Sex Hormones  Endocrine glands Secrete hormones internally (Bloodstream) Hormone ○ Complex chemical ○ Specific actions for specific organs  Exocrine

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Slide 2 Sex Hormones Endocrine glands Secrete hormones internally (Bloodstream) Hormone Complex chemical Specific actions for specific organs Exocrine glands Secrete externally (aweat glands) Slide 3 Sex Hormones Hypothalamus Controls pituitary Dual function As a gland Reacts to hormonal levels in the bloodstream As a part of the CNS Reacts to higher brain functions (perceptions, thoughts, feelings, moods) Slide 4 Testosterone Bound and free Men 95% bound, not active for sexual desire 5% free Women 97-99% bound 1-3% free Slide 5 Testosterone Amount needed varies in individuals of both sexes. Women more sensitive. More testosterone does not produce more sexual desire Slide 6 Testosterone Additional testosterone has adverse effects Men Hair loss Salt and fluid retention Possible testicular cancer Acne Digestive problems Irritability and aggression Women Facial and body hair Muscle mass Smaller breasts Larger clitoris Voice deeper Slide 7 Gestational Development of Genitals First seven weeks Undifferentiated 2 gonads 2 sets of ducts (Mullerian and Wolffian) 7th week Y chromosome turns gonad into testicle Slide 8 Gestational Development of Genitals 10th-11th week Absence of Y chromosome = ovaries develop. Both types of gonads start producing their respective hormones. Female: Absence of testosterone causes degeneration of Wolffian ducts Mullerian ducts form internal sex organs Slide 9 Gestational Development of Genitals Male Testes produce anti-Mullerian hormone, so they disappear Wolffian ducts become internal sex organs Slide 10 Gestational Development of Genitals Tubercle, folds and swelling develop into external genitals for each sex The default model is female In the absence of any step to go to the male model, the child will be female Slide 11 Slide 12 MENSTRUATION Onset Menarche Mean age: 12.6 1900 Mean age 16 Diet changes increases in body fat 20-36 days is normal range Lasts until Age 45-55 Slide 13 MENSTRUATION Slide 14 Slide 15 Slide 16 Slide 17 Changes in cervical mucus during cycle: Regular functions of mucus: Lubrication Bacteriostatic pH regulation It is cloudy, whitish, thick Slide 18 MENSTRUATION Ovulatory cervical mucus: Days 12-16 of cycle Transparent Very stretchy, like raw egg white Functions: To help sperm Regulating pH (normal to alkaline) Sugars Conveyor Slide 19 MENSTRUATION Toxic Shock Syndrome Presence of staphilococcus aureus (ubiquitous) Particularly when using tampons Can be fatal Dioxin Bleaching chemicals Used in sanitary products Powerful carcinogen Can affect hormones Immunosuppressant Endometriosis Slide 20 MENSTRUATION Anovulatory cycles Adolescents and menopause (climacteric) Amenorrhea The absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age After menopause Slide 21 MENSTRUATION Dysmenorrhea Painful menstruation Prostaglandins Hormone-like Secreted by uterus Cause uterine contractions Endometriosis Endometrium grows outside uterus Dysmenorrhea is a symptom Slide 22 MENSTRUATION PMS Unhealthy diet No exercise Smoking Endometriosis Negative expectationsAnxietyPhysical symptoms Slide 23 Pregnancy Prenatal period Nine months Three trimesters Perinatal period From beginning of labour to 72 hrs. postpartum Slide 24 Conception Requires the following Adequate sperm count Changes in vaginal mucus Open Fallopian tubes Normal ovulation Normal hormonal levels Slide 25 Infertility Most common reason for infertility: STDs in both men and women Lead to infertility Blocked Fallopian tubes or vas deferens Slide 26 Pregnancy Stages of uterine development Zygote: 1-14 days Embryo: 3-8 weeks Fetus: 9-40 weeks Slide 27 Reproductive Technologies Artificial Insemination Introducing sperm into womans vagina or uterus by artificial means in vitro fertilization (IVF) Test tube or Petri dish used to mix gametes Once dividing, surgically implanted into womans uterus Slide 28 Prenatal Diagnosis Tests for chromosomal abnormalities and fetal infections Amniocentesis 11-14 weeks Chorionic villus sampling (CVS) 6-8 weeks Slide 29 Slide 30 Slide 31 Physical and Psychological Changes During Pregnancy 1st trimester: Enlarged, tender breasts Amenorrhea Nausea ( severe, mild, none) Sleepiness () Aversion to some foods, odors Increased urinary frequency (hormonal) Mixed emotions, ambivalence, anxiety and exhilaration Slide 32 Physical and Psychological Changes During Pregnancy 2nd trimester: Quickening Initial motion of the fetus in the uterus As it is perceived by the pregnant woman Increased girth and well-being Mostly positive outlook, energy Preparatory behaviors, prenatal classes Some who rejected pregnancy accept it Slide 33 Physical and Psychological Changes During Pregnancy 3rd trimester: Large abdomen, awkward Difficulty turning over in bed Lost sleep due to Frequent urination (weight of uterus on bladder) Activity of fetus Anxiety increases (delivery, birth defects) Differences between fit and unfit women Slide 34 Physical and Psychological Changes During Pregnancy Possible pregnancy complications Edema Hypertension Gestational diabetes Proteinuria Threatened early labor Slide 35 Physical and Psychological Changes During Pregnancy Male Economic worries Feeling left out Couvade Experiences some of the same symptoms and behavior as the mother near the time of labor Actual changes in hormonal levels Before birth, more prolactin and cortisol After birth, less testosterone Slide 36 Teratogens Slide 37 