baroque guide

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24 POPES, PEASANTS, MONARCHS AND MERCHANTS BAROQUE ART TEXT PAGES 688–747 BAROQUE ART IN THE 17TH CENTURY 1. With what religious movement is much of the Baroque art in Catholic countries associated? The Counter-Reformation. List three adjectives or phrases that describe its style: a. Dramatic theatricality. b. Grandiose scale. c. Elaborate ornateness. 2. What city was the focus of artistic patronage as the Catholic church tried to reestablish its primacy? Rome. 3. List three ways in which Madern’s Early Baroque church of Santa Susanna (FIG. 24-1) resembles the church of Il Gesu (FIG. 22-49): a. Each building has scroll buttresses connecting the upper and lower levels of the façade. 75 75

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24 POPES,PEASANTS,MONARCHSAND MERCHANTSBAROQUEARTTEXTPAGES688747 BAROQUEARTINTHE17THCENTURY 1.WithwhatreligiousmovementismuchoftheBaroqueartinCatholiccountries associated? TheCounterReformation. Listthreeadjectivesorphrasesthatdescribeitsstyle: a. Dramatictheatricality. b. Grandiosescale. c. Elaborateornateness. 2.WhatcitywasthefocusofartisticpatronageastheCatholicchurchtriedto reestablishitsprimacy? Rome. 3.ListthreewaysinwhichMadernsEarlyBaroquechurchofSantaSusanna(FIG. 241)resemblesthechurchofIlGesu(FIG.2249): a. Eachbuildinghasscrollbuttressesconnectingtheupperandlowerlevelsof thefaade. b. Eachbuildinghastwopediments,oneforeachstory. c. Sculpturesinnichesframethecentraldoorwayineachbuilding.

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Listthreewaysinwhichitdiffers: a. Thefaadehasagreaterverticality,concentratinganddramatizingthe majorfeaturesofitsmodel. b. Thefaadestallcentralsectionprojectsforwardfromthehorizontallower story. c. Strongshadowscastbythevigorouslyprojectingcolumnsandpilasters mountdramaticallytowardtheemphaticallystressedcentralaxis. 4.NamefourarchitectswhoworkedonSt.Peter'sandnotetheprimary contributionofeach. a. DonatodAngeloBramante:Theoriginalplanandtheconceptofa hemisphericaldome. b. Michelangelo:Thereducedplanandtheogivaldomewithdrum. c. CarloMaderno:thefaade. d. GianlorenzoBernini:thecolonnadedpiazza. 5.Whatisabaldacchino? Canopylikestructureoncolumns,frequentlybuiltoveranaltar. 6.ListfourmajorcharacteristicsofBernini'ssculpturethataretypicalofBaroque artingeneral. a. Expansiveandtheatrical.

b. Theelementoftimeusuallyplaysanimportantrole. c. Dynamicqualityconveyingaburstingforthofenergy. d. Refusaltolimititselftofirmlydefinedspatialsettings. 7.InwhatwaydidBerninidepictthevisionofSt.Theresa(FIG249)? 7676

Aslight(shiningfrombehindahiddenwindowofyellowglass)pouringdown onbronzerayssuggestingtheradianceofHeaven.

8.Whodevelopedthesculpturalarchitecturalstyletoitsextreme? FrancescoBorromoni. Nametwobuildingsdesignedbyhim. a. SanCarloalleQuattroFontane. BotharelocatedinthecityofRome. 9.WhilethecirclehadbeentheidealgeometricfiguretoRenaissancearchitects, Baroqueplannerspreferredtheoval. . Why? Theovalisamoredynamicformofthecircle,creatinganinteriorthatappears toflowfromentrancetoaltar,unimpededbythesegmentationcharacteristicof Renaissancebuildings. 10.Whatisthepurposeofthelateral,threepartdivisionofBaroquepalace facades? Atripartiteorganizationallowsartiststointroducevarietyintotheirdesigns withoutdestroyingstructuralunity,andallowsaddedemphasistothecentral axis. Uponwhathumanpsychologicaltendencydoesitseemtobebased? Itisprobablybasedontheobservationthattheaveragepersoninstinctivelycan recognizeuptothreeobjectsasaunit.Agreaternumberrequirestheviewerto counteachobjectindividually. 11.NametwocountrieswerethearchitecturalstylesofBorrominiandGuarini particularlyinfluential? a. Austria b.SouthernGermany 12.ThecommonpurposeofCaravaggio'sConversionofSt.Paul(FIG.2418)and Bernini'sTheEcstasyofSt.Theresa(FIG.249)was: Toproducetherepresentationofavision,usingactuallightfromeachchapels windows. 13.ListthreecharacteristicsofCaravaggio'sstyle. 7777

b.ChapelofSaintIvo.

