Culture and Consumption A10
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Culture and ConsumptionBasedon: McCracken: Culture and Consumption
Agenda for todayy Group presentation y Culture and consumption y From consumer research to marketing strategy y Questions for last weeks class or the exa
Consumption Studies~ 1990?
goods carry meanings for everyday interactions (i.e. communication) personal motives are shaped by society/cultureSource: stergaard and Jantzen, 2000
Understanding culture Culture: a societys dynamic blueprints for action andinterpretations that enable a person to operate in a manner acceptable to other members of the cultureShared cultural templates for interpretation
Cultural fieldsConsumption patterns Consumer goods
Shared cultural blueprints for action Source: Arnould, Price, Zinkhan, 2007
How is consumption a cultural phenomenon? Clothing Food Housing Holidays Everyday rituals and habits Events, experiences Interests, hobbies .... In general: Consumption patterns
McCrackens Model of Movement of Cultural MeaningCulturally constituted worldArt Fashion System Marketing communication system
Consumer goodsConsumer rituals
Individual Consumers Locations of meanings Instruments of meaning transferSource: McCracken, 1986
The dynamics of culture and consumption the movement of meaningsConsumption objects carry symbolic meanings. They both reflect and influence culture and cultural meanings this happens in a continuous, self-referencing process. In this process, cultural meanings are moved between different locations of meaning by e.g. marketing communication, art, media, fashion systems, and consumer actions.
Culturally constituted worldTemplates for action and interpretation
Habits Customs Rituals
Help us define and organize our life world (system of social distinction)
Time Space Nature Society People
Allow grouping, ranking, interrelating (structure)
Values Ideals Norms Beliefs
Culturalprinciples and categories Cultural principles can take the form of norms, ideals,beliefs, and values. A few examples of cultural principles are freedom, equality, and brotherhood
Cultural categories reflect (and influence) such principles.For example, how would the values above influence our concept of society or nature?
Cultural values, myths, symbols Values enduring beliefs about desirable outcomes thattranscends specific situations and shape behaviour Includes instrumental values beliefs about how people shouldbehave Includes terminal values beliefs about desirable goals
Norms informal, often unspoken rules that governbehaviour
Cultural myths stories containing symbolic elements thatexpress shared emotions and cultural values values
Cultural symbols objects that represents beliefs and
Cultural fields Cultural fields are complex cultural categories Consumer goods and consumption patterns help definecultural fields
From this perspective, consumption is a tangiblemanifestation of culture
Vehicles for meaning transfer Marketing communication system Fashion system Entertainment Art News Reference groups
Consumption meanings Consumer motives for consumption stem from the meaningof consumptions acts and objects. Such meaning provides value
Understanding consumers requires understanding ofmeaning and value
There are many sources of meaning for consumptionobjects (e.g. marketing communications, branding, individual experience, cultural myths, etc.)
Types of meanings Utilitarian meanings perceived usefulness in termsof functionality or performance
Sacred meanings supremely important/set aside Secular opposed to sacred meanings/worldly incharacter
Hedonic meanings associated, facilitating orperpetuating special feelings
Social meanings negotiating meanings of Examples from everyday life?
individuals and their place in their social setting
Cultural rituals Behaviours that occur in arelatively fixed sequence and that tend to be repeated periodically
Possession rituals Grooming rituals Divestment rituals Exchange rituals
Vehicles of communication When consumption objects have meaning to people,they also function as media of interpersonal communication
Example: Christmas What do Christmas lights symbolize in western cultures? Santa Claus? Do these symbols mean the same to us all? Could they loose their meanings?
Discussion Describe examples of everyday consumption rituals(at least one example of each type)
What is the relevance of knowing and analyzing suchritualistic behaviour?
Discuss important cultural trends such asenvironmental concern, globalization, and postmodernity in a European context how are these important to understanding consumer behaviour?
Exam Goals Explain and apply the key terms, definitions, concepts and models used in the study of consumer behaviour. Differentiate between behavioural, cognitive and interpretive approaches to understanding consumer behaviour and the implications that this choice has on our interpretation of consumers' behaviour Demonstrate how as a marketer you can use your knowledge of consumer behaviour concepts to develop better branding programs and strategies to influence those behaviours. Describe and analyse key trends in consumer behaviour, and apply them in relation to the branding of actual products or services. Reflect incisively and critically over the underlying causes of the consumers behaviour Apply the tools, concepts and models presented in this course to problems related to brand management, marketing communications and other forms of marketing exchange Synthesise and deduce new models that can be used to predict phenomena relevant to the study of consumer behaviour
Case exam Piresso Case1. Trends in consumption and use of music. 2. Consumer needs and motivation. 3. The most important cultural forces affecting musicconsumption at the moment.
4. Differences between different approaches toincreasing sales.
5. Marketing implications.