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The Baroque Spirit 1600-1750 Baroque derived from Portuguese “barroco” – pearl of irregular shape Period of change and adventure Rise of the Middle Class – Wealth, Power Evolution of pomp and splendor of Art, elaborative decoration and grandeur Absolute Monarchy – Government Courts employed opera troupes, chapel choirs and orchestras Operas were a favorite

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The Baroque Spirit

The Baroque Spirit1600-1750Baroque derived from Portuguese barroco pearl of irregular shapePeriod of change and adventureRise of the Middle Class Wealth, PowerEvolution of pomp and splendor of Art, elaborative decoration and grandeurAbsolute Monarchy GovernmentCourts employed opera troupes, chapel choirs and orchestrasOperas were a favorite

The Baroque SpiritMiddle Class music at home, the church and at the university.Rise of the Collegium MusicumReligion profound interest among people. Protestants and Catholics dominated.MonodyMonody: new style featuring solo song with instrumental accompanimentMonody was promoted by the Florentine Camerata:Group of writers and musicians who sought to resurrect musical-dramatic art of ancient GreeceStile Rappresentivo Representative Style job is to heighten the meaning of the textMusic written in this way consisted of melody that moved freely over a foundation of chordsMonody focused on text and its emotional power

New Harmonic StructuresBasic harmonies were understood and not fully notatedFigured bass: shorthand notation for harmonyChords created throughimprovisationBasso continuo: bass part, performed by 2 instrumentsChordal instrument (lute, keyboard, etc.) and bass instrumentMajor-minor tonality system is establishedEqual temperament: a tuning system that allows instruments to play in all keys is developedJ. S. Bach'sThe Well-Tempered Clavier(2 vols.), each containing 24 preludes and fugues, demonstrates the 12 major and minor keys Bass Example

ElementsRenaissance BaroqueHarmony * Triadic, based on Medieval * Triadic, based on major/minor tonalitymodes * Consonance prominent * Dissonance a fundamental part of chordsSound * Equal voices * Basso continuo accompaniment * Like instruments (consorts) * Wide variety of instrumental colors * Voices or instruments alone * Free mix of voices and instruments * Instrumentation up to perf. * Instrumentation defined by composer * Single dynamic level * Dynamic contrasts (terraced)ElementsRenaissance BaroqueMelody * Simple melodies * Ornate melodies * Mostly stepwise* Dramatic leaps commonRhythm * Consistent rhythms * Wider variety of rhythms * Slow underlying pulse* Faster, more regular pulse * Consistent tempos* Varied tempos between movements * Often based on text* Often based on dance rhythmsElementsRenaissance BaroqueTexture * Imitative or homophonic * Polyphonic/HomophonicForm * Based on text * New abstract forms or dance forms (Binary and Ternary) based on repetitionThe Rise of the Virtuoso MusicianInstrument builders improved and refined instrumentsComposers challenged the performers with music that was demandingDomenico ScarlattiAntonio VivaldiRise of virtuosity was both instrumental and vocalCastrato:a male singer who was castrated in boyhood to retain soprano or alto vocal rangeCountertenororfalsettist:"natural" high male voicePerformers improvised beyond what was written in the music score

Baroque OperaThe most important new genre of the Baroque era was opera, a large-scale music drama that combines poetry, acting, scenery, and costumes with singing and instrumental music.The principal components of opera include the orchestral overture, solo arias (lyrical songs) and recitatives (speechlike declamations of the text), and ensemble numbers, including choruses. The librettist writes the text of the opera.Baroque Opera ComposersThe early Baroque master Claudio Monteverdi wrote the operas Orfeo, based on mythology, and The Coronation of Poppea, based on Roman history. Monteverdi helped establish the love duet as a central component of opera.The English composer Henry Purcell wrote Dido and Aeneas, based on The Aeneid, a Roman epic by Virgil.George Frideric Handel is known for his opera seria (serious Italian opera), dramatic works that treat heroic or tragic subjects.