a. Injectednaturalismintobothreligiousandclassicalsubjectswithunidealized figures. b. Sharply,dramaticallylitfiguresemergingfromadarkbackground. c. Invitestheviewertoparticipateinthescene. 14.WhatwasCaravaggioattemptingtopresentinhisreligiouspictures? Tocompeltheviewersinterestandinvolvementinthescene. Whatpictorialdevicesdidheusetoachievehisgoal? Actiontakingplaceintheforeground;lowhorizonline;dramaticlight. 15.Whatistenebroso? Shadowymannerofdarksettingsenvelopingtheiroccupants. Listtwocountrieswhereitwasparticularlyinflential: a. Spain b.TheNetherlands

16.WhichartistsmostinfluencedthestyleofArtemesiaGentileschi? Caravaggioandherfather,OrazioGentileschi. WhowereJudithandHolophernes? CharactersfromtheApocryphalBookofJudith;HoloferneswasanAssyrian generalwhowasseducedbyJudithandthenbeheadedbyher. WhattechniquesdoesArtemesiausetoportraythedramaofthetheme? Tenebrism,spurtingblood,thephysicalstrainofthewomenstrugglingwiththe sword,andcontrolledhighlightsontheactionintheforeground. 17.ListthreeassumptionsthatwerebasictotheteachingofartattheBolognese academy. a. Artcanbetaught. b. TheteachingofartmustincludetheclassicalandRenaissancetraditions. c. Theteachingmustalsoincludethestudyofanatomyandlifedrawing. 18.Whoiscreditedwithdevelopingthe"classical"or"ideal"landscape? AnnibaleCarracci. 7878

Whatwereitsroots? ThelandscapebackgroundsofVenetianRenaissancepaintings. 19.WhatearlierworkstronglyinfluencedAnnibaleCarracci'sceilingfrescoesinthe galleryoftheFarnesePalaceinRome(FIG.2423)? MichelangelosSistineChapelceiling. HowdidCarraccimodifytheoriginaltoachieveheightenedillusionism? Thechiaroscuroisnotthesameforboththepaintingsandthefigures surroundingthem.Thepaintermodeledthefiguresinsidethequadriinaneven light.Theoutsidefiguresseemtobelitfrombeneath,asiftheywereactual threedimensionalbeingsorstatuesilluminatedfrombelow. 20.Whatisquadroriportatoandhowwasitused? Transferredframepainting,orsimulationofeaselpaintingforceiling decoration.Theframedpicturesareflankedbypolychromefigureswhoturn theirheadstogazeatthescenesaroundthem,andbyAtlasfigurespaintedto resemblemarblestatues. 21.NametwoinfluencesblendedbyReniinhisAurorafresco(FIG.2424): a. Romanreliefs. b. Coinsdepictingemperorsintriumphalchariotsaccompaniedbyflying Victoriesandotherpersonifications. 22.ListthreewaysinwhichPietrodaCortonasfrescoedceilinginthePalazzo Barberini(FIG.2425)praisedhispatron: a. DivineProvidenceholdsacrownofstarstobestoweternallifeonthe Barberinifamily. b. Thelaurelwreath,anothersymbolofimmortality. c. ThepapaltiaraandkeysannouncingthepersonaltriumphsofUrbanVIII. 23.WhateffectdidGaullicreatewiththefrescohepaintedontheceilingofIlGes inRome(FIG.2426): Adramatic,transcendentspiritualenvironmentaswellasthegloryandpower oftheCatholicChurch. Listthreedevicesheusedtoachievethateffect: a. Gildedarchitectureopensupinthecenteroftheceilingtoofferviewersa glimpseofHeaven. b. Jesusisrepresentedasabarelyvisiblemonograminablindingradiantlight thatfloatsheavenward. 7979

