Endocrine System Hormones and their actions. Endocrine vs. Exocrine Glands Endocrine glands secrete their products (hormones) into the blood stream where.

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<ul><li><p>Endocrine SystemHormones and their actions</p></li><li><p>Endocrine vs. Exocrine GlandsEndocrine glands secrete their products (hormones) into the blood stream where they are carried to the target cells.</p></li><li><p>Exocrine glandsExocrine glands secrete their products into a body cavity or to the outside. </p></li><li><p>Negative feedbackHow the body maintains homeostasisLow Blood SugarEat FoodHigh Blood SugarPancreas secretesInsulin</p></li><li><p>Steroid Hormones (lipid soluble)</p></li><li><p>Steroid cell response</p></li><li><p>Non-steroid cell response</p></li><li><p>Non-steroid hormonesPeptides are short chains of amino acids; most hormones are peptides. They are secreted by the pituitary, parathyroid, heart, stomach, liver, and kidneys. </p></li><li><p>ProstaglandinsHormone-like chemicals that affect local tissues only.</p></li><li><p>Hypothalamus</p></li><li><p>The hypothalamus produces two hormones: * ADH* Oxytocin* Controls pituitary gland</p></li><li><p>ADH: The single most important effect of antidiuretic hormone is to conserve body water by reducing the loss of water in urine.</p></li><li><p>Diabetes Insipidus: a hyposecretionWith less ADH, the kidneys conserve less waterFrequent urination (around 2.5 liters/day) and excessive thirst resultMay be caused by surgery, infection, head injury, tumor, or a genetic disorder.</p></li><li><p>Diabetes Insipidus: a hyposecretion of ADH</p></li><li><p>OxytocinStimulation of milk ejection (milk letdownStimulation of uterine smooth muscle contraction at birthEstablishment of maternal behavior</p></li><li><p>Pineal Gland</p></li><li><p>Melatonin</p></li><li><p>Pituitary Gland</p></li><li><p>Posterior PituitaryStores ADH and Oxytocin</p></li><li><p>Anterior Pituitary GlandGH = Growth Hormone</p><p>Stimulates cells to grow and divideEnhances movement of amino acids across the cell membraneTells cells to use more carbohydrates</p></li><li><p>Dwarfism: a hyposecretion of GH</p></li><li><p>Gigantism: a hypersecretion of GHAnna Swan7 feet 5 inches</p></li><li><p>Leonid Stadnyk: Tallest living man at 8 feet, 5.5 inches</p></li><li><p>Acromegaly: a hypersecretion of GH in Adults</p></li><li><p>In acromegaly, an individual's hands and feet begin to grow, becoming thick and doughy. The jaw line, nose, and forehead also grow, and facial features are described as coarse. The tongue grows larger, and because the jaw is larger, the teeth become more widely spaced. Due to swelling within the structures of the throat and sinuses, the voice becomes deeper and sounds hollower, and patients may develop loud snoring.</p></li><li><p>TSH: Thyroid Stimulating HormoneTells the thyroid gland to release its hormones (which control metabolism)</p></li><li><p>Cretinism: a hyposecretion of TSH in children</p></li><li><p>Symptoms: dwarfismmental deficiencypuffy facial featuresdry skinlarge tonguemuscular incoordination</p></li><li><p>Myxedema: a hyposecretion of TSH in adults</p></li><li><p>Myxedema:most severe form of hyposecretionswelling of feet, hands, face, and eye tissuesdisease leads to coma and death</p></li><li><p>Graves Disease: a hypersecretion of TSH</p></li><li><p>Graves Disease: Too much TSHHyperthyroidism can be caused by the secretion of too much TSH. Graves Disease is an autoimmune disease. The thyroid gland doesnt respond to negative feedback. Goiter results because an increase in TSH caused the thyroid to work harder</p></li><li><p>Graves diseaseTissues around eyes begin to swell, causing the eyes to bulge out.Eyes will be dry and irritatedBlindness may resultThis disorder effects women more than men by 8 to 1.People tend to get this disorder in their 30s to 40s Tends to run in families. </p></li><li><p>ACTH: Adrenocorticotropic HormoneTells the adrenal cortex to secrete its hormones </p></li><li><p>Addisons Disease: a hyposecretion of ACTH</p></li><li><p>Cushings Disease: A hypersecretion of ACTH</p></li><li><p>Cortisol Known as the stress hormoneIt increases blood pressure, blood sugar, suppresses the immune system</p></li><li><p>FSH: Follicle Stimulating HormoneHigh levels causes:Premature menopauseTesticular failure</p><p>Low levels cause:Low sperm countLack of menstrual cycle</p></li><li><p>LH: Lutenizing Hormone </p></li><li><p>Prolactin</p></li><li><p>Thyroid Gland</p></li><li><p>Thyroxine and triiodothyronineThyroxine = T4 because it has four iodine atoms. Triiodothyronine = T3 because it has three iodine atoms. </p><p>These hormones help regulate the metabolism of carbs, lipids, and proteins. </p></li><li><p>Hyperthyroidism</p></li><li><p>Hypothyroidism</p></li><li><p>Symptoms: Fatigue, weakness, weight gain, dry hair, depression, memory loss.10% of women have some degree of this disorder. Easily fixed by taking more thyroxine through medication.</p></li><li><p>Goiters and iodine deficiency</p></li><li><p>X-ray of goiter. Goiter is pushing the trachea and esophagus to the side</p></li><li><p>CalcitoninKeeps calcium in your bonesLowers blood calcium</p></li><li><p>Parathyroid GlandPTH: Parathyroid HormoneIncreases blood calcium levels</p></li><li><p>Thymus GlandThymopoietin and thymosin</p></li><li><p>Adrenal GlandsCortex and medulla</p></li><li><p>Cortex hormones:Glucocorticoids: Cortisone</p><p>Mineralocorticoids: Aldosterone</p><p>Gonadocorticoids: Androgens</p></li><li><p>Medulla hormonesEpinephrine and Norepinephrine</p></li><li><p>Pancreas</p></li><li><p>Alpha Cells: GlucagonBeta Cells: Insulin</p></li><li><p>Testes and OvariesOvaries: Estrogen and Progesterone</p><p>Testes: Testosterone</p></li><li><p>PlacentaHCG: human chorionic gonadotropin. </p></li></ul>

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