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  • Baroque Music

    1600 - 1750

    + =

    http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.freefoto.com/images/01/16/01_16_5---Sheep_web.jpg?&k=Sheep&imgrefurl=http://www.freefoto.com/preview/01-16-5?ffid=01-16-5&usg=__OMW2RC4aorPZfwwi2Dr9WryXkn0=&h=400&w=600&sz=68&hl=en&start=2&zoom=1&tbnid=zpCZzEMEaCR9fM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=135&ei=isd0TczeBcKqlAf8zPxJ&prev=/images?q=sHEEP&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&sa=N&as_st=y&tbs=isch:1,iur:f&um=1&itbs=1http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.stockvault.net/download_file2.php?pid=9582&imgrefurl=http://www.stockvault.net/Stone_Rocks_g57-Rock_p9611.html&usg=__vD0yYiIEMRni35c_yVgmcvP2tZg=&h=1333&w=2000&sz=594&hl=en&start=5&zoom=1&tbnid=a8Kz6OY4M7cMpM:&tbnh=100&tbnw=150&ei=ucd0TcLKCcOAlAeTipVA&prev=/images?q=rOCK+sTONE&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&sa=N&as_st=y&tbs=isch:1,iur:f&um=1&itbs=1http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://images.clipartof.com/small/441715-Cartoon-Lazy-Boss-Listening-To-Loud-Music-Poster-Art-Print.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.clipartof.com/interior_wall_decor/details/Cartoon-Lazy-Boss-Listening-To-Loud-Music-Poster-Art-Print-441715&usg=__bO5G1KLA3GVDYB53g0a5WbGnOvA=&h=285&w=450&sz=56&hl=en&start=9&zoom=1&tbnid=zz7u3Z5P_ntA1M:&tbnh=80&tbnw=127&ei=s8Z0TZ7YMMKclgf9_PCFBA&prev=/images?q=Cartoon+Music+Listening&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&sa=N&tbs=isch:1&um=1&itbs=1

  • In this unit we will

    To understand and compose modern music, it is

    important to understand styles of music which

    have come before.

    Learn the main concepts, Styles and

    Instruments which developed and

    shaped music in the BAROQUE era.

  • What is Baroque music?!?Baroque was a name given to the highly ornamented style of

    architecture and art in the 17thC.

    Musicians use this word to describe music from when Opera

    was first developed (1600) to when the composer J.S. Bach

    died.

    The music of the Baroque era was often very grand and

    commonly used a lot of ornamentation (trills etc.), just like the

    buildings and architecture of the time.

    Listen to this extract from Vivaldi's

    The 4 Seasons - Summer

    What instruments can you

    hear?

  • A number of new forms and designs, including opera and

    oratorio, were introduced in the Baroque period. The violin

    family replaced the viols and the orchestra gradually started

    to take shape, with a strong section of stings as its

    foundation.

  • There were many famous composers from the

    Baroque Period. Including:

    Vivaldi (Italy 1678 1741)

    Handel (Germany 1685 1759)

    Bach (Germany 1685 -1750)

    Baroque Music Composers

    http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Antonio_Vivaldi_portrait.jpg&imgrefurl=http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Antonio_Vivaldi_portrait.jpg&usg=__wmTCOOBMVc2-XCEWxR5xNZuWy4k=&h=358&w=300&sz=104&hl=en&start=1&zoom=1&tbnid=iRVojPvwaJBz-M:&tbnh=121&tbnw=101&ei=uMJ0TfeuO4S8lQf_1IFY&prev=/images?q=Vivaldi&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&sa=G&as_st=y&tbs=isch:1,iur:f&um=1&itbs=1http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.peakviewmusic.com/Handel Portrait.2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.peakviewmusic.com/Minuet from the Water Music.Brass Trio.html&usg=__ER2RgvJ7wWcRcv-DRlKayCt4dY4=&h=434&w=346&sz=8&hl=en&start=1&zoom=1&tbnid=xpW5pW70gZyRWM:&tbnh=126&tbnw=100&ei=H8N0TeyOMIaKlweCyflN&prev=/images?q=Handel+George+Frederick&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&sa=G&as_st=y&tbs=isch:1&um=1&itbs=1http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.jsbach.net/bass/elements/bass-hanewinckel-title.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.jsbach.net/bass/&usg=__M3YiHUdYVYm3_X6yXYL5aV-dTiY=&h=256&w=273&sz=18&hl=en&start=6&zoom=1&tbnid=BmyQJCEHfxPJXM:&tbnh=106&tbnw=113&ei=ZMN0TabFKoOClAey9IGqCw&prev=/images?q=JS+Bach&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&sa=G&as_st=y&tbs=isch:1&um=1&itbs=1