c. Gaullipaintedmanyofthesinnersonthreedimensionalstuccoextensions thatprojectoutsidethepaintingsdome. 24.ThepanterbesideGaulliwhoworkedfortheJesuitsinRomewas FraAndreaPozzo.Hepaintedtheceilingofthechurchof SantIgnazioinRomeforthem. Whatdevicedidheusetomergeheavenandearth? Heillusionisticallycontinuedthechurchsownarchitectureintothevaultso thattheroofseemstobeliftedoff. 25.NametwoSpanishrulersfromtheHapsburgdynastywhowerepatronsofthe arts: a. PhillipIII b. PhillipIV 26.WhatwasthegoalofmanySpanishBaroquereligiousartists? Tomoveviewersandtoencouragegreaterdevotionandpiety. Nameathemethatwasparticularlypopularamongthem: Deathandmartyrdomscenes. 27.Ribera'sstylewasinfluencedbythe"darkmanner"of:Caravaggio. 28.WhattypeoflightingdidZurbaranuseinhispatingofSaintSerapion(FIG.24 29)? Brightlightshiningonthefigurewithadarkbackground,tocallattentionto thesaintsdeathandtoincreasethedramaticimpactoftheimage. 29.VelazquezwascourtpaintertoKingPhillipIV. 30.WhatdoesVelasquezsSurrenderofBreda(FIG.2431)commemorate? TheSpanishvictoryovertheDutchin1625. 31.WhatisthesubjectofLasMeninas(FIG.2433)? TheInfantaMargaritawithhertwomaidsinwaiting,herfavoritedwarfs,anda largedog,aswellasamanandawomaninthebackground. Howmanylevelsofrealitycanyoufindinthepicture? Four. Brieflydescribethem. Canvas,mirrorimage,opticalimage,andofthetwopaintedimages.

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WhatpaintingtechniquedidVelazquezuseinLasMeninas? Thecompositionextendsindepthbothinfrontof(throughthemirrorandthegazesof thefigures)andbehindthepainting(throughtheopendoor).Formandshadoware representedrealistically.Agreatnumberofintermediatevaluesofgraycomebetween lightsanddarks,insteadofputtingthemsidebysideasCaravaggiodid. 32.ThenorthernprovincesconstitutethemoderncountryofTheNetherlands, whilethoseinthesouthconstitutethecountryofBelgium. Duringtheseventeenthcentury,thissouthernregionwasknownasFlanders.

. 33.InhisElevationoftheCross(FIG.2434)Rubenssynthesizedhisstudyofclassicalantiquity withtheworkoftheItalianmastersMichelangelo,TintorettoandCaravaggio,while addinghisowndynamism. Listthreefeaturesthatcontributetothedramaofthescene: a. Foreshortenedanatomyandtwistedfigures. b. Christisplacedonthecrossdiagonallywhichcutsdynamicallyacrossthe picturewhileincliningbackintoit.c.

Strongmodelinginlightanddark.

34.WhatmemberofthefamousFlorentineHouseofMedicicommissionedRubens topaintacyclememorializingandglorifyinghercareerandthatofherlate husband? MariedeMidici. 35.NamethepaintingthatembodiesRubensattitudetowardwar: AllegoryoftheOutbreakofWar. Whatdidthefollowngallegoricalfiguressymbolize? Monsters: Plagueandfamine. Womanwithabrokenlute: Harmonycannotcoexistbesidethediscordofwar. Architectfallenbackwards: 8181

