ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Endocrine System…. Professor KS Satyapal 1 System of ductless glands Regulates body functions via hormones secreted into the bloodstream.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 1 System of ductless glands Regulates body functions via hormones secreted into the bloodstream. </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 2 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Major Endocrine Glands: Hypothalamus Pituitary Gland Thyroid Gland Parathyroid Gland Thymus Adrenal Gland </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Other organs containing endocrine tissue: Pancreas Kidneys Heart Digestive Tract Placenta Testes Ovaries Pineal Gland Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 3 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> HYPOTHALAMUS Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 4 Master Gland Function : Control centre Attached to roof of third ventricle, near thalamus Continuously receive information on status of body systems via nerve impulses Monitors composition &amp; temperature of blood Messages interpreted, evaluated : outgoing messages dispatched via nerves / hormones Plays role in feedback systems that govern secretions of endocrine system </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> 2. PITUITARY GLAND Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 5 Pea sized mass of glandular tissue Lies in sella turcica Slender stalk: Infundibulum connects pituitary gland to hypothalamus 2 parts : Neurohypophysis Adenohypophysis Indirectly controls : Growth Metabolism Sexual reproduction Lactation </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> 2. PITUITARY GLAND: PARTS Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 6 NeurohypophysisAdenohypophysis Small posterior lobeLarge anterior lobe Stores hormonesReleases hormones OxytocinGrowth hormone (GH) Anti Diuretic hormone (ADH) Thyroid Stimulating hormone (TSH) Adenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Lutenizing hormone (LH) Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) Prolactin (PRL) </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> 2. PITUITARY GLAND: HORMONES Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 7 HORMONESEFFECTS Oxytocin (OC)Stimulates contraction of uterus &amp; contractile cells of breast ADHPrevents excess urine production GHGeneral body growth ACTHStimulate adrenal cortex to release hormone TSHControls thyroid gland LHStimulates sexual &amp; reproductive function FSHStimulate production of sperm &amp; egg in ovaries &amp; testis MSHRelated to skin pigmentation PRLInitiates milk production in breast Anterior Pituitary Posterior Pituitary </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> 3. THYROID GLAND Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 8 Located in middle anterior part of neck: below larynx, in front of trachea Butterfly shape 2 lobes connected by isthmus in size : puberty &amp; pregnancy Rich blood supply: able to deliver high levels of hormones in short period of time Produces Thyroxin (T4) &amp; Tri-iodothyronine (T3) Calcitonin : involved in calcium &amp; phosphate homeostasis </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> 4. PARATHYROID GLAND Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 9 Small rounded mass Attached to posterior surface of thyroid gland Produces Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Controls homeostasis of calcium &amp; phosphate in blood by activating Vitamin D </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> 5. THYMUS Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 10 Plays a role in the immune system Produces thymosin, thymic humaral factor &amp; thymic factor Responsible for maturation of T-lymphocytes </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> HARMONES OF THYROID, PARATHYROID &amp; THYMUS Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 11 ORGANHORMONEEFFECT Thyroid gland (Follicular cells) T3 &amp; T4 energy utilization oxygen consumption growth &amp; development Thyroid gland (C cells) Calcitonin Calcium ion concentration in body fluids ParathyroidPTH Calcium ion concentration in body fluids ThymusThymosinMaturation &amp; functional competence of immune system </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> 6. ADRENAL GLAND Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 12 Located superior to the kidney Divided into: (i) outer cortex (ii) inner medulla </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> 6. ADRENAL GLAND Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 13 ADRENAL CORTEXADRENAL MEDULLA Secretes steroid hormonesSecretes