  • Vivaldi (1678 1741)

    Although he is considered a famous and important composer of

    the Baroque era, most of what Vivaldi composed is lost. The

    music we do know of, was found in a trunk in the 1920s.

    Listen to this excerpt of Vivaldis Four Seasons Autumn. Identify in

    your jotter:

    - The instruments you hear and the way they are played

    - Any musical concepts you can hear.

    http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/98/Antonio_Vivaldi_portrait.jpg&imgrefurl=http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Antonio_Vivaldi_portrait.jpg&usg=__wmTCOOBMVc2-XCEWxR5xNZuWy4k=&h=358&w=300&sz=104&hl=en&start=1&zoom=1&tbnid=iRVojPvwaJBz-M:&tbnh=121&tbnw=101&ei=uMJ0TfeuO4S8lQf_1IFY&prev=/images?q=Vivaldi&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&sa=G&as_st=y&tbs=isch:1,iur:f&um=1&itbs=1http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://images.clipartof.com/small/441715-Cartoon-Lazy-Boss-Listening-To-Loud-Music-Poster-Art-Print.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.clipartof.com/interior_wall_decor/details/Cartoon-Lazy-Boss-Listening-To-Loud-Music-Poster-Art-Print-441715&usg=__bO5G1KLA3GVDYB53g0a5WbGnOvA=&h=285&w=450&sz=56&hl=en&start=9&zoom=1&tbnid=zz7u3Z5P_ntA1M:&tbnh=80&tbnw=127&ei=s8Z0TZ7YMMKclgf9_PCFBA&prev=/images?q=Cartoon+Music+Listening&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&sa=N&tbs=isch:1&um=1&itbs=1

  • Listen again for the following concepts and instruments. Make a

    note of these in your jotter.

    Instruments:

    String instruments (Such as Violins and Cellos playing CON ARCO)

    Harpsichord This was invented before the piano. When the keys

    were pressed strings were plucked to produce the sound.

    Concepts:

    Repetition The music repeats.

    Imitation An instrument imitates or copies what another instrument

    has just played.

    Sequence A short series of notes is repeated either at a higher or

    lower pitch.

    Ornaments TRILLS etc. Extra notes used to decorate the music.

  • Concerto Or Not?

    Vivaldi wrote many CONCERTOS. As music has progressed,

    the definition of this term has developed. For our purpose, a

    Concerto means A piece of music which includes a soloist

    and accompanying instruments.

    Vivaldi Cello Concerto

    Quiz time: Are the following excerpts of music from a Concerto or

    not?

    1. 2. 3.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mdJoQoZwXDk

  • Revision Break!

  • Pachelbels Canon

    In the Baroque period the CANON was developed. This is

    when there is strict imitation in the music. After one part starts

    to play or sing a melody, another part enters shortly

    afterwards with exactly the same melody. Pachelbels Canon

    in D, is a particularly famous example of this.

  • In Pachelbels Canon you also hear a GROUND BASS, a

    common type of bass line found in Baroque music. This is

    simply a theme in the bass part, which is repeated many

    times while the upper parts are varied

    Listen again to this canon and write down THREE words

    which best describes what you hear in the music. Choose

    from the following:

    ARCO HARPSICHORD ORGAN

    SEQUENCES BARITONE

  • Phonic is Latin for sound. Poly is Latin for many. Therefore

    Polyphonic literally means Many sound. Music is Polyphonic

    if it has 2 or more equally important melody lines playing at the

    same time.