Whatisbuiltinpeaceforthebenefitandornamentofcitiesislaidinruinand razedbytheforcesofarms. BookandpaperatthefeetofMars: Wartramplesonliteratureandotherrefinements. Sorrowingwomaninblack: UnhappyEurope. 36.InwhattypeofpaintingsdidVanDyckspecialize? Courtportraiture. Howcouldhisstylebestbecharacterized? Courtlymannerofgreatelegance,anddramaticcompositionsofgreatquality. 37.InwhattypeofsubjectmatterdidClaraPeetersspecialize?Stilllifes. 38.HowdidthereligiousandeconomicconditionsinseventeenthcenturyHolland effectartisticpatronageandproduction? a. AmsterdamhadthehighestpercapitaincomeinEuropeandenjoyed widespreadprosperityacrossalargeproportionofsociety,expandingthe rangeofartpatronage. b. Politicalpowerincreasinglypassedintothehandsofanurbanpatrician classofmerchants.Artpatronagecateredtothetastesofamiddleclass audience. c. Calvinismdemandedapuritanicalrejectionofartinchurches,andthus artistsproducedrelativelylittlereligiousartintheDutchRepublic,although itwastoleratedwhenartistscreatedit. 39.InwhatwaywastheworkofGerritvanHonthorstinfluencedbyCaravaggio? Themundanetavernsettingandthenocturnallighting. 40.FransHalswastheleadingpainteroftheHaarlemschool,andspecializedin groupportraits. . Whatarethemainelementsofhisstylethatdistinguishhisworksfromthoseof hiscontemporaries? Hewaslessorderedandregimentedinhisdepictionofthesittersthanhis contemporaries.Eachmanisbothatroopmemberandanindividual.The figureslookinmultipledirections.Heusestheuniformityofattiretocreatea livelyrhythm. Writedowntwoadjectivesthatdescribehisstyle: 8282

a. Spontaneous.

b.

Vivacious.

41.WhocommissionedRembrandttopaintTheAnatomyofDr.Tulp(FIG.2444)? Thesurgeonsguild. WhatdoesthistellusaboutparonageinHollandduringthe17thcentury? Thatguildscontinuedtobeactivepatronsoftheartsinadditiontotheupper middle,middle,andlowermiddleclasseswhodrovemostofthemarket. 42.WhatfeatureofTheCompanyofCaptainFransFanningCoq(FIG.2445)ledtoits beingmisnamedTheNightWatch? ThevarnishRembrandtused,whichhasdarkenedconsiderablyovertime. WhatdevicesdidRembrantusetoenliventhegroupportrait? Thecompanyispresentedscurryingaboutindramaticlighting. 43.ListthreeadjectivesorphrasesthatwouldcontrastRembrandtsreligious workstoCounterReformationartworks: a. Spiritualstillness. b. HumanityandhumilityofJesus. c. Psychologicalinsightandsympathy. 44.WhatwasRembrandttryingtoexpressinhisportraitsandselfportraits? Themostsubtlenuancesofcharacterandmood. 45.BrieflydescribeRembrandt'suseoflightandshade. Herefinedlightandshadeintofinerandfinernuancesuntiltheyblendedwith oneanother,adevelopmentfromearlierpaintersuseofabruptlightsand darks.Agreaterfidelitytoactualappearancesiscreatedbecausetheeyes perceivelightanddarknotasstaticbutasalwayssubtlychanging. Howdoeshisuseoflightandshadeeffectthemoodofhislaterportraits? Variationoflightandshade,subtlymodulated,couldbereadasemotional differences:thepsychologyoflight.Theprevailingmoodsarethatof quietness,tranquilmeditation,philosophicalresignation,andmusing recollection. 46.Brieflydescribethetechniqueofetching. Acopperplateiscoveredinalayerofwaxorvarnish.Theartistincisesthe designintothissurfacewithanetchingneedleorpointedtool,exposingthe metalbelow.Theplateisthenimmersedinacid,whicheatsawaytheexposed partsofthemetal,actingthesameastheburininengraving. 8383