Monteverdi Opera FeaturesStile concitato (agitated style) expressed hidden tremors of the soultremolo, pizzicato The text should be the master of the musicnot the servantUse of dissonance and instrumental color to create drama, expressiveness, atmosphere and suspenseCombined with polyphonic writing, Monteverdi melded these elements into an expressive art form rooted in human emotions. Coronation of Poppea 1664 Late work from Venetian PeriodOut of the palace to the opera houseCast emperors to common folk (appeal) to the masses)Imitative declamatory duetSinfonia Instrumental piece (transition)A B B A FormGround Bass four note repeated bass lineExtensive use of Word PaintingMelissmas on Pur tannodo (I enchain you)Dissonances on peno (grieving), moro (sorrow)

Dido and Aeneas Henry PurcellPurcell - 1659-1695Tragedy - a dramatic composition, often in verse, dealing with a serious or somber theme, typically that of a great person destined through a flaw of character or conflict with some overpowering force, as fate or society, to downfall or destruction.Lament A Tragic opera aria placed before the climax of the plot Orchestra - first violins, second violins, violas and cellos) and a harpsichordKey Structure - Purcell used major keys to evoke happiness and minor keys to evoke sadness.Extensive use of dance, word painting, ground bass and dissonance.The AeneidThe text, and the Purcell opera are alluding to the Roman legend of theAeneid, the story of a Trojan Warrior Aeneas, seeking Italy in order to settle there and secure his son's lineage. Aeneas is blown off course from Sicily, and lands on the shores of Northern Africa, in Carthage, a recently settled city of former Tyrians. Their queen is Dido, with whom Aeneas has a love affair, before departing for Italy and leaving Dido alone. She becomes so distraught that she orders for a large pyre to be placed, on which she plans to impale herself, and be set ablaze so that Aeneas will see from his ship. Thy Hand Belinda & Didos Lament Purcell - AnalysisThe openingrecitativesecco, "Thy hand, Belinda", is accompanied bycontinuoonly. Word paintingis applied on the text "darkness" and "death" which is presented withchromaticism, symbolic of death."Dido's Lament" opens with a descending chromatic line, the ground bass, which is repeated eleven times throughout the aria. Themeteris3/2in thekeyofG minor. Henry Purcell has applied word painting on the words "laid", which is also given a descending chromatic line portraying death and agony, and "Remember me", which is presented in a syllabic text setting and repeated with its last presentation leaping inregisterwith a suddencrescendodisplaying her desperate cry with urgency as she prepares for her fate: death. In one interpretation Dido's relationship with Aeneas is portrayed in this moment as an "apocalyptic romance.Text Thy Hand Belinda & Didos LamentRecitativeThy hand, Belinda, darkness shades me, On thy bosom let me rest, More I would, but Death invades me; Death is now a welcome guest.AriaWhen I am laid, am laid in earth, May my wrongs create. No trouble, no trouble in thy breast; Remember me, remember me, but ah! forget my fate. Remember me, but ah! forget my fate.

George Frederic Handel16851750

Born in GermanyStudied and composed in ItalySuccess brought him to London Royal Academy of MusicProlific composer of Italianopera seriaJulius CaesarAfteropera seriafell out of vogue, composed oratoriosIsrael in Egypt, Messiah, Judas Maccabaeus, Jephtha

Handel's MusicTended toward diatonic harmoniesTone color used for atmosphere and expressionWrote more than 40 operasExpanded the role of the chorusProlific composer of instrumental musicOrchestral suitesWater MusicMusic for the Royal Fireworks

Messiah - BackgroundMessiah SaviourSon of God (Christian, Islam)Christians believe the Messiah prophecies were fulfilled in the mission, death, and resurrection of Jesus and that Jesus willreturn to fulfill the rest of Messiah prophecy.Messiah - OratorioTheoratoriois a large-scale dramatic genre with a religious or biblical text performed by solo voices, chorus, and orchestra; it is not staged or costumed.George Frederic Handel was known for his Italian operas and, later in life, his English-texted oratorios (includingMessiah).Messiahis an oratorio in three parts: it opens with aFrench overtureand features recitatives (secco(syllabic)andaccompagnato (melissmatic), lyrical arias, and majestic choruses, including the famous "Hallelujah Chorus."The text forMessiahis drawn from a compilation of Old and New Testament verses.

