Endocrine System Mrs. Atchison Health Science I. Function of endocrine system Endocrine glands - Secrete chemicals, hormones, directly into bloodstream

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Endocrine System Mrs. Atchison Health Science I </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Function of endocrine system Endocrine glands - Secrete chemicals, hormones, directly into bloodstream. - Ductless glands Exocrine glands - Secrete substance through a duct i.e.Sweat, salivary, lacrimal and pancreas. Hormones = chemical substances that coordinate and direct target cells and organs. </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Negative Feedback Drop in hormone level triggers chain reaction: 1. Blood level of hormone falls 2. Brain gets message and sends out hormone to stimulate gland 3. Gland secretes more hormone 4. When blood levels of hormone increase, the brain hormones stop </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Nervous Control In some cases, sympathetic nervous system causes direct release of hormone from gland i.e. stress may cause the adrenal medulla to secrete adrenaline </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> What is a gland? Any organ that produces a secretion called hormones It is ductless Only acts on Target cells </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Question Hormone release provides immediate body responses because the hormones are directed toward: A. cardiac cells. B. cyclic AMP cells. C. synaptic junctions. D. target organ cells </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Answer Target organ cells </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Pituitary Gland Tiny size of a grape Base of brain Connected to hypothalamus Anterior / Posterior lobes Cranial cavity Master Gland </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Anterior Pituitary Lobe GH Growth hormone (somatotropin) responsible for growth and development Prolactin develops breast tissue, stimulates production of milk after childbirth TSH Thyroid stimulating hormone stimulates thyroid cells to produce thyroid hormone = thyroxine (low TSH treated with synthroid) ACTH Adrenocortiocotropic hormone stimulates adrenal cortex </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Question Jackie complained to his/her doctor about nervousness, and weight loss even though he/she has had increased food intake. Laboratory tests revealed that Jackie had an elevated level of which hormone? A. Adrenaline B. Glucagon C. Parathormone D. Thyroxin </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Answer Thyroxin </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Anterior Pituitary contd FSH Follicle stimulating hormone stimulates growth of follicle and production of estrogen in females and sperm in males LH Luteinizing hormone stimulates ovulation and formation of corpus luteum, which produces progesterone in females </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Posterior Pituitary Lobe Vasopressin converts to ADH (antidiuretic hormone) in the bloodstream, acts on kidney to concentrate urine and preserve water in the body Oxytocin released during childbirth causing contractions of the uterus </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Question The pituitary gland is located: A. at the base of the brain. B. atop the kidney. C. in the chest. D. in the pelvic cavity. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> answer At the base of the brain </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Question Which gland is divided into anterior and posterior lobes? A. Gonads B. Pituitary C. Thymus D. Thyroid </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Answer Pituitary </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Question The pregnant woman began to have contractions of the uterus in preparation for childbirth. What is the name of the hormone that initiated her contractions? A. Follicle stimulating hormone B. Luteinizing hormone C. Oxytocin D. Prolactin </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Answer oxytocin </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Thyroid Gland 1. Butterfly-shaped mass of tissue. 2. On either side of larynx, in front of the trachea. 3. H-shaped. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Thyroid stimulating hormone (stimulates cellular metabolism) Main hormone Thyroxine controlled by secretion of TSH controls rate of metabolism Calcitonin controls calcium ion concentration in the body prevents hypercalcemia </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Question Which gland is butterfly-shaped and located in the anterior neck on either side of the larynx? A. Gonads B. Pituitary C. Thymus D. Thyroid </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Answer Thyroid </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Parathyroid Glands 4 glands size of a grain of rice Attached to posterior thyroid Produce parathormone which helps control blood calcium, prevents hypocalcemia. </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Thymus Gland Endocrine and lymphatic organ Behind sternum, above and in front of heart Begins to disappear at puberty Produces Thymosin reacts upon lymphoid tissue to produce T-lymphocytes </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Question Which gland is posterior to the sternum A. Parathyroid B. Pituitary C. Thymus D. Thyroid </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> answer thymus </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Adrenal Glands Adrenal Glands above kidneys Adrenal cortex secretes corticoids (anti-inflammatory hormones) and sex hormones Androgens Male sex hormones Adrenalin hormone from adrenal medulla, powerful cardiac stimulant, fight or flight hormone response to stress Adrenal Medulla also secretes nor epinephrine increases BP and heart rate and constricts blood vessels. </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Question In an emergency situation, the "fight or flight" hormone will increase the heart rate and blood pressure. This hormone is: A. ADH. B. adrenalin. C. insulin. D. thyroxin. </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Answer adrenalin </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Question The adrenal glands are located directly above the kidneys and are: A. composed of only a few cells. B. divided into the cortex and medulla. C. exocrine glands. D. pine-shaped. </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Answer B </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Question A small child was being chased by a large dog. Out of fear, the child ran really fast. Which hormone enabled the child to get away from the dog? A. Adrenal B. Parathyroid C. Pineal D. Thymus </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Answer adrenal </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Question On his way to work, the student witnessed a traffic accident. His heart rate increased and his mental alertness improved as he assisted the victims. The students response result from the release of: A. corticosteroids. B. epinephrine. C. parathromone. D. thyroxin. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Answer epinepherine </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Gonads Gonads ovaries in female and testes in male Estrogen Development of female reproductive organs, secondary sex characteristics Progesterone Plays a part in the menstrual cycle Testosterone Male reproductive organs and secondary sex characteristics </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Question A 19 year old male that has not begun to develop chest hair, a deep voice, or increased muscle mass may be deficient in which hormone? A. Estrogen B. Insulin C. Progesterone D. Testosterone </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Answer Testosterone </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Question A teenage girl that has undeveloped breasts and has not started her menstrual cycle indicates that a hormone deficiency exists. What hormone is deficient? A. Estrogen B. Insulin C. Oxytocin D. Testosterone </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Answer estrogen </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> Steroid Abuse-has side effects </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Steroid testing </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> question Liver damage, heart disease, testicular changes, and breast growth in males are symptoms of A. Addisons disease. B. Cushings syndrome. C. hyperthyroidism. D. steroid abuse. </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Answer steroids </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> Pancreas Pancreas abdominal cavity behind the stomach Endocrine and exocrine functions Islets of Langerhans Insulin production. Insulin promotes utilization of glucose by the cells lowers blood sugar levels </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> Question Which endocrine gland contains the Islets of Langerhans? A. Brain stem B. Liver C. Pancreas D. Thymus </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> Answer pancreas </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> Question Janie has hyperglycemia and is being treated with insulin. Which of Janies endocrine glands is functioning inefficiently? A. Adrenal B. Pancreas C. Pituitary D. Thyroid </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Answer pancreas </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> The breast feeding hormone Prolactin </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Question The obstetrician instructs a new mother about the changes in her body He/she explains that her breast milk production is the result of A. growth hormone. B. oxytocin. C. prolactin. D. vasopressin </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Answer prolactin </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Question The pancreas is also an organ of the: A. circulatory system. B. digestive system. C. lymphatic system. D. respiratory system. </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Answer Digestive </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> Endocrine Disorders - Dwarfism Hypofunction of pituitary in childhood Small size, but body proportions and intellect normal Sexual immaturity Rx Early diagnosis, injection of growth hormone </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Gigantism Gigantism Hyperfunction of pituitary Too much growth hormone In preadolescence Overgrowth of long bones leads to excessive tallness </li> <li> Slide 58 </li> <li> Question The endocrinologist saw a patient whose parents were concerned about their 8 year old childs short stature. The physician suspects that the child may have a deficiency in: A. growth hormone. B. oxytocin. C. prolactin. D. vasopressin </li> <li> Slide 59 </li> <li> Answer Growth hormone </li> <li> Slide 60 </li> <li> Acromegaly Hyperfunction of pituitary too