Whatareitsadvantagesoverengraving? Itismoremanageablethanengravingandallowsgreaterfreedomindrawing thedesign.Themediumssoftnessgivesetchersgreatercarvingfreedomand offeringthegreatestsubtletyoflineandtone. 47.ForwhatgenrewastheDutchpainterJudithLeystermostfamous?Portraiture. WhatcharacteristicdidshesharewithHals?Spontaneity. 48.WhatreasoncouldbegivenfortheDutchinterestinlandscapepainting? TheDutchhadaverydirectrelationshiptotheland,havingundertakenan extensivelandreclamationprojectthatlastedalmostacenturythatimpacted socialandeconomiclife. Nametwoartistswhospecializedinit: a. AelbertCuyp b.JacobvanRuisdael 49.WhatwasVermeer'sfavoritetypeofsubjectmatter? Interiorscenes. 50.InwhatwaydoesVermeer'suseoflightdifferfromRembrandt's? Herenderedspacesoconvincinglythroughhisdepictionoflightthatinhis works,thepicturesurfacesfunctionsasaninvisibleglasspanethroughwhich theviewerlooksintotheconstructedillusion. 51.Onwhatprincipledoesacameraobscurawork? Lightispassedthroughatinypinholeorlenstoprojectanimageonascreenor thewallofaroom. 52.Listthreeimportantfactsabouttheopticsofcolorthatareillustratedin Vermeerspaintings: a. Shadowsarenotcolorlessanddark. b. Adjoiningcolorsaffecteachother. c. Lightiscomposedofcolors. 53.HowdoesthemoodcreatedbySteensinteriorsdifferfromthatcreatedby Vermeer's? Steenpaintedscenesofchaosanddisruptionwithafestiveatmosphere.

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54.WhatmightthechildrensbehaviorsymbolizeinSteensFeastofSt.Nicholas (FIG.2454)? Theirbehaviormightbeasatiricalcommentaryonadultbehavior,inthiscase selfishness,pettiness,andjealousy. 55.WhatisaVanitasstilllife? Stilllifesthatcontainobjectsthatfunctionasremindersofdeath,ormemento mori. 56.ThepaintingsofRachaelRuyschreflectaparticularinterestin: Flowers. 57.WhichFrenchartistiscreditedwithhavingestablishedseventeenthcentury Classicalpainting? NicolasPoussin.

Wheredidhespendmostofhislife? Rome. WhattwoItalianartistsdidhemostadmire? TitianandRaphael. 58.WhatfourcharacteristicsofEtinArcadiaEgo(FIG.2458)aretypicalofPoussin's fullydevelopedClassicalstyle? a. b. c. d. Figuresbasedonclassicalstatuary. Thecompact,balancedgroupingofthefigures. Theevenlight. Thethoughtful,reserved,andmournfulmood.

59.WhattypeofsubjectsdidPoussinconsidertobeappropriateforpaintingsdone inthe"grandmanner"? Battles,heroicactions,andreligiousthemes. Whatdidhethinkshouldbeavoided? Minutedetails,aswellasalllowsubjectssuchasgenre. 60.PoussinandRubenswereconsideredasthetwopolesintheBaroquedebate betweentheforcesofpassionandreason.Whichpoledoyouthinkeachartist 8585

represented?Whatcharacteristicsintheworkofeachartistdoyouthinnk wouldreflectthoseattitudes? Rubens: Passion.Rubenswasknownforchaoticaction,decorativesplendor,andvigorous figures. Poussin: Reason.Hepreferredtousetheclassical,rationalmodeofpainting,withits correctnessandpropriety,andtoemployacertainevennessandmoderationin allthings.Forinstance,hepaintednatureassubordinatetoarationalplanin BurialofPhocion. 61.InwhatmajorwaydoesthelandscapeinPoussin'sBurialofPhocion(FIG.2459) differfromVanRuisdael'sViewofHaarlem(FIG.2451)? Itdoesnotdepictaparticularplaceandtime,butinsteadservesthenarrative andissubordinatetoarationalplan. 62.WhatwasClaudeLorrain'sprimaryinterestinlandscapepainting? Todepictthebeautyofnatureintheformofanidealclassicalworld.He balancedgroupsofarchitecturalmasses,screensoftrees,andsheetsofwater. Inwhatcountrydidhedomostofhispainting? Italy. 63.Describethefeaturesthatcreatetheimpressionofdignityandsobriety apparentinMansart'sworkatBlois(FIG.2461). a. Strongrectilinearorganization. b. Atendencytodesigninrepeatedunits. WhatfeatureofthebuildingistypicallyBaroque? Theemphasisonfocalpoints(curvingcolonnades,changingplanesofthewalls, andtheconcentrationofornamentaroundtheportal). 64.ThelifeofFrenchpeasantswasthefavoritesubjectofLouisLeNain. . HowdohisdepictionsdifferfromthoseoftheDutchpainterJanSteen? Insteadofboisterousgoodhumor,LeNaindepictedsomberstillness,grave dignity,andsubservience. 65.TheFrenchartistCallotisbestknownforhisworksdoneinthemediumof etchings. 8686