Handel:MessiahPremiered in Dublin in 1742Libretto: compilation of Old and New TestamentSmall orchestra size 9violins, 3 violas, 4 celli, 3 dbass, 2 trumpets, 2 oboes, timpani, basso continuo (harpsichord, organ, cello, db, bassoon)In three parts:I: ChristmasOverture in two sections (based onFrench overture slow then fast):A: slow introduction, tempo isgrave(slow, solemn, with dotted rhythms)B: Allegro in imitative style, returns tograveRecitative: bothseccoandaccompagnatoChorus selections contrasts homophony and counterpointSoprano aria "Rejoice greatly" (da capo aria to the top)II: Easter"Hallelujah Chorus" remains a popular pieceBuilt on contrasting textures: homophony/imitationIII: Redemption of the world through faith

Messiah Factstext compiled by Charles Jessenfrom theKing James Biblestructure resembles that of conventional opera, it is not in dramatic form; there are no impersonations of characters and very little direct speech.a commentary on Jesus Christs Nativity, Passion, Resurrection and Ascension", beginning with God's promises as spoken by the prophets and ending with Christ's glorification in heaventhe singers inMessiahdo not assume dramatic rolesMessiah StoryPart I, the Messiah's coming and the Virgin Maryare predicted by theOld Testament prophets.Part II coversChrists Passion and his death, hisResurrection andAscension, the first spreading of the Gospelthrough the world, and a definitive statement of God's glory summarized in the "HallelujahPart III begins with the promise of Redemption, followed by a prediction of the Day of Judgment and the "general Resurrection", ending with the final victory over sin and death and the acclamation of ChrisSacred CantataIntegral part of the Lutheran Church ServiceBach composed 60 cantatas representing each Sunday plus holidays and special occasions 5 or 6 cycles leading to over 200 such worksCantata featured Recitatives, Aria, Duet and ChorusOne or more solo vocalists Instrumental accompanimentSacred themeUnified by a chorale

The Lutheran Chorale Chorale: hymn tune associated with German ProtestantismBattle hymns of the ReformationMartin Luther inaugurated church services in German rather than in LatinEarly hymns were sung in unisonLater hymns were written in 4-part harmony, with melody in the sopranoChorales are a unifying thread of the Protestant cantatas

Martin Luther - ChoraleI wish to make German psalms for the people, that is to say sacred hymns, so that the word of God may dwell among the people also by means of song.German monk, priest, professor of theology and important figure of the Protestant ReformationHis translation of the Bible into the vernacular (instead of Latin) made it more accessible, causing a tremendous impact on the church and on German cultureLuther was a prolific hymn-writer, authoring hymns such as Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott (A Mighty Fortress Is Our God)

Johann Sebastian Bach (16851750) German composer, organist, educator, culminating figure of the Baroque Style and of Music in GeneralCareer in Northern Germany, Organist and composerTwo separate marriages, fathered 20 children in allMusical family, devout LutheranSecular and church positions during careerDuties Supervise music for four main Leipzig churchesSelect and train choristersCompose music for church servicesDirect collegium musicum (university group)Improvising Skills Exceptional (Legendary)

The Rise of Instrumental MusicInstrumental music gained position of importance in the BaroqueVirtuosos raised the technique of playing to new heights Early-Baroque composers did not specify instrumentation Early-Baroque composers still thought in terms of line rather than instrument colour. Late-Baroque composers chose instruments according to timbre

