Bioremediation using permeable reactive barrier and immobilization technology for MTBE and BTEX contaminated groundwater

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<ul><li><p>antioxidants, which may assist the reduction of metal ions tonanoparticles. It was found that the zeta potential of thus formedplatinum nanoparticles was negative. Transmission electron micro-</p><p>contaminated groundwater</p><p>Chi-Wen Lin</p><p>d Bscopy showed synthesis of nano-sized Pt particles aggregates rangingfrom 25 to 30 nm and X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed thereduction of Pt. Studies also revealed that the rate of reductionincreased with increase in incubation temperature. The presentmethod for platinum nanoparticle synthesis at moderate pH androom temperature offers a new means to develop environmentallybenign nanoparticles.</p><p>References</p><p>1.Konishi, Y., Ohno, K., Saitoh, N., Nomura, T., Nagamine, S., Hishida, H., Takahashi Y.,and Uruga, T.: Bioreductive deposition of platinum nanoparticles on the bacteriumShewanella algae. J. Biotechnol., 128, 648-653 (2007).</p><p>2. Shankar, S. S., Ahmad A., and Sastry, M.:Geranium leaf assisted biosynthesis of silvernanoparticles. Biotechnol. Prog., 19, 1627-1631 (2003).</p><p>doi:10.1016/j.jbiosc.2009.08.269</p><p>EN-P37</p><p>Mechanistic aspects of biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticles</p><p>Shi Yn Lee,1 Sneha Krishnamurthy,1 In Seob Kwak,1</p><p>and Yeoung-Sang Yun1,2</p><p>Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Chonbuk National University,Jeonju, Jeonbuk, Republic of Korea1 and Division of Semiconductorsand Chemical Engineering and Research Institute of IndustrialTechnology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, Republicof Korea2</p><p>Green chemistry procedures are mainly concerned with synthesisof nanoparticles of variable shape and size, controlled dispersity, andchemical compositions using plants, microorganisms and materialsfrom biological origin [1]. Present work aims toward understandingthe role of plant extract components of Ocimum sanctum (or HolyBasil) in reduction of trivalent gold form to its zero valent form. O.Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Chonbuk National University,Jeonju, Jeonbuk, Republic of Korea1 and Division of Semiconductor andChemical Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk,Republic of Korea2</p><p>Metals in nanoparticle form exhibit unique properties in contrastto the bulkmaterial that they aremade of. The field of nanotechnologyhas witnessed astonishing advances in methods of fabrication andutilization of their enticing properties. With the development of newphysical and chemical methods, the concern for production ofecologically safe and technically sound materials has led to theevolution of green methods for nanomaterial fabrication. Due to theantioxidant properties of platinum nanoparticles, it has been thesubject of substantial research with applications in a wide variety ofareas, including nanotechnology, medicine and the synthesis of novelmaterials with unique properties. In the present study, Cinnamomzeylanicum bark extract (CBE), Curcuma longa tuber extracts (CTE)and some selected plants were used in the synthesis of platinumnanoparticles. All plants used are known to be rich in polyols and</p><p>S92 Abstracts / Journal of Bioscience ansanctum is a traditional herb used in teas, healing remedies, andcosmetic extracts, since it is rich in antioxidant, flavanone, terpenoid,phenolic and polyol constituents. Most of herbs containing antiox-National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Yunlin, Taiwan</p><p>Permeable reactive barrier (PRB) is effective for remediatinggroundwater contaminated MTBE and BTEX. In this study, the firstlayer designed in PRB containing oxygen releasing compound had thefunction of supporting oxygen for bacterial activities. MTBE and BTEXdecomposition were investigated firstly by introducing Methylibiumpetroleiphilum PM1 and mixed culture containing the BTEX-degradingbacteria into the PRB system. Degradation of BTE (benzene, toluene,and ethylbenzene) was then studied by using PRB integrated withinnovative immobilization technique. Pseudomonas sp. YATO411degrading BTE was immobilized in the matrix of polyvinyl alcohol-sodium alginate.