hormones controlled by ANS Glucocorticoids (metabolism) eg. cortisol Epinephrine (Adrenaline) Mineralocorticoids (homeostasis of ions) eg. Aldosterone Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline) Gonadocorticoids (oestrogens &amp; androgens) </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> ADRENAL HORMONES Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 14 EFFECTHARMONESREGION cardiac activity blood pressure glycogen breakdown blood glucose Epinephrine (Adrenaline), Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline) Medulla Androgens3. Zona Reticularis Releases amino acids from skeletal muscle &amp; lipids from adipose. Promotes liver glycogen &amp; glucose formation Anti inflammatory effect Glucocorticoid: cortisol 2. Zona fasciculata Renal reabsorption of sodium ions &amp; water. renal potassium ion loss Mineralocorticoid: Aldosterone Cortex 1. Zona glomerulos </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 15 7. PANCREAS Flattened organ Lies retroperitoneally &amp; transversly across posterior abdominal wall Posterior to stomach, between doudenum on right &amp; spleen on left Classified as exocrine &amp; endocrine Hormones: Islets of Langerhans secrete: Glucagon, cells : blood glucose Insulin, cells: blood glucose Growth harmone inhibiting hormone (GHIH), cells : inhibits glucagon &amp; insulin </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 16 HORMONES OF PANCREAS CELLSHARMONEEFFECT Alpha ( ) cells GlucagonGlucose synthesis &amp; glycogen breakdown in liver Blood glucose concentration Beta ( ) cells InsulinStimulation of lipids &amp; glycogen storage &amp; formation Blood glucose concentration Delta ( ) cells SomatostatinInhibits secretion of insulin &amp; glucagon </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 17 12 &amp; 13. TESTES &amp; OVARIES TESTES: Located within scrotum Produce testosterone Stimulates development of male sexual characteristics OVARIES: Located in pelvic cavity Produce oestrogen &amp; progesterone Responsible for development &amp; maintenance of female characteristics &amp; menstrual cycle </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 18 HORMONES OF REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM CELLSHORMONESEFFECT Testes Interstitial cells 1. Testosterone 2. Inhibin 1. Maturation of sperm Male secondary sex characteristics 2. Inhibits secretion of FSH Ovaries Follicle cells 1. Oestrogen 2. Inhibin 1. Follicle maturation Female secondary sex characteristic 2. Inhibits secretion of FSH Corpus LuteumProgesteronePrepare uterus for implantation Prepare breast for secretory function </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 19 OTHER ENDOCRINE TISSUES KIDNEYS: Renal Erythropoietic factor: erythropoietin HEART: Atrial Natriuretic factor (ANF) GIT: Stomach gastrin, enteric gastrin, secretin, cholecystokinin, enterocinin, gastric inhibiting hormone PLACENTA: Human chorionic gonadotropin, oestrogen, progesterone, relaxin </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 20 ENDOCRINE DISORDERS 2 Categories: Abnormal hormone production Abnormal cellular sensitivity ACROMEGALY: Over production of growth hormone after the epiphyseal plates have fused Bone shape changes Cartilaginous areas of skeleton enlarge Broad facial features Enlarged lower jaw </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 2 1 ENDOCRINE DISORDERS CRETINISM Results from thyroid hormone insufficiency in infancy </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 22 ENDOCRINE DISORDERS GOITER Enlarged thyroid gland Results from thyroid hormone hyposecretion Due to iodine insufficiency </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 23 ENDOCRINE DISORDERS CUSHINGS SYNDROME Results from hypersecretion of glucocorticoids Lipid reserves are mobilized Adipose tissue accumulates in cheeks &amp; base of neck </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 24 PROSTAGLANDINS Regulators of cell metabolism Important in normal physiology of: Smooth muscle Blood flow Platelet function Nerve transmission Immune response Secretion Reproduction Respiration Fat Metabolism Inflammation Pathology: Induce Inflammation Promote fever Intensify pain </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Endocrine System. Professor KS Satyapal 25 FEEDBACK CONTROL OF HORMONE RELEASE Regulation Eg. Production of releasing substance / inhibiting substance Release of hormone from pituitary gland stimulates hormone release by target gland hormone exert normal effect &amp; influence further release of a releasing or inhibiting substance inhibit release of hormone from pituitary gland </li> </ul>

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