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<ul><li><p>By -: Lovnish Thakur (IBT- 1ST Sem)Enrollment NO. ASU2014010100099Course code -: 111 (biodiversity &amp; bioprospecting)</p></li><li><p>Environmental ProblemsA. Aquatic Environment Issues Water pollution, Ocean Dead Zones.</p><p>B. Air Quality Issues Acid rain, Air Pollution, Nuclear Pollution </p><p>C. Climate Change Issues Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Depletion </p><p>D. Terrestrial Environment Issues Desertification, Deforestation, Soil pollution, Waste Disposal, Mining </p><p></p></li><li><p>Sources of pollution</p></li><li><p>Municipal WasteOpen DumpSanitary LandfillIncinerationOcean dumping</p></li><li><p>Sanitary LandfillSanitary Landfill</p><p>Layer of compacted trash covered with a layer of earth once a day and a thicker layer when the site is full</p><p>Require impermeable barriers to stop escape of leachates: can cause problem by overflow</p><p>Gases produced by decomposing garbage needs venting </p></li><li><p></p></li><li><p>IncinerationIncinerationis a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materialsproduces toxic gases like Cl, HCl, HCN, SO2</p><p></p></li><li><p>Ocean DumpingProblemContributes to ocean pollutionCan wash back on beaches, and can cause death of marine mammals Dredge spoils still dumped in oceans, can cause habitat destruction and export of fluvial pollutants</p><p>Ocean Dumping Ban Act, 1988: bans dumping of sewage sludge and industrial</p></li><li><p>Reducing WasteIncineration, compactingHog feed: requires heat treatmentComposting: requires separation of organics from glass and metalsRecycling and ReusingRecycle of glass containers.Plastic: marked by types for easy recyclingConverted into Fibers, trash bags, plastic lumber, fill for pillows, insulation etc.Junked cars.</p></li><li><p>Liquid WasteSewageHighly toxic Industrial Waste &amp; Used OilDeep well DisposalPumping in deep porous layer bounded by impermeable formations, well below water table.Restricted by geological considerations, can trigger</p></li><li><p>Municipal Sewage TreatmentPrimary treatment: -:removal of solids Secondary treatment: -:biologicalBacteria and fungi breaks down organicsChlorinated to kill germs can form chloroform which is carcinogenicTertiary treatment: Filtration and chemical treatment: expensiveSludge is a by-product and is rich in organics and nutrients</p><p></p></li><li><p>Nuclear PollutionNuclear pollution is pollution that is radioactive.Fallout can lead to radiation sickness and death. Nuclear fallout can destroy environmental features and animal</p></li><li><p>Radioactive Waste DisposalIsotopes with short half-lives are gone quickly, those with long half-lives will decay too littleLow level wastes: 90% of all radioactive wastesHigh level wastes e.g., spent nuclear fuel rods</p><p></p></li><li><p>High Level Waste DepositoryRocketing to sunUnder Antarctica Ice sheetSea bed disposal</p><p></p></li><li><p>Impact of pollution on biodiversityPollution (Oil spills, human agricultural waste, fertilization, pesticides, acid deposition, greenhouse gases etc) caused by human activities has a negative effect on biodiversity .Nuclear pollution cause mutation and cause various disease and disorder which further leads to extinction of species.Habitat loss is the greatest reason for biodiversity loss. Habitat loss is due to:Conversion of natural areas to farms, houses, etcFragmentation of ecosystems by human activities, housing, transportation, agriculture etc.</p></li><li><p>Coral Reefs and Pollution</p><p>25% of all marine species live in coral reefsAnd even more species use coral reefs as well, mostly as a nursery for juvenile stages.Coral Reefs can only survive in oceans with clear water and few nutrients at the ideal temperature and depth. Pollution mostly from fertilizers or sewage causes increase of nutrientsMore nutrients cause increase of algae growthThis decreases the oxygen and turbidity</p><p>(</p></li><li><p>Loss of BiodiversityLoss of biodiversity come from death of coral.Which reduces the number of fish nurseries and amount of food.Many larval organisms die and adults are few. Commercial ImportanceReduced numbers of commercially fished fish Loss of possibilities for research (</p></li><li><p>BioremediationBioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the natural environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. </p></li><li><p></p></li><li><p>Bioremediation</p><p>Bioremediation technology using microorganisms was reportedly invented by George M. Robinson. Cleanup of oil spills by the addition of nitrate and/or sulfate fertilizers to facilitate the decomposition of crude oil by indigenous or exogenous bacteria.</p><p>To attack specific soil contaminants, such as degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by bacteria.</p></li><li><p></p></li><li><p>Classification of bioremediation technology</p></li><li><p>Some example of bioremediation techniqueBioventing landfarming bioreactor composting bioaugmentation rhizofiltration biostimulation.</p></li><li><p>Some technique</p><p>Bioremediation via the addition of fertilizers to increase the bioavailability within the medium: biostimulation Addition of matched microbe strains to the medium to enhance the resident microbe population's ability to break down contaminants: bioaugmentation</p></li><li><p>Composting Soil Conditioner create rich humus Recycles kitchen and yard wasteIntroduces beneficial organisms in the soilGood for the environment as a natural alternative to chemical fertilizersReduces landfill waste </p><p></p></li><li><p>PHYTOREMEDIATIONHeavy metals like cadmium and lead are not readily absorbed or captured by organismsThe assimilation of metals like mercury into the food chain may worsen matters.</p><p>Phytoremediation is useful in these situations, because natural plants or transgenic plants are able to bioaccumulate these toxins in their above-ground parts, which are then harvested for</p></li><li><p></p></li><li><p>Advantagesthe cost of the phytoremediation is lower than that of traditional processes both in situ and ex situ</p><p>can be employed in areas that are inaccessible without excavation</p><p>the plants can be easily monitored</p><p>the possibility of the recovery and re-use of valuable metals (by companies specializing in phyto mining)</p><p>it is potentially the least harmful method because it uses naturally occurring organisms and preserves the environment in a more natural state</p></li><li><p>Everyday Solutions ConserveIncrease EfficiencyRecycle</p></li><li><p></p></li></ul>


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