</p><p>Results revealed that bottle test in toluene-degrading had provedthe most suitable value of initial biomass concentration for immobi-lizing at 26.7 mg l1 and the highest rate of toluene removal was12.4 mg l1 h1. When exposing at high concentration of toluene,toluene removal by immobilized cells were more effective thansuspended cells. MTBE removal has only shown significant increasingto 42.4% when PM1 was introduced to PRB system. At condition ofBTEX shock loading, integration PRB with immobilization of YATO411had highly increased removal efficiency for B, T, and E to 99.4, 98.2,and 97.5% comparing to 49.2, 48.6, and 62.9%, respectively, in case ofnon-integration. However, BTEX shock loading had negative effect onreducing MTBE removal efficiency.idative potential showed their redox properties of phenolic com-pounds which accede them to act as reducing agents [2].To analyzethe compounds involved in metal ion reduction, the plant materialswere extracted with various organic solvents and the ability to formgold nanoparticles from extract fractions was screened. All fractionsshowed a color change, which is a peculiar property of goldnanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy showed the pre-sence of various nanoparticles and nanoplatelets, and X-ray diffractionanalysis confirmed crystalline gold nanoparticles. Solvent fractionswere then separated using thin-layer chromatography and analyzedwith GC-MS to find out the responsible chemical components of plantextract for formation of gold nanoparticles. Illustrating the chemicalconstituents involved in reduction may open a green and cleangateway for biomimetic fabrication of metal nanoparticles on anindustrial scale.</p><p>References</p><p>1. Vineet, K. and Sudesh, K. Y.: Plant-mediated synthesis of silver and goldnanoparticles and their application, J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 84, 151-157 (2009).</p><p>2. Hakkim, F. L., Shankar, C. G., and Girija, S.: Chemical composition and antioxidantproperty of holy basil (Ocimum sanctum L.) leaves, stems, and inflorescence and theirin vitro callus cultures, J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 9109-9117 (2007).</p><p>doi:10.1016/j.jbiosc.2009.08.270</p><p>EN-P38</p><p>Bioremediation using permeable reactive barrier andimmobilization technology for MTBE and BTEX</p><p>ioengineering 108 (2009) S75S95Keywords: Permeable reactive barrier, Immobilization, MTBE, BTEX,Pseudomonas sp. YATO411; Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1.</p></li><li><p>doi:10.1016/j.jbiosc.2009.08.271</p><p>doi:10.1016/j.jbiosc.2009.08.272</p><p>transporters encoded by ro02365 and ro06844 and ro04278-codingglucokinase, respectively, in RHA1. The effector substance, which led</p><p>d BEN-P40</p><p>Insight into the sugar transport and metabolism in Biphenyl/PCBdegrader, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1EN-P39</p><p>Recovery of zero-valent gold from cyanide solution by biosorptionfollowed by incineration</p><p>Kwak Inseob,2,3 Bae Min-A,1 and Yun Yeoung-Sang1,2</p><p>Division of Semiconductor and Chemical Engineering, Chonbuk NationalUniversity, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, Republic of Korea,1 Research Institute ofIndustrial Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk,Republic of Korea2 and Departemnt of Bioprocess Engineering, ChonbukNational University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, Republic of Korea3</p><p>Recovery of gold(I) ions from a cyanide solution was attemptedusing waste biomass of Corynebacterium glutamicum from a fermen-tation industry. To improve the sorption capacity of the biomass, thedecarboxylated biosorbent (DCB) was prepared by removing interfer-ing carboxyl groups from the biomass surface. The highest gold(I)uptake values were 30.38 mg g1 and 71.73 mg g1 for raw biomassand DCB, respectively. To get zero-valent gold, the gold(I)-loadedbiosorbent was incinerated. Thermal behavior of the biosorbent wasinvestigated through a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) undernitrogen and air atmospheres. The elemental analysis suggested thatdegradation was almost completed in the air atmosphere. The X-rayphotoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study revealed that the ashcontained gold, likely in the zero-valent form, with 46.72% (Rawbiomass) and 70.72% (DCB) of purity, respectively. Consequently, itwas noted that incineration of the gold(I)-loaded biosorbent results inoxidation of waste biomass volume to small quantity of gold-contain-ing ash and at the same time. Hence, incineration can be a practicalapproach for treatment of waste biomass sludge and an alternativemethod for recovery of precious metals.