Biomass Plants

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Biomass Plants. Resources. Potential Resources. Soil & Water Quality Improvement. Potential Resources. Health Benefits. Resources, Opportunities, and Constraints. TAREK ALSHAAL. Biofuels. First-generation biofuels: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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<ul><li><p>Biomass PlantsResources, Opportunities, and Constraints</p><p>ResourcesSoil &amp; Water Quality ImprovementHealth BenefitsPotential ResourcesPotential ResourcesTAREK ALSHAAL</p></li><li><p>BiofuelsFirst-generation biofuels: 'First-generation' or conventional biofuels are made from sugar, starch, or vegetable oil.</p><p>Second-generation (advanced) biofuels:</p><p>Second-generation biofuels are produced from sustainable feedstock. Many second-generation biofuels are under development such as Cellulosic ethanol, Algae fuel, biohydrogen and biomethanol</p></li><li><p>What is BIOMASS? Biomass is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms. In the context of biomass for energy this is often used to mean plant based material, but biomass can equally apply to both animal and vegetable derived material.</p></li><li><p>Categories of biomass materialsThere are five basic categories of material: Virgin wood, from forestry, arboricultural activities or from wood processing Energy crops: high yield crops grown specifically for energy applications; - Short rotation energy crops - Grasses and non-woody energy crops - Agricultural energy crops - Aquatics (hydroponics) Agricultural residues: residues from agriculture harvesting or processing Food waste, from food and drink manufacture, preparation and processing, and post-consumer waste Industrial waste and co-products from manufacturing and industrial processes.</p></li><li><p>Advantages of Agriculturally-based Biomass ResourcesEnergyutilization of sustainable resources sustainable energy balance</p><p>Environmentaldecreased CO2, SOx, and mercury emissionsimproved localized air qualityimproved water qualitypotential for carbon sequestration</p><p>Economicimprovement of foreign trade balance </p><p>Securitydecreased petroleum dependence</p></li><li><p>Environmental Advantages of Energy CropsRainfall and wind soil erosion reductionHerbaceous energy crops provide excellent continuous cover significantly reducing surface rainfall impact and wind forces</p><p>Surface runoff reductionHerbaceous energy crops have extensive root systems allowing for greater infiltration (decreased risk of flooding)</p><p>Nitrogen and agricultural chemical mitigationHerbaceous energy crops use less nitrogen, phosphorus, and agricultural chemicals than conventional commodity crops</p><p>Increased soil organic carbonExtensive root system of switchgrass allows for carbon sequestrationSwitchgrass for renewable energy purposes provides a psuedo closed-carbon loop significant reduction in the greenhouse gas CO2Restoration of marginal lands</p><p>Topsoil Completely Eroded from Rainfall ErosionMarginal Lands in Need of Restoration</p></li><li><p>Perennial Biomass PlantsMany factors that disqualify land for annual cropping may not apply to perennial crops!</p><p>Environmental Advantages of Perennial Biomass ProductionExposure to wind and water erosion occurs primarily during establishment of annual crops is minimized with perennials </p><p>Perennials can provide N fixation, decrease in rainfall erosion impact, and provide windbreaks </p><p>Perennial Biomasses could reduce NPS pollution while also providing a return to the landowner through alternative energy production (double-benefit)</p><p>Energetic Advantages of Perennial Biomass ProductionSince the living plant, instead of the processing plant, adds the energy benefit, the energy ratio (ER) will be higher</p><p>Castor (SW KS &amp; TX) Chinese Tallow TreeGiant reedMiscanthus</p></li><li><p>ConstraintsAgricultural Biomass Resource &amp; Production IssuesLand Resourcearable versus non-arable crops &amp; production competing uses and cost/benefit</p><p>Environmental Concerns production versus soil quality (soil erosion)water quality water resourcesoil tilth &amp; carbon cycle</p><p>Quantity of Sustainable Resource</p><p>Others?</p></li><li><p>Potential Renewable Energy and Environmental/Pollution Credit Markets for Agriculturally-based Biomass ResourcesRenewable Energy Credits and Environmental/Pollution Trading Markets</p><p>Sale of end-use energies derived from bioenergy</p><p>Air emission credits for CO2, SOx, NOx, mercury</p><p>Water quality/pollution trading (sediment, nutrient and chemical savings)</p><p>Example modeled cumulative, 24-year soil erosion (total tons) comparison between switchgrass and four conventional commodity crops on two major soil types in Pottawatomie county, Kansas.</p><p>Soil Type</p><p>Switchgrass</p><p>Corn</p><p>Soybeans</p><p>Wheat</p><p>Grain Sorghum</p><p>Pawnee</p><p>0.34</p><p>30.28</p><p>33.42</p><p>11.21</p><p>33.54</p><p>Clime</p><p>0.77</p><p>68.87</p><p>76.98</p><p>27.86</p><p>76.93</p></li><li><p>Nutrient status of soil before planting biomass crops and 20 months laterNguyen et al., 2000:Workshop-seminar "Making better use of local feed resources" SAREC-UAF, January , 2000</p></li><li><p>Switchgrass grown for bioenergy:Soil carbon storage in 5 years: 0-30 cm</p></li><li><p>PhytoremediationPhytoremediation is the use of plants, trees and herbaceous species to eliminate or degrade contaminants or reduce their bioavailability in both water and soil. Many chemical species that can be treated with phytoremediation techniques, which compriseheavy metalsorganic compounds such as pesticides, solvents, and other persistent pollutants (PCBs)</p></li><li><p>PHYTOEXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALSThe most common heavy metals are:Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Zn</p><p>Are often very toxic to living organisms over a certain concentration threshold</p></li><li>HYPERACCUMULATOR SPECIESRepresent </li><li><p>Alyssum serpyllifoliumBrassica junceaLiriodendron tulipiferaPteris vittataThlaspi caerulescensHYPERACCUMULATOR SPECIES &amp; PHYTOREMEDIATION PLANTSPteris vittata</p></li><li><p>* nd : Nt Determine Available concentrations of soil heavy metals after Arundo donax planting (mg/kg) Soil</p><p>Soils IDFe Fe Ni Ni BeforeNem Autok.Autok.BeforeNem Autok.Autok.DGS58,007,827,381,840,400,50DAS32,006,703,921,080,420,42KNS52,009,846,981,200,460,32KCS36,008,328,400,840,280,22KIS74,0014,149,900,500,320,26KNS+KISnd10,088,06nd0,380,30</p></li><li><p>Advantages of Phytoremediation Cost effective when compared to other more conventional methods. nature method, more aesthetically pleasing. minimal land disturbance. reduces potential for transport of contaminants by wind, reduces soil erosion hyperaccumulaters of contaminants mean a much smaller volume of toxic waste. multiple contaminants can be removed with the same plant.</p></li><li><p>Economic potential</p><p>Based on Kruger et al., 1997, non-bio-based remediation technology cost:</p><p>in situ: $10 to $100 / m3 ex situ: $30 to $300 / m3 </p><p>Specialized techniques such as in situ vitrification can easily surpass $1000/m3.</p></li><li><p>*********Raskin and Ensley, 2000</p></li><li><p>Raskin and Ensley, 2000</p></li><li><p>Ksznm megtisztel figyelmket!Thank you for your attention</p></li></ul>

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