capsicum ( capsicum annuum l. )

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CAPSICUM (Capsicum annuum)

CAPSICUM(Capsicum annuum L.)

INTRODUCTIONBelongs to family SolanaceaeOriginate from South and Central AmericaPopular countries- China, Turkey, Nigeria, Mexico, Spain, U.S.A.Fruitscan widely vary in color, shape, and size both between and within speciesTherefore classification is difficult

Mainly consists of 5 domesticated species and 26 wild species5 domesticated species ;C. annuumC. baccatumC. chineseC. frutescensC. pubescens

C. baccatum

C. chinese

C. frutescens

C. pubescens

Capsicum annuum

The species includes a wide variety of shapes and sizes of peppers ranging frombell peppertochili pepper

Some varieties;bell pepperCascabelAnaheimAlma paprikaBirds eyeItalian sweet pepper

CherryFresnoHungarian waxPablanoPiquinPepperoncicni

Plant Characteristics- HYW & C.A-8Herbaceous perennialSpecies:annuum longum groupLeaves: ovate, smooth, medium green in color, alternate arrangementWhite colour self pollinated flower

Recommended varieties in SrilankaHungarian Yellow Wax (HYW)C.A. - 8

Hungarian Yellow Wax (HYW)Yellowish green in colourSmooth and shiny surfaceConical shape fruitsThin walled & thick fleshFruit length : 15-20cmPungency varies from warm to moderately hotRecommended for up countryNot suitable for low and intermediate zones due to high susceptibility to bacterial wilt

C.A. - 8

Commonly referred as banana pepperLight green in colourRed or orange after ripeningUneven surface with shiny appearanceCurved tipFruit length : 15-20cmMild, tangy tasteRecommended for both up & low country

Environmental RequirementsClimatic Requirements can cultivate throughout the year upto an elevation of 1500msupplementary irrigation is required during the yala season.Soilwell-drained, loamy soilsoptimum pH range - 5.5 - 6.8water logging conditions leads to retarded growth

Nursery ManagementSelect an area; without shade and well drained soil Prepare nursery beds, 300x90x15cm in sizeApply compost 3-4kg into 1m of the bed and mix wellSolarization should be done by burning paddy husk and bran on the bed

Then cover up the bed with a transparent polythene sheet for 2 weeksFungicides (Captan/Thiram) can also be addedSeeds saw in rows in 1cm depth, leaving 10-15cm space between each for easy management practicesCover the seeds slightly with soilApply mulch material to cover up the bedMulches should remove after 5-6 days

Seeds take 8-10 days to propagateShade should be provided to protect immature plants from heavy rainfall and sunlightPlants should harden before establishing in the field by increasing the irrigation interval about 10 daysKeep the plants about 1 months in the nursery

Field EstablishmentLand preparation Plough up to 10-15cm& harrow the land Make beds with 1m wide and convenient length

Planting seasonAny seasonYala : April - MayMaha : November - December

SpacingH.Y.W- 15cm X 30cm C.A 8 - 40cm X 40cm

TransplantingAfter 21 days of germination

Crop ManagementIrrigationEarly stage - 4-5 days intervalMiddle stage - once a weekIrrigation requirement depends on the rain fall intensityIrrigation before and after fertilizer application is essentialWater stress leads to the falling off of flowers and pods, therefore moisture conservation of soil is essential

Fertilizer ApplicationTIMEUREAKg/haMOPKg/haTSPKg/ha

Basal Dressing10021565After 4 weeks100-65After 8 weeks100-65

WeedingManual weeding after 2,4 & 8 weeks of transplantingEarthning up while weeding ensure the proper establishment in the fieldChemical weeding; After 2 days of transplanting, apply Alachlor 45%, 1.4-2.4kg/ha

Pest & Disease ManagementPests: ThripMitesAphidsWhite flyPod borer

Diseases:Collar rot Seedling rotAnthracnoseBacterial wiltLeaf spotNarrow leaf disorderLeaf curl

HarvestHarvest before maturity when its still yellow green in colourCan obtain yield after 75 days of planting

Hungarian Yellow Wax :3-4 times harvesting ; 10-15 mt/ha

C.A 8 :In wet zone;8-10 times of harvesting6-8 mt/haIn dry zone;8-12 times of harvesting10-15 mt/ha

HarvestingOn a sunny dayAvoid harvesting on rainy days or fruits with water on its surface

Post Harvest TechnologyTransport soon after harvesting, packed in plastic boxes or porous coveringAeration should be providedCan store In refrigerators

UsesSaladsBaked dishesStuffed dishesStewsSalsaDecorating agent in pizzaPicklesFor stuffingFlavouring agent

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