HisMiseriesseriesrealisticallydepictsscenesofsharpdetailsoflifeanddeath seeninthewarsofLorraine. .66.WhichFrenchartistwasmostinfluencedbythenorthern"Caravaggisti"? GeorgesdeLaTour. Inwhatwaysdoeshisstyledifferfromtheirs? Hedepictedreligiousscenes,notgenre,andpreferredsupernaturalcalmtothe motionanddramaticgesturesofthenorthernCaravaggisti. 67.TheFrenchRoyalAcademyofPaintingandSculpturewasestablishedinthe year1648. . Whatwasitsprimarypurpose? Toregularizetaste.ItestablishedtheFrenchclassicalstyle. 68.WhatwasthepoliticalmeaningofLouisXIVsappelationleRoiSoleil(the SunKing)? Hewasthecenteroftheuniverse,ruledbydivineright,andensuredhimself incontestableauthority.

Whatwashissignificanceasapatronofthearts? Hewasdeterminedtoorganizeartandarchitectureintheserviceofthestate. Hesparednothingtoraisegreatsymbolsandmonumentstohisownabsolute power. 69.ListthreefeaturesofRigaudsPortraitofLouisXIV(FIG.2465)that contributedtoLouispersonificationofanabsolutemonarch: a. Helooksoutattheviewerwithdirectness. b. Theposeimplieshaughtinesswithhishandonhishipandhiserminerobe thrownoverhisshoulder. c. Thekingisthefocalpointoftheimageandisplacedsothatheseemsto lookdownontheviewer. 70.WhatthreearchitectscollaboratedtodesigntheeastfacadeoftheLouvre? a. ClaudePerrault b.LouisLeVau c.CharlesLeBrun Whatformwasusedforthecentralpavilionofthefacade? Aclassicaltemplefront. 8787

71.WhowastheprincipaldirectorforthebuildinganddecorationofthePalaceof Versailles? CharlesLeBrun. WhodesignedtheparkofVersailles? Andr Le Ntre. WhatwassymbolizedbythevastcomplexofVersailles? LouisXIVspowerandambition. 72.ListtwosourcesforGirardonsportrayalofApolloAttendedbytheNymphs carvedfortheParkofVersailles(FIG.2470): a. GrecoRomansculpture b.Poussinsfigurecompositions.

. 73.WhichfeatureofJulesHardouinMansart'sChurchoftheInvalides(FIG.2472) ismostBaroque? Theillusionisticceilingdecorations. Whichismostclassical? TheCorinthiancolumnlinedarcade. 74.Whichofthevisualorplasticartswasmostimportantinseventeenthcentury England? Architecture. 75.NametheItalianarchitectwhohadthestrongestinfluenceonthebuildingsof InigoJones? Palladio. 76.WhodesignedSt.Paul'sCathedralinLondon? ChristopherWren. WhatfeatureofthebuildingshowstheinfluenceofBorromini? Theupperlevelsandlanternsofthetowers. WhatfeatureistakenoverfromtheeastfacadeoftheLouvre? Thesuperimposedpairedcolumnarporticos. LATEBAROQUEARTOFTHEEARLYEIGHTEENTHCENTURY BlenheimPalaceinEngland(FIG.2475)wasdesignedby1.

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JohnVanbrughforJohnChurchill,dukeofMarlborough. However,beforeitwascompleteditwascriticizedasbeingponderousand bizarre.

. 2. WhodesignedthechurchofVierzehnheiligen(FIG.2476,2477)? BalthasarNeumann.

3. TheatricalilluisionismisanimportantcharacteristicoftheworkoftheGerman Baroquesculptor:EgidQuirinAsam. . 4. WhicheighteenthcenturyItalianpainterisbestknownforhiselegant illusionisticceilingpaintings? GiambattistaTiepolo.

