Old" Culture "New" Culture Emphasized Production Emphasized Consumption CharacterPersonality ScarcityAbundance ReligionScience Idealized the Past Looked.
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United Statesin the1920sOld" Culture "New" CultureEmphasized ProductionEmphasized ConsumptionCharacterPersonalityScarcityAbundanceReligionScienceIdealized the PastLooked to the FutureLocal CultureMass CultureSubstanceImage
Decade notable for obsessive interest in celebritiesSex becomes an all-consuming topic of interest in popular entertainmentEat, drink & be merry, for tomorrow we dieReturn to normalcyUS turned inward---isolationismJazz Agefirst modern era in the U.S.
THE ROARING TWENTIES
3The Second Industrial RevolutionU.S. develops the highest standard of living in the world The twenties and the second revolutionelectricity replaces steam Henry Fords modern assembly line introduced Rise of the airline industryModern appliances and conveniences begin to change American society
4The Automobile IndustryAuto makers stimulate sales through model changes, advertising Auto industry fostered the growth of other businessesAutos encourage movement and more individual freedom.
Glenwood Stove and Washing Machine
Rural Americans identify urban culture with Communism, crime, immoralitySex becomes an all-consuming topic of interest in popular entertainmentCommunities of home, church, and school are absent in the citiesConflict: Traditional values vs new ideas found in the cities.
Red Scare, 1919 to 1921, was a time of great upheavalU.S. scared out of their wits". "Reds as they were called, "Anarchists or "Outside Foreign-Born Radical Agitators (Communists). Anti-red hysteria came about after WWI and the Russian Revolution. 6,000 immigrants the government suspected of being Communists were arrested (Palmer Raids) and 600 were deported or expelled from the U.S. No due process was followed
Attorney General A. Mitchell PalmerRed Scareat this time, W. Wilson was gravely ill following a strokehis Attorney General, A. Mitchell Palmer, wanted to take a shot at the presidency - he used fears of both immigrants and communism to his advantagehe had J. Edgar Hoover round up suspected radicals, many of which were deported (Palmer Raids)
The U.S. Government began to restrict certain undesirable immigrants from entering the U.S.Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act of 1921 and Immigration Act of 1924 Kept out immigrants from southeastern Europe.
The U.S. Government began to restrict certain undesirable immigrants from entering the U.S.
Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act of 1921, in which newcomers from Europe were restricted at any year to a quota, which was set at 3% of the people of their nationality who lived in the U.S. in 1910.
Immigration Act of 1924, the quota down to 2% and the origins base was shifted to that of 1890, when few southeastern Europeans lived in America.
Cartoon from 1919: Put them out and keep them outNicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass. Sacco and Vanzetti
The trial lasted 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities. In this time period, anti-foreignism was high as well.Liberals and radicals rallied around the two men, but they would be executed.
Rise of the KKK was due to the ever changing of a traditional America.(Natvism) 1925: Membership of 5 million1926: Marched on Washington.Attack on urban culture and defends Christian/Protestant and rural valuesAgainst immigrants from Southern Europe, European Jews, Catholics and American BlacksSought to win U.S. by persuasion and gaining control in local/state government.Violence, internal corruption result in Klans virtual disappearance by 1930 but will reappear in the 1950s and 1960s.
K K K
Klan saw biggest support in Ohio, Texas and Indiana. By 1925 over 2 million paying members
Goal: was to reduce crime and poverty and improve the quality of life by making it impossible for people to get their hands on alcohol. This "Noble Experiment" was a failure. Midnight, January 16th, 1920, US went dry. The 18th Amendment, known as the Volstead Act, prohibited the manufacture, sale and possession of alcohol in America. Prohibition lasted for thirteen years. So was born the industry of bootlegging, speakeasies and Bathtub Gin. PROHIBITION
men open cases of liquor from the Blue Valley Distillery Company
Anti-Saloon League Flyer, How Drink Leads to Immorality
People drank more than ever during Prohibition, and there were more deaths related to alcohol. No other law in America has been violated so flagrantly by so many "decent law-abiding" people. Overnight, many became criminals. Mobsters controlled liquor created a booming black market economy. Gangsters owned speakeasies and by 1925 there were over 100,000 speakeasies in New York City alone.