    Homo is Latin for the same. Therefore Homophonic literally

    means The same sound. Music is homophonic if there is one

    clear melody above the accompaniment or all parts move

    together rhythmically

    Homophonic and Polyphonic

    Is Pachelbels Canon primarily homophonic or

    polyphonic?

  • Johann Sebastian Bach (Germany 1685 -

    1750)

    Bach came from a very musical family where

    his father and brothers and eventually his own

    children were involved in composing and

    performing.

    Although he did receive some lessons, Bach

    became a renowned Organist primarily

    through being self-taught.

    Bach means a brook or small stream in

    German. Beethoven once said that Ocean

    would have been a more suitable title.

    http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.jsbach.net/bass/elements/bass-hanewinckel-title.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.jsbach.net/bass/&usg=__M3YiHUdYVYm3_X6yXYL5aV-dTiY=&h=256&w=273&sz=18&hl=en&start=6&zoom=1&tbnid=BmyQJCEHfxPJXM:&tbnh=106&tbnw=113&ei=ZMN0TabFKoOClAey9IGqCw&prev=/images?q=JS+Bach&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&sa=G&as_st=y&tbs=isch:1&um=1&itbs=1

  • Listen to some of Bachs Brandenburg Concerto No. 6 in

    Bb Major and identify three concepts that you can hear in

    the music. Choose from the following:

    MAJOR MINOR HOMOPHONIC

    POLYPHONIC ARCO PIZZICATO

    This piece contains a PEDAL, which is a sustained note

    in the bass i.e. A note which is held on or is repeated

    continuously in the bass beneath changing harmonies.

    Which instrument is playing the pedal in this

    example?

    INVERTED PEDAL is a sustained note in the top part

    i.e. One long note which sounds in the upper part

    instead of in the bass Inverted Pedal

    http://www.educationscotland.gov.uk/nqmusic/national5/concepts/invertedpedal.asp

  • Toccata and Fugue in D Minor

    SUSPENSIONS - this effect occurs when a note from one chord is

    held over to the next chord creating a DISCORD, and is then

    resolved by moving one step to make a CONCORD.

    Listen to and follow the graphic score of Bachs

    Comment upon the following:

    - TONALITY

    - TEMPO

    - TEXTURE

    - DYNAMICS

    - MELODIC, HARMONIC & RHYTHMIC TECHNIQUES

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ipzR9bhei_o

  • Listen to Bachs Orchestral Suite No. 3 in D major

    Comment upon the following:

    - TONALITY

    - TEMPO

    - TEXTURE

    - DYNAMICS

    - MELODIC, HARMONIC & RHYTHMIC TECHNIQUES

  • Revision Break!

  • George Frederick Handel (1685

    1759)

    Although he was born in Germany, Handel spent most of his

    life in England, eventually applying to become a citizen. In

    1717 Handel composed the Water Music, a collection of

    orchestral movements, for King George I who wanted to hold a

    concert on the River Thames.

    Handel also invented a style of music called the

    Oratorio Handel's Messiah, Hallelujah Chorus

    Handel - Water Music

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=76RrdwElnTUhttp://www.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://www.peakviewmusic.com/Handel Portrait.2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.peakviewmusic.com/Minuet from the Water Music.Brass Trio.html&usg=__ER2RgvJ7wWcRcv-DRlKayCt4dY4=&h=434&w=346&sz=8&hl=en&start=1&zoom=1&tbnid=xpW5pW70gZyRWM:&tbnh=126&tbnw=100&ei=H8N0TeyOMIaKlweCyflN&prev=/images?q=Handel+George+Frederick&um=1&hl=en&safe=active&sa=G&as_st=y&tbs=isch:1&um=1&itbs=1http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E7CZk6DHGxc

  • The Oratorio and the Opera

    Both of these styles of music were developed

    within the Baroque era.