much growth hormone in adulthood Overdevelopment of bones in face, hands and feet Attacks cartilage so the chin protrudes - lips, nose and extremities enlarge Rx drugs to inhibit growth hormone radiation </li> <li> Slide 61 </li> <li> Slide 62 </li> <li> Question A 47 year old man went to see his doctor. When reviewing family pictures, the patients wife noted that her husband had developed enlarged hands, lips and nose, and that his chin protrudes more than it used to. Following some laboratory studies, the doctor diagnosed the patient with: A. acromegaly. B. Graves disease. C. hypothyroidism. D. toxic goiter </li> <li> Slide 63 </li> <li> Answer Acromegaly </li> <li> Slide 64 </li> <li> Hyperthyroidism Overactive thyroid gland Too much thyroxine leads to enlargement of gland Symptoms Consuming large quantities of food but lose weight nervous irritability Goiter Enlargement of gland Exophthalmos Bulging of eyeballs Trt Partial or total removal of gland, drugs to reduce include thyroxine radiation </li> <li> Slide 65 </li> <li> Hypothyroidism Not enough thyroxine May be due to lack of iodine (simple goiter) Other cause inflammation of thyroid which destroys the ability of the gland to make thyroxine Symptoms Dry, itchy skin; dry and brittle hair, constipation, muscle cramps at night. </li> <li> Slide 66 </li> <li> Exopthalmus-bulging eyes </li> <li> Slide 67 </li> <li> Did you know? </li> <li> Slide 68 </li> <li> Question The endocrine disorder that could be prevented by using iodized salt is: A. acromegaly. B. gigantism. C. hyperthyroidism. D. hypothyroidism </li> <li> Slide 69 </li> <li> Answer hypothyroidism </li> <li> Slide 70 </li> <li> question Terri has an excessive appetite but has trouble gaining weight. She also has exophthalmos. What disorder might she have? A. Addisons disease B. Cushings syndrome C. Hyperthyroidism D. Steroid abuse </li> <li> Slide 71 </li> <li> Answer Hyperthyroidism </li> <li> Slide 72 </li> <li> Tetany In hypoparathyroidism, decreased calcium levels affect functions of nerves Symptoms Convulsive twitching develops, person dies of spasms in the respiratory muscles Rx Vitamin D, calcium and parathormone. </li> <li> Slide 73 </li> <li> Diabetes Mellitus Cause Decreased secretion of insulin Symptoms Polyuria, polyphagia, polydipsia, weight loss, blurred vision, and possible diabetic muscles. If not treated, excess glucose in blood (hyperglycemia) and secreted in urine (glycosuria) If too much insulin given, blood sugar can get too low (hypoglycemia) and person can develop insulin shock. Type II diabetes is not insulin-dependent Most common, usually familial, occurs later in life, usually treated with diet. Test for diabetes Blood sample at home, normal blood sugar is 80-100 mg. screening=urinalysis </li> <li> Slide 74 </li> <li> Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose) Causes: Too much food, too little insulin or diabetes medicine, illness or stress. Onset: Gradual, may progress to diabetic coma. Symptoms: Extreme thirst, frequent urination, dry skin, hunger, blurred vision, drowsiness, and nausea. What can you do? Take blood glucose tests, and if over 250 mg/dL for several tests, call your doctor. </li> <li> Slide 75 </li> <li> Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Glucose) Causes: Too little food, too much insulin or diabetes medicine, or extra exercise. Onset: Sudden, may progress to insulin shock. Symptoms: Shaking, fast heartbeat, sweating, anxious, dizziness, hunger, impaired vision, weakness fatigue, headache, and irritablility. What can you do? Drink glass of orange juice or skim milk, or eat several hard candies, test your blood glucose; if symptoms dont stop call your doctor, within 30 minutes after symptoms go away, eat a light snack (a peanut butter or meat sandwich and a glass of mik. </li> <li> Slide 76 </li> <li> Question Janie has hyperglycemia and is being treated with insulin. Which of Janies endocrine glands is functioning inefficiently? A. Adrenal B. Pancreas C. Pituitary D. Thyroid </li> <li> Slide 77 </li> <li> Answer pancreas </li> <li> Slide 78 </li> <li> Endocrine Terminology 1. Thyroxine Regulates body metabolism 2. Adrenalin Stimulates the heart to beat faster 3. Parathyroid Regulates use of calcium 4. Parathormone Control use of calcium phosphorus 5. Insulin Secreted by pancreas 6. Calcitonin Affects neuromuscular functioing, blood clotting, and holds cells together 7. Estrogen Governs reproduction and fertility 8. Oxytocin Causes the uterus to contract during labor 9. Gonad Sex gland 10. ATCH Hormone secreted by the pituitary gland </li> <li> Slide 79 </li> <li> Endocrine Terminology Cont. 11. Acromegaly Enlargement of bones of the extremities. 12. Adenectomy Removal of any gland. 13. Adenoidectomy Removal of the adenoids. 14. Adrenogenic Originating in the adrenals. 15. Dwarfism Condition of being abnormally small. 16. Endocrine Ductless; to secrete within. 17. Endocrinotherapy Treatment with endocrine preparation. 18. Exocrine To secrete through a duct. 19.Goiter Enlarged thyroid gland. </li> <li> Slide 80 </li> <li> Endocrine Terminology Cont. 20. Goitrogens Any substance that causes a goiter. 21. Lymphycytopenia Deficiency of lymph cells. 22. Pancreatolysis Breakdown of the pancreas. 23. Parathyrotoxicosis Poisonous condition of the parathyroid. 24. Pinealoma Tumor of the pineal gland. 25. Pituitarigenic Originating in the pituitary. 26. Thyroadenitis Inflammation of the thyroid gland. </li> <li> Slide 81 </li> <li> Disorders of...</li></ul>