PROHIBITIONDetroit police inspecting equipment found in a hidden underground brewery during the prohibition era. Agent with the U.S. Treasury Department's Prohibition Bureau during a time when bootlegging was rampant throughout the nation. Chicago gangster during Prohibition who controlled the bootlegging industry.Al CaponeElliot Ness, part of the Untouchables
PROHIBITIONThe "Noble" Experiement
Prohibition is an awful flop.We like it.It can't stop what it's meant to stop.We like it.It's left a trail of graft and slime,It's filled our land with vice and crime,It can't prohibit worth a dime,Nevertheless we're for it.Franklin Pierce Adams, New York World
It is impossible to stop liquor trickling through a dotted lineA Prohibition agent
PROHIBITIONThe "Noble" ExperiementEdwin T. Hunt"My dad thought that prohibition was an immoral law. So he had no compunction about breaking that law. And dads particular job was the bagman for the police department. He decided that patrolmen would get so much and no more per week; sergeants would get so much; lieutenants, captains and so on. So he was the paymaster for the Olmstead Gang."
PROHIBITION - on manuf. and sale of alcoholadopted in 1919 - 18th AMENDMENTan outgrowth of the long-time temperance movementin WWI, temperance became a patriotic mvmt. - drunkenness caused low productivity & inefficiency, and alcohol needed to treat the wounded a difficult law to enforce... organized crime, speakeasies, bootleggers were on the riseAl Capone virtually controlled Chicago in this period - capitalism at its zenithProhibition finally ended in 1933 w/ the 21st Amendmentforced organized crime to pursue other interests
Flappers sought individual freedom Ongoing crusade for equal rightsMost women remain in the cult of domesticity sphereDiscovery of adolescenceTeenaged children no longer needed to work and indulged their craving for excitementTHE FLAPPER
The Playful flapper here we see,The fairest of the fair.She's not what Grandma used to be,You might say, au contraire.Her girlish ways may make a stir,Her manners cause a scene,But there is no more harm in herThan in a submarine.She nightly knocks for many a goalThe usual dancing men.Her speed is great, but her controlIs something else again.All spotlights focus on her pranks.All tongues her prowess herald.For which she well may render thanksTo God and Scott Fitzgerald.Her golden rule is plain enough -Just get them young and treat themrough.by Dorothy Parker
The first conflict between religion vs. science being taught in school was in 1925 in Dayton, Tennessee.
SCOPES MONKEY TRIAL
SCOPES MONKEY TRIALJohn T. ScopesRespected high school biology teacher arrested in Dayton, Tennessee for teaching Darwins Theory of Evolution.
Clarence DarrowFamous trial lawyer who represented Scopes
William J. BryanSec. of State for President Wilson, ran for president three times, turned evangelical leader. Represented theprosecution.
Dayton, TennesseeSmall town in the south became protective against the encroachment of modern times and secular teachings.
SCOPES MONKEY TRIALThe trial is conducted in a carnival-like atmosphere. The people of Dayton are seen as backward by the country.
The right to teach and protect Biblical teachings in schools.
The acceptance of science and that all species have evolved from lower forms of beings over billions of years.
Westinghouse Radio Station KDKA was a world pioneer of commercial radio broadcasting.Transmitted 100 watts on a wavelength of 360 meters.KDKA first broadcast was the Harding-Cox Presidential election returns on November 2, 1920. RADIO220 stations eighteen months after KDKA took the plunge. $50 to $150 for first radios3,000,000 homes had them by 1922.
Radio sets, parts and accessories brought in $60 million in 1922 $136 million in 1923 $852 million in 1929 Radio reached into every third home in its first decade.
RADIOListening audience was 50,000,000 by 1925
CelebritiesBabe Ruth &Ty CobbJack DempseyCharles Lindbergh The Spirit of St. Louis
48The 1920 Election
The 1920 Election
Wilsons idealism and Treaty of Versailles led many Americans to vote for the Republican, Warren HardingUS turned inward and feared anything that was European
The Ohio Gang: President Warren Harding (front row, third from right), Vice-President Calvin Coolidge (front row, second from right), and members of the cabinet.The 1920 ElectionHarding and CoolidgeRepublican presidents appeal to traditional American valuesHarding dies in office after 2 years.Scandals break after his deathTeapot Dome ScandalCalvin Coolidge becomes President after Hardings death in 1923.