DISCUSSIONQUESTIONS

1.StudytheelevationsandplansofBramantisPazziChapel(FIGS.2117to2119) 19)andBorromini'sSanCarloalleQuattroFontane(FIGS.2410and2411). Contrastthebasicshapesusedintheplans,anddescribehowtheseformsrelate totheelevationsofthebuildings. 2.Bernini'sarthasbeendescribedas"theatrical."Giveexamplesofitstheatricality anddiscussthetechnicaldevicesheusedtocreatethem. 3.CompareRibera'sMartyrdomofSt.Bartholomew(FIG.2428)withMantegnasSt. JamesLedtoMartyrdom(FIG.2147).Discusscomposition,paintingtechnique,and emotionalimpact.WhatmajorconcernsoftheItalianRenaissanceandthe CounterReformationinSpainaredemonstratedbytheseworks?

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4.DiscusstheinfluenceofCaravaggioonGerritvanHonthorst(FIG.2441),George delaTour(FIG.2464),andLouisleNain(FIG.2462).Whichaspectsof Caravaggiosstyledideachadopt,andhowdotheirworksdifferfromhimand fromeachother? 5.InwhatwaysdotheworksandlivesofRubensandRembrandtreflectthe differentsocialandreligiousorientationsofseventeenthcenturyFlandersand Holland? 6.CompareRembrandt'sSelfPortrait(FIG.2447)withtheselfportraitsby JudithLeyster(FIG.2449)andCaterinavanHemessen(FIG.2319),andVan EycksManinaRedTurban(FIG2010)Howhavetheartistsdepictedthe differentpsychologicalstatesastheylookatthemselves?Doyouthinkthese worksillustratemajordifferencesinthephilosophiesofthetimesand/or placeswherepaintedorthattheinterpretationsweresolelyindivisual?Why? 7.Whatwastheeffectoftheeconomicandreligiousclimateofseventeenthcentury Hollandonitsartists? 8.DiscusstherelativebalancebetweenBaroqueandRenaissancefeaturesinthe followingbuildings:theeastfacadeoftheLouvre(FIG.2466),theChurchof theInvalidesinParis(FIG.2472),theBanquetingHouseatWhitehall(FIG. 2473),andSt.Paul'sCathedralinLondon(FIG.2474). 9.InwhatwaysdidLouisXIVinfluenceFrenchartoftheseventeenthcentury? HowdidhisutilizationofartdifferfromthatofPhilipIVinSpain? 10.CouldVelasquezsSurrenderatBreda(FIG.2431)andSteensFeastofSt. Nicholas(FIG.2454)serveasillustrationsofPoussin's"grandmanner"?If not,whynot? 11.Whowaschieflyresponsibleforthedevelopmentof"classical"landscape paintinginItaly?HowdidhisapproachdifferfromthoseofPoussin(FIG. 2458),ClaudeLorrain(FIG.2460),andVanRuisdael(FIG.2451)? 12.ComparetheceilingpaintingsofTiepolo(FIG.2479)withthoseof Mantegna(FIG,2246),Veronese(FIG,2154),Correggio(FIG,2241), Caracci(FIG,2423),PietrodaCortona(FIG,2425),andPozzo(FIG,2427). Whichisclosesttohiswork,andwhatfeaturesdotheyshare?

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13.Fromtheotherworksyouhavestudied,whichdoyoufeelareclosestin spirittoNeumannspilgrimagechurchofVierzehnheiligen(FIGS,2476and 2477)andAsamsAssumptionoftheVirgin(FIG.2478)?

LOOKINGCAREFULLY,DESCRIBINGANDANALYZING InLasMeninasVelasquezdemonstratedhismasteryofthedepictionofcomplex levelsofvisualreality(p.688andFIG.2433).Studythepaintingverycarefullyand writeanessayofatleastonepagedescribingit.Herearesomequestionsthatmight helpyouwithyouranalysis,butdonotbelimitedbythem.Firstdescribetheroom inwhichhehasplacedthemajorityofthefiguresanddescribeeachofthefiguresin thatspace.Thenlookforotherfiguresandescribethespaceinwhichtheywouldbe standing.Describetheartistsbrushworkandhisuseoflightanddarkandnotehe usestheseelementstoincreasethesenseofrealityofthescene.

MAP Circlethefollowingonthemapbelow. Haarlem Utrecht AmsterdamVersailles London

MAP 24-1 Europe at the onset of the Thirty Years War

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