    OPERA A vocal work which made use of

    costumes and sets. Often in another

    language (i.e. Italian) - Handel - Orlando

    Oratorio A religious vocal work often sung

    in English. No sets or costumes were used

    - Bach - Oratorio

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2xBfMutea9khttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bFnW_CrPUlA

  • Features of an Opera and Oratorio

    Voices

    Soprano

    Mezzo Soprano

    Alto

    Counter Tenor

    Tenor

    Baritone

    Bass

    When all the main voices come together and sing in a choir/chorus, it is often called SATB

  • MELISMATIC SINGING

    MELISMATIC singing more than one or indeed several notes on the

    same syllable. This is a common feature in vocal music from the Baroque

    era.

    Is this example in a MAJOR or MINOR key?

    Describe the tempo of the music.

    SYLLABIC SINGING

    The opposite effect of melismatic is SYLLABIC - when the vocalist

    sings one note for each syllable.

    Is this musical example ACOMPANIED or UNACCOMPANIED

  • Sections of an Opera or Oratorio

    ARIA A main song often sung by a soloist.

    CHORUS Sung by the full choir / chorus.

    RECITATIVE Sung speech used to move the story

    forward.

  • Chorale

    A Passion also has a unique feature that the oratorio doesnt which

    enables the audience to participate, these are CHORALES (German hymn

    tunes) which are heard throughout the work which the audience sings as

    well as the choir (SATB). These are usually HOMOPHONIC in texture.

    Cantata

    The cantata is like a miniature oratorio, with soloists, chorus and orchestra.

    They often end with a CHORALE.

    Listen to this example of a Cantata. Which 3 concepts do you hear in the

    music. Choose from: HARPSICHORD SIMPLE TIME CHORUS

    COMPOUND TIME RECITATIVE

  • Passion

    Another type of vocal work from the Baroque period is a

    PASSION. Like the Oratorio, a Passion is a sacred work. It is

    however based on a particular time in the bible: the disciples

    (Mark, Matthew, Luke, John)

    It is a large scale work, containing recitatives, arias and

    choruses, and is usually sung in German.

    Name the accompanying keyboard instrument in

    this example.

  • IMITATION

    Imitation is present in lots of Baroque music. This simply means copying

    of parts. When you imitate a person speaking or an action you are copying

    it.

    Listen to the imitation in And the glory of the lord from Messiah.

    The words are: And the glory, the glory of the Lord shall be revealed

    And the Glory of the Lord

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6nBJJRHar7g&feature=related

  • Cadences

    A Cadence is a sequence of 2 different chords.

    The 3 cadences used within Baroque

    Perfect Cadence [Chord V to Chord I] APerfect Cadence makes the music sound finished.

    Imperfect Cadence [Chord IV V]

    An Imperfect cadence gives the effect that more music

    is needed.

    Tierce de Picardie (Major/Minor) A piece of music in a minor key which ends with a major key.

  • Revision Break!

    CANTATA

    Mellismatic

  • Forms and Structures

    Different styles of music can use different

    structures. Match the correct form or

    structure to the correct graphic

    Binary Form

    Ternary Form

    Rondo Form

    Canon

    Theme and Variations

  • Forms and Structures

    Match the correct form or structure to the

    correct graphic

    Binary Form -

    Ternary Form -

    Rondo Form -

    Canon -

    Theme and Variations -

  • Revision Break!

  • Revision Time!

    Baroque

    Concerto

    Oratorio

    Opera

    Cantata

    Chorale

    Aria

    Recitative

    Chorus

    Soprano

    Alto

    Tenor

    Bass

    Counter Tenor

    Violin

    Cello

    Harpsichord

    Con Arco

  • Revision Time!

    Repetition

    Imitation

    Sequence

    Ornaments

    Oratorio

    Melismatic Word Setting

    Syllabic Word Setting

    Binary Form

    Ternary Form

    Rondo Form

    Polyphonic

    Homophonic

    Pedal

    Ground Bass

    Perfect Cadence

    Imperfect Cadence

    Tierce de Picardie

    Canon

    Theme and Variations