</p><p>References</p><p>1. Niu, H. and Volesky, B.: Characteristics of gold biosorption from cyanide solution, J.Chem. Technol. Biotechnol., 74, 778-784 (1999).</p><p>2. Vijayaraghavan, K. and Yun, Y.-S.:Utilization of fermentationwaste (Corynebacteriumglutamicum) for biosorption of Reactive Black 5 from aqueous solution, J. Hazard.Mater., 141, 45-52 (2007).Reference</p><p>1. Lin, C.W., Cheng, Y.W., and Tsai, S.L.:Multisubstrate biodegradation kinetics of MTBEand BTEX mixtures by pseudomonas aeruginosa, Process Biochem. 42, 1211-1217(2007).</p><p>Abstracts / Journal of Bioscience anNaoto Araki,1 Toru Suzuki,1 Keisuke Miyauchi,2 Daisuke Kasai,1</p><p>Eiji Masai,1 and Masao Fukuda1to glucose-mediated repression, is appeared to be formed after phos-phorylation by ro04278-coding glucokinase.</p><p>doi:10.1016/j.jbiosc.2009.08.273</p><p>EN-P41</p><p>Oil degradation in soil by a hydrocarbon assimilating yeast,Yarrowia lipolytica</p><p>Mayu Fukui,1 Shinji Shiomi,1 Naoki Tanuma,1 Tomohisa Katsuda,1</p><p>Naofumi Shiomi,2 and Hideki Yamaji1</p><p>Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan1 and Kobe College, Nishinomiya,Hyogo, Japan2</p><p>Recently, oil-contaminated soil has been found in many places,such as illegal dumping sites, abandoned gas-stations/factories,decrepit power plants, etc. The oil-contaminated soil in these placesis not only harmful to ecosystem but reduces the value of real-estatebecause of unpleasant smell and sight. In situ bioremediation is a costeffective method to return such land to its original condition andparticularly the use of exogenous microorganisms with high degrada-tion activity has beenwidely studied to apply in practice. In this study,we evaluated the degradation of a mineral oil, n-hexadecane, by asmall amount of hydrocarbon assimilating yeast in a model soilsystem.</p><p>Yarrowia lipolytica ATCC-46484 was used and grown at 30 C for18 h in YPD medium consisting of 1% yeast extract, 2% Bacto peptoneand 2% D-glucose. The cells were harvested and resuspended in YNBmedium consisting of 0.67% yeast nitrogen base without amino acidsNagaoka University of Technology, Department of Bioengineering,Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188, Japan1 and Tohoku Gakuin University,Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tagajo, Miyagi985-8537, Japan2</p><p>Biphenyl and PCB degradation system in Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 isinduced by biphenyl, and repressed in the presence of glucose orfructose at the transcriptional level. Previously we showed sucroseand maltose did not cause the repression, suggesting that thetransport of glucose and fructose is involved in the repression. Weidentified the gene encoding histidine-containing phosphocarrierprotein in phosphotransferase system (PTS), which is responsible forthe transport of fructose into a RHA1 cell but not for that of glucose. Inthis study, we examined the genes for glucose uptake and itsphosphorylation.</p><p>The results of homology search on RHA1 genome sequence withprotein sequences of known glucose transporters suggested twocandidate genes, ro02365 and ro06844, which show similarity tomajor facilitator superfamily (MFS) type transporter, and genedisruption indicated that both genes are involved in glucose uptake.Four candidates for glucokinase genes were found in the RHA1genome, and each disruption mutant of these genes was constructed.Only the mutant of the ro04278 gene exhibited a significant reductionin growth on glucose, and showed partial relief of only glucoserepression.</p><p>In conclusion, glucose is transported and phosphorylated by MFS</p><p>S93ioengineering 108 (2009) S75S95(Difco) at OD600 unit of 0.2. The model soil was prepared in 10 mLglass vessels. 5 g of silica sand was soakedwith n-hexadecane-ethanolsolution, and then the ethanol was evaporated by keeping the vessels</p><p>Outline placeholderMechanistic aspects of biogenic synthesis of gold nanoparticlesBioremediation using permeable reactive barrier and immobilization technology for MTBE and BTEX.....Recovery of zero-valent gold from cyanide solution by biosorption followed by incinerationInsight into the sugar transport and metabolism in Biphenyl/PCB degrader, Rhodococcus jostii RH.....Oil degradation in soil by a hydrocarbon assimilating yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica</p></li></ul>

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