Breeds of Livestock

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Breeds of Livestock. Fall 2009. Breed. Animals of common origin having characteristics that distinguish them other groups within the same species. Most breeds were developed to fit a set of environmental constraints -climate, forage, supply, specific, production goals. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Breeds of Livestock

Breeds of LivestockFall 2009BreedAnimals of common origin having characteristics that distinguish them other groups within the same species.Most breeds were developed to fit a set of environmental constraints-climate, forage, supply, specific, production goalsUtility of BreedsCattle-British-Continental-Bos IndicusGeneral-Sire breed-Maternal breed-Dual Purpose breed

Ranking BreedsSire Breed: fast growing, muscular, late maturing, low milkingMaternal Breed: early maturing sexually, inherently fertile, moderate to heavy milking, small to moderate sizeDual Purpose breedWhy use Crossbreeding?Heterosis (hybrid vigor): ability of offspring to out perform the average of the parents breedComplimentary of traits: take advantage of parents desirable traitsBritish BreedsAngus (Scotland)Black, naturally polled, moderate sizeExcellent marbling, early compositional maturityExcellent maternal breed, easy fleshing, good milk productionEarly maturing sexuallyLargest number of annual registrations in the USARecessive gene: Red AngusAngus

Red Angus

Hereford (England)Red with white face, also white on underline, switch, etc.Moderate size, adaptable to many environments, good dispositionPoorest marbling of the British breedsU.S. registry Assn. of Hereford and Polled Hereford; merged in 19952nd Largest in annual registrations in the U.S.Hereford

Bos Indicus BreedsBrahman (India)American Brahman is a cross of three Indian breedsBoth red and gray strains of Brahmans exist, both have black pigmentation, hornedNoted for heat tolerance, disease and insect resistance, and crossing abilityPoor marbling ability, and slow sexual maturityBrahman composites: Brangus, Santa Gertrudis, Beefmaster, Braford, Simbrah, etc.Brahman

Brangus (United States)5/8 Angus and 3/8 Brahman, black and naturally polledExcellent mothering ability, early sexual maturing, heat tolerance and forage ability result from crossbreedingMost widespread composite breed in the U.S.

Brangus

Santa Gertrudis (United States)5/8 Shorthorn and 3/8 Brahman, dark red, both polled and hornedDeveloped on the King Ranch in Kingsville by founder Robert J. KlebergBreed traces back to single sireNoted for maternal ability, productivity under hot, adverse conditions

Santa Gertrudis

Beefmaster (United States)Developed by Tom Lasater in the 1930s in Texas50% Brahman, 25% Shorthorn, 25% Hereford, composite breedNo set color patternDeveloped on the 6 essentials: weight, conformation, fertility, hardiness, disposition, and milking abilityNoted for longevity, hardiness, rapid growth, and maternal abilityBeefmaster

Continental or European (Exotic) BreedsCharolais (France)White/Off White, cream colorationExtremely fast growing, muscular breedLarge framed with relatively heavy birth weights and large mature sizeProduce lean, muscular carcassesBelow average maternally, problems with dystociaCharolais

Chianina (Italy)White coat with black skin pigmentationOne of the worlds oldest breedsExtremely large framed, late maturing that is fast growingTremendous impact on the show steer industryProduce lean, muscular carcasses, marbling in suspect, out of the boxNot considered a maternal breedChianina

Limousin (France)Reddish gold in colorModerate sizeBelow average maternally, lack in milk productionProduce extremely lean, muscular carcassesFastest growing breed in the country (% increase in registrations)3rd in annual U.S. registrationsLimousin

Texas Longhorn (Texas, were of Spain Origin)Long, distinctive hornsLived as feral cattle for approx. 300 years from 1550-1850, then we began to drive cattle north for slaughter (ex. Lonesome DoveIn the 1800s, began to improve Longhorns with British bulls, by the early 1900s the Longhorn was diluted nearly to extinction1927: Dept. of Interior paid $3000 to buy a purebred Longhorns to be maintained in Oklahoma. Maintained as a hobby breedLight muscled breed, low birth weight, excellent hardiness and known for longevity and ability to utilize forageTexas Longhorn

Dairy CattleHolstein-Friesian (Netherlands)Dominant breed of dairy cattle (over 90% of all commercial dairy cattle)Black and white color pattern (red and white do exist), large frame, easy going natureUnparalleled milk production ability (20,121 lbs. of milk average in 305 days)Lowest percentage in butterfat. Butterfat: solids that are used for cheese, butter, and non-fat dry milkHolstein

Jersey (Isle of Jersey)Small, refined animal as surpassed femininity (big brown eyes)Light tan to dark brown shades.Highest percentage of butterfatMany herd in Texas (Bluebell)Very heat tolerant than other dairy breeds, thus popular in the southVery fertile and early maturing sexually

