effect of the renin-angiotensin- aldosterone system is to raise blood pressure. Slide 42 20-42 Regulation of blood pressure and volume Slide 43 20-43 Malfunction of the Adrenal Cortex Addison disease develops when the adrenal cortex hyposecretes hormones. A bronzing of the skin follows low levels of cortisol, and mild infection can lead to death; aldosterone is also hyposecreted, and dehydration can result. Cushing syndrome develops when the adrenal cortex hypersecretes cortisol. The trunk and face become round; too much aldosterone results in fluid retention. Slide 44 20-44 Addison disease Slide 45 20-45 Cushing syndrome Slide 46 20-46 Pancreas The pancreas is between the kidneys and the duodenum and provides digestive juices and endocrine functions. Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans secrete: - insulin, from the beta cells, which lowers the blood glucose level - insulin makes cells more permeable to glucose - glucagon, from the alpha cells, which increases the blood glucose level - glucagon causes the conversion of glycogen to glucose Slide 47 20-47 Regulation of blood glucose level Slide 48 20-48 Diabetes Mellitus The most common illness due to hormonal imbalance is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes is due to the failure of the pancreas to produce insulin or the inability of the body cells to take it up. Hyperglycemia symptoms develop, and glucose appears in the urine. Diabetes is diagnosed using a glucose tolerance test. Slide 49 20-49 Glucose tolerance test Slide 50 20-50 Type I diabetes mellitus occurs when the pancreas does not produce insulin and the patient requires insulin injections. Most people with diabetes have Type II diabetes mellitus where the pancreas produces insulin but the body cells do not respond. Both types lead to long-term serious complications. Slide 51 20-51 type I (insulin dependent) caused by lack of insulin production in pancreas, hereditary but may skip generations treated with insulin injections and rigid blood monitoring since insulin is a protein it would be digested if taken orally must monitor both hypoglycemia (need glucagon or glucose) and hyperglycemia (need insulin) in research: islet transplants, gene therapy (thought to have found gene) Slide 52 20-52 type II (insulin independent), caused by decreased insulin production, or too much glucose produced by the liver (not enough compensation by pancreas), insulin resistance gestational diabetes, during pregnancy, mother develops symptoms at a greater risk for type II later in life Slide 53 20-53 only type I requires daily insulin injections, type II and GDM are treated by changing diet & sometimes sulfonamides symptoms of type I and II fatigue (not enough glucose inside cells to provide an energy source must use fat & protein) excessive thirst & urination (glucose in urine pulls out water by osmosis) increased appetite (& weight loss type I) increased susceptibility to infection *** in type II, since it onsets slowly, there may be no symptoms initially diabetes causes many complications due to fluctuations in blood sugar and ketoacidosis (products of fat breakdown which are toxic to the body), leads to acetone smell on the breath Slide 54 20-54 diabetes insipidous, which has nothing to do with insulin, but ADH production in the pituitary a tumour or injury causes ADH or response to ADH, causing frequent urination (up to 30 L per day). Treat with ADH nasal spray Slide 55 20-55 Other Endocrine Glands Testes and Ovaries Testes, located in the scrotum, produce the male hormone testosterone. Ovaries in the female produce estrogens and progesterone. Secretions from the gonads are controlled by the anterior pituitary hormones. These sex hormones maintain the sex organs and secondary sex characteristics. Slide 56 20-56 The effects of anabolic steroid use Slide 57 20-57 Prostaglandins Prostaglandins are produced within cells from arachidonate, a fatty acid. Prostaglandins act close to where they are produced. They cause uterine muscle contraction and are involved in the pain of menstrual cramps; aspirin is effective against the pain by countering prostaglandins. Slide 58 20-58 Chapter Summary Hormones are chemical signals that affect the activity of target glands or tissues. Endocrine glands are ductless and distribute hormones by the bloodstream. The hypothalamus is a part of the brain that controls the functioning of the pituitary gland. Slide 59 20-59 The anterior pituitary produces several hormones, some of which control other endocrine glands. Growth hormone is produced by the anterior pituitary; giants are due to overproduction of growth hormone during childhood, and pituitary dwarfs are due to underproduction of growth hormone. The thyroid produces two hormones that speed metabolism and another hormone that lowers the blood calcium level. Slide 60 20-60 The distinct parathyroid glands produce a hormone that raises blood calcium level. Adrenal glands produce hormones that help us respond to stress. Malfunction of the adrenal cortex leads to the symptoms of Addison disease and Cushing disease. The pancreas secretes hormones that regulate the blood glucose level. Slide 61 20-61 Diabetes mellitus occurs when cells are unable to take up glucose and it spills over into the urine. The gonads produce sex hormones that control secondary sex characteristics. Many other tissues, although not traditionally considered endocrine glands, secrete hormones. Hormones influence the metabolism of their target cells.
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