Smoking CO 200 times more affinity to Hgb than oxygen Oxygen supply compromised (5% less) Decreases sperm motility Lower fertility Less progesterone Miscarriages Placental problems Higher morbidity and mortality From 9/1000 to 33/1000 Higher rates of cleft palate and hare lip Slide 38 Teratogens Alcohol FASD (fetal alcohol spectrum disorder) Brain abnormalities learning difficulties ADDH Mental retardation, etc. Possible damage to eyes, ears, immune system, internal organs, joints, limbs Low birth weight Increased prematurity, miscarriage and stillbirth risk Slide 39 Teratogens Alcohol FASD (fetal alcohol spectrum disorder) Growth retardation Facial and cranial malformations Dose and timing related No safe dose There is no cure for FASD Leading cause of preventable mental retardation Slide 40 Teratogens Maternal Diseases Rubella Toxoplasmosis CMV Radiation High temperature (hot bath) Environmental Pollution Phthalates Drugs Prescription Thalidomide Recreational Interactions Slide 41 Teratogens Maternal stress Acute or chronic (worse) Adrenaline, corticosteroids Compromise oxygen supply for infant After birth Digestive problems Low birth weight Irritability Slide 42 Teratogens Maternal age No more obstetrical complications (if healthy) Increased Downs syndrome Other effects of these variables Affect maternal-infant interaction Abuse Neglect Rejection Slide 43 Maternal Nutrition First trimester Usually not an issue Second trimester Quality Third trimester Quality and quantity Folic acid Prevents neural tube defects (spina bifida) Slide 44 Maternal Nutrition Infant Optimal Weight 7 - 8 lbs. (European stock) Low Birth Weight 5 lbs. or 2,500 g Montreal Diet Dispensary 500 extra daily calories: 1 qt. milk 1 egg 1 orange Slide 45 Birth LABOUR Fetal hormone signals moms hypothalamus Produced when fetal lungs ready to breathe Hypothalamus stimulates pituitary Pituitary secretes oxytocin Oxytocin makes uterus contract Labour begins Slide 46 Labour First stage: Early first stage Longest (hours or days) Mild contractions, relatively short Relatively large intervals Late first stage Shorter than early stage Contractions longer and at much shorter intervals Transition Shortest Most intense Random pattern of contractions. All along, cervix dilating and effacing (thinning) Slide 47 Labour Second stage: Cervix fully dilated (10 cm) Baby moves down birth canal Crowning Duration Primiparas About 1 hr. Multiparas Faster Head first, rotation Slide 48 Labour Third stage: After 10-15 min interval Expulsion of placenta During interval between stages 2 and 3: Lungs start to work gradually Cord delivers last of maternal blood to infant Heart valves close Cord must not be cut until white and not pulsing Slide 49 Labour POSITIONS FOR LABOUR Lithotomy Position Weight of uterus and its content on abdominal aorta Can cause reduced blood flow to fetus Slows down labour Importance of gravitys help Slide 50 Labour Better Positions Sitting up reclined Lying on her side On hands and knees Unmedicated, undisturbed birth best 90-95% births do not need intervention. Slide 51 RISKS OF INDUCING LABOUR Induction of labour with pitocin Contractions too hard Lead to more analgesics and anesthetics Uterine rupture and to brain damage (pressure on the skull) If lungs not ready, leads to respiratory distress due to lack of surfactin Slide 52 POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS (5-10%) Placenta previa abruptio placenta Separation of the normally located placenta Transverse or breech presentation Prolapsed cord Cord pinched or wrapped around neck Slide 53 POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS All carry risk of hypoxia or anoxia Hypoxia Reduced oxygen Anoxia NO oxygen Consequences Brain damage Detectable or subclinical Slide 54 Common interventions C-section Major abdominal surgery Possible lack of adrenaline/noradrenaline in baby N. American C-sec rates too high Pain medication (analgesics and anesthetics) Can slow down labour and decrease oxygen delivery to baby Slide 55 EFFECTS OF ANESTHETICS AND ANALGESICS Slow down labour (leading to pitocin use) Sluggish baby Mother zonked, weak Can interfere with bonding Can interfere with lactation Can interfere with rooming-in Slide 56 HUMAN LACTATION Mammals perfected milk for their young over millions of years of evolution Each species has the perfect milk for its own young, for optimal adaptation to environmental demands Chemical composition very varied Production of both prolactin and oxytocin respond to demand More sucking = more hormonal output. Slide 57 Advantages for infant Nutritional Smooth adaptation period from intra to extra-uterine life (Shortened gestation 9 months instead of 12 as other primates) Species-specific Each species has different developmental needs Right amounts of the right nutrients Slide 58 Advantages for infant Nutritional (Contd): Non-allergenic 100% digestible, no waste Bioavailability of nutrients Lower renal solute unlikely to overfeed due to changing composition through a feed Lower risk of later obesity Brain development Slide 59 Immunological advantages Fresh antibodies in each drop Infant has immature immune system Mammary gland makes antibodies in situ when a new pathogen appears in the environment Lactobacillus bifidus prevents gut colonization by harmful bacteria Lower morbidity and mortality Slide 60 Benefits for lactating mother Uterus back to pre-pregnant state due to oxytocin-induced contractions Contraception** Breast cancer protection Skeletal calcium deposits (lower osteoporosis risk) Weight loss Stress control (hormonal) Bonding