Jersey

Swine BreedsChester White (USA)White hair with drooping earsNoted for large ears, excellent mothering ability

Landrace (Denmark)White in color with huge drooping earsMost prolific swine breed that is longer than other breeds because of an extra vertebraeMore confinement adaptable than many other breedsLandrace

Yorkshire (England)Mother breed, white erect ears, large and whiteNoted for large litters, relatively lean carcasses and good feed conversionYorkshire

Duroc (USA)Reddish brown (range from light red to dark red) with drooping earsExcellent growth rate and feed efficiency, generally considered a sire breedTends to be fatter than Hampshire sired pigsDuroc

Hampshire (USA)Black with a white belt around shoulders, erect earsKnown for lean, muscular carcasses, primarily a sire breed

Pietrain (Belgium)Black and white spotted with erect earsExtreme muscularity and leannessNormally stress positiveTerminal sire breed

Sheep BreedsSheep BreedingDual Purpose-Dorset-Columbia-CorriedaleImportant traits: Meat/WoolSire/Dam breedsFine Wool SpeciesMerino (Spain)Most dominant breed in the world wide sheep industryVery fine fleecesMerinos are typically smaller than other wool breeds and slower growingVery hardy, long lived sheep with excellent flocking instinctWhite face breedMerino

Rambouillet (France)Descended from the Spain Merino, but larger and faster growingLouis XVI purchased 366 Spanish Merinos from the King of Spain and developed the Rambouillet at the Kings estate in Rambouillet, FranceDominant range ewe in Western U.S and TexasWhite faced breed that is not extremely prolific under range conditionsRambouillet

Crossbred Wool BreedsColumbia (USA)Developed at the U.S. Sheep Experiment Station in Dubios, IdahoCrossbred of Lincoln rams and Rambouillet ewesLargest of the crossbred breedsCoarser wool than rambouilletEwes are relatively prolific and productive (10-16#s of wool/year)Lambs are faster growing than Rambouillets & MerinosWhite faced, polledColumbia

Medium WoolMeat BreedsDorset (England)Horned and polled strainsKnown for ability to breed out of season, very prolific, and high milking ability

Hampshire (England)Sire breed noted for rapid growth and muscularityFace, legs, and ears are dark brown to black. Should possess a wool cap on their headHampshire and Suffolk are the two most popular sire breeds in the commercial sheep industryHampshire

Finnsheep (Finland)Most noted for their incredible prolificacy (mature ewes produce 3+ lambs)Noted for milk production, and easy lambingVery poor fleeces and slow growing/light muscledRequire intensive managementFinnsheep

Southdown (England)One of the oldest sheep breeds, imported into the U.S. in 1803Medium to small sized with light brown face and legsFarm flock breed used to produce meatLow maintenance breed with average prolificacy and milk productionSouthdown

Suffolk (England)Very old breed used as a sire breed in commercial productionFree of wool on the head and legs (black)Alert, active sheep that grow fast with lean carcassesEwes are prolific and heavy milking but produce very poor fleecesSuffolk

Goat BreedsAngora (Turkey)Produces mohair, a luxurious fiber that commands a higher price than woolSheared twice a yearOver 90% of the nations Angora goats reside in Texas, primarily in the Edwards PlateauFinest hair ( the worlds most valuable) is produced by the kid goats with the hair getting coarser as the goat gets olderAngora

South African Boer Goat (South Africa)Hardy, fast growing meat-type goatMedium size with prominent horns and broad drooping earsGood meat type confirmation with superior spring of rib, body length, and musclingBoer

Spanish Goat (Spain)Term Spanish goat is used in the U.S. to refer to goats of mixed breed originKept largely for meat productionVery prolific and hardy, utilize a great deal of browse, thus used to clear brush and clean up re-growth in cleared areasSpanish Goat

Nubian (Africa)Most popular registered dairy breed in the U.S.Noted for high butterfatLong drooping ears and Roman Nose

PoultryLeghorn (Mediterranean)Single comb, white leghorn is the most prolific egg laying breed

White Plymouth Rock (USA)Used as the female line in broiler productionLays brown eggs, are large, relatively fast growing chickens

White Cornish (England)Sire line in broiler productionLarge, fast growing chickens that are marginal egg producersBroad breasted, heavily muscledTougher meat and stronger connective tissue

Broad Breasted White Turkey (USA)Birds are so heavy and muscular they are no longer capable of natural reproduction, also have problems with leg structure

Breeds Quiz1. Which breed of cattle is ranked 3rd in the annual registration?2. Which breed of swine is more prolific because of an extra vertebrae?3. What two ovine breeds are fine wool species:4. Which breed of sheep is the most prolific breed?5. Which breed has the higher butterfat & which breed has the higher milk volume?Breeds Quiz6. What is the most popular breed o

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