Secretary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall leased naval reserve oil land in Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California, to oilmen Harry F. Sinclair and Edward L. DohenyFall had received a bribe of $100,000 from Doheny and about three times that amount from Sinclair.Fall found guilty of taking a bribe.
52++=$REPUBLICAN FISCAL PROGRAMREPUBLICAN ECONOMY SUPPORTED LAISSEZ FAIRE AND BIG BUSINESS. Lower Taxes Less Federal Higher Strong Spending Tariffs National EconomyFordney-McCumber Tariff---1923Hawley-Smoot Tariff ---1930 raised the tariff to an unbelievable 60%!!!
Art, Music and Literature during the 1920sLiterature during the 1920sLiterature- The Lost Generation term by Stein discussing AM and European Artists disenchanted by WWI, only applied to survivors of the war who had been unable or unwilling to settle back into the routines of peacetime lifeHarlem Renaissance- literature directed toward the plight and problems of African-Americans
"That's not it at all, that's not what I meant at all"--from "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock," by T.S. EliotWriters after World War IThe era following World War I, social upheaval and economic and political devastation, gave rise to modernism. Because modernism was an international movement, it was seen by some to conflict with American literary traditions. Women writers also contributed in vital ways to the difference of the literature during the interwar period.
F. Scott Fitzgerald The Great Gatsby, Tender is the NightErnest Hemingway The Old Man and the Sea, The Sun Also RisesGertrude Stein tutored Lost Generation, coined the term, lived in Paris as an ex-pat., cubism paintings, The Making of Americans 27, Rue de FleurusT.S. Elliot Wrote The Wasteland, Love Song of J.Alfred PrufrockAmy Lowell, poet, Imagism, wrote free verse and were devoted to "clarity of expression through the use of precise visual images., Patterns concept of New Woman- independent of a man, in her case inherited wealthEzra Pound , Imagist, wrote In a Station of the MetroEdna St. Vincent Millay, lyric poet William Faulkner Southern Author, As I Lay DyingEudora Welty, , topics about rural south, Delta South
F. Scott Fitzgerald William Faulkner Ernest Hemingway Gertrude Stein
T.S. Elliot Amy Lowell Edna St. Vincent Millay Ezra Pound
Common Themesthe journey of the human soul searching for redemption. T.S. Elliot, Wasteland
Tin Pan AlleyAmerican popular music comprised the commercial music of songwritersBalladsDance musicVaudevilleFamous PerformersScott JoplinIra GershwinIrving Berlin
Irving BerlinIra GershwinScott Joplin Maple Leaf RagHarlem Renaissance AuthorsLangston Hughes, , various poems, poet, The Negro Speaks of Rivers
Zora Neale Hurston Their Eyes Were Watching GodCountee Cullen, poet The Black Christ and Other Poems
Left Zora N. Hurston, Right Countee CullenBottom Langston Hughes
JazzJazz music influenced all aspects of society. Jazz poetry, fashion, and industry were effected by the "basement" music.Jazz music also exacerbated the racial tensions in the post war periodNew Orleans- BirthplaceChicago- moved as part of Great MigrationNew York part of Harlem Renaissance
HARLEM RENAISSANCEBeginning of the Jazz Age in New York CityAcceptance of African American culture African American literature and music
Jazz as a part of the womens movement?????
Lift Every Voice and Sing
Written by James Weldon JohnsonFrom Jacksonville, FLFormer Principal of Stanton SchoolThis song is considered the Black National Anthem
Art of the Harlem Renaissance PeriodW. E. B. Du Bois all Art is propagandaArt of the Harlem RenaissanceAaron DouglasInto BondageAfrican sculptures, jazz music, dance and geometric forms
Ellis WilsonSummer MagicEveryday scenesdepicted a young woman leaning against a tree, possibly resting from farm work and day dreaming, while horses graze in the background.
James Van Der Zee- PhotographyPhotos of Marcus GarveyCountee CullenFamous A-A Events