Baroque Instruments

Instrument designs were improvedFinest violins in history came from shops of:StradivariusGuarneriAmatiBaroque violin strings made of gut (today's are of steel) Woodwinds were all made of wood Trumpet moves from purely military use to orchestral member Horns and trumpets were valveless, called "natural" instrumentsCould play in only one key at a time (Natural Horn Youtube)Timpani occasionally added to the orchestraBaroque keyboard instrumentsOrgan: used at church and home Harpsichord: strings are plucked by quills, cannot sustain tones Clavichord: metal levers exert pressure on strings (Baroque Keyboard History YT.)Authentic modern performancesModern recordings reflect an attempt towards authenticity with the use of historically accurate instruments

Sonata Types

The sonata was the most popular form of chamber musicEarly sonatas: one sectional movement or several contrasting movementsSonata da camera: chamber sonataTypically a group of stylized dancesSonata da chiesa: church sonata, more serious and contrapuntal,Four movements: tempo sequence slow-fast-slow-fastWritten for 18 instrumentsFavored combination: two violins and continuoTrio sonataMusic printed on three staves of music, actually performed by four players (continuo requires two players)Solo sonata, for keyboard and solo string instrument

Baroque ConcertoForm reflects the basic elements of Baroque: contrast and unity Concerto: from the Latin concertare ("to contend with")Instrumental form based on the opposition of different forcesTwo types of concertoSolo concerto: one instrument set against the orchestra Concerto grosso: small group of soloists set against orchestraConcertino: small group in the concerto grossoRipieno, or tutti: large group in the concerto grossoBach wrote 6 Brandenburg Concertos in this formEach is a concerto grossoEach has different solo instruments

Antonio Vivaldi (16781741)

Catholic Priest in Venice, "the red priest" (reference to hair color) Music master at the Conservatorio del'Ospedale della PietSchool for orphaned girlsGirls studied stringed, woodwind (oboe, bassoon, flute) and keyboard instruments and were capable of playing at a high level. Much of Vivialdis output dedicated to them exceptionally virtuosic in natureProlific composer:More than 500 concertos Chamber music Operas Cantatas 1 Oratorio Extended setting of the Gloria

Vivaldi: The Four Seasons (Le quattro stagioni) Group of four violin concertosEach concerto accompanied by a poemMusic depicts specific lines of the poemSpring (La primavera) Solo violin with string orchestra and continuo Three movements:I: Evokes bird song, murmuring streams, thunder, lightningOrchestral ritornello: a refrain returns again and againRitornello form: alternating new material and refrainII: Largo in triple meterEvokes an image from poem describing a sleeping goatherd Ostinato dog bark is heard in violasIII: Rustic Dance, evokes drone of bagpipes

J. S. Bach's MusicPersonal philosophy: music must serve "the glory of God, Virtuoso organistKey output: organ musicLittle Organ Book: includes chorale preludesChorale prelude: based on embellished chorale tuneKeyboard musicThe Well-Tempered Clavier48 preludes and fugues, in two volumesInstrumental musicSonatas and concertosThe Brandenburg ConcertosOrchestral suitesSacred Vocal Music200-plus church cantatasPassion: setting of account of the CrucifixionMass in B minorContrapuntal masterworksMusical OfferingThe Art of Fugue

Bach: Cantata No. 80 A Mighty Fortress Is Our GodSet to Martin Luther's chorale of the same nameI: Opens with choral movement in D majorEach line receives fugal treatmentFugue:polyphonic composition based on imitationEach phrase is an embellishment of the choraleTrumpets and drums added by son Wilhelm Friedemann after Bach's deathII: Depicts Christ's struggle with evilDuet for soprano and bass soloistsSoprano melody is variation of choraleMiddle movements: freely composed recitatives and ariasVIII: Chorale sung in D major by full chorus with orchestral accompanimentHomophonic texture

Bachs Choral StyleLyricism found in Bachs Arias, elaborate movements with ornate vocal linesExpressive instrumental accompaniment combined with vocal lines to create intricate polyphonic textureFugue