amphibian defense notes

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  • Before we start todays lesson, there is one fact I want to put out there before the SLO test.

    The tympanic membrane is the ear drum of a frog/toad.

    On some species, such as Bullfrogs,the size of the tympanic membrane issexually dimorphic.

    Larger than the eye in males.Smaller than the eye in females.

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  • Amphibian Defense

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  • Toxins

  • Toxins most amphibians are distasteful to their predators.

  • Toxins most amphibians are distasteful to their predators.Many species have very poisonous chemicals that can be released from their skin glands.

  • Toxins most amphibians are distasteful to their predators.Many species have very poisonous chemicals that can be released from their skin glands.Amphibians are poisonous, not venomous.

  • Toxins most amphibians are distasteful to their predators.Many species have very poisonous chemicals that can be released from their skin glands.Amphibians are poisonous, not venomous.You must know the following 3 examples of toxins produced by amphibians.

  • Batrachotoxin a chemical compound produced by posion arrow frogs.

  • Batrachotoxin a chemical compound produced by posion arrow frogs.These frogs exhibit bright warning colors to prevent predators from attacking them.

  • Toads produce a chemical called bufotenin. This chemical causes increased heart rate and potentially heart failure.

  • Toads produce a chemical called bufotenin. This chemical causes increased heart rate and potentially heart failure.Bufotenin is released from bean-shaped glands called parotoid glands located behind toads eyes.

  • A family of salamanders called newts produce a very toxic chemical called salamandrin in their skin glands.

  • A family of salamanders called newts produce a very toxic chemical called salamandrin in their skin glands.Salamandrin is lethal in very small doses.Red-spotted Newt (eft). Efts Red-spotted Newt (adult). Thisare subadult newts. is an Ohio native.

  • Mimicry is a means of defense utilized by amphibians as well as many other animals.

  • Mimicry is a means of defense utilized by amphibians as well as many other animals.Mimicry is a strategy in which a nonpoisonous animal that has evolved to look like a similar poisonous species.

  • Mimicry is a means of defense utilized by amphibians as well as many other animals.Mimicry is a strategy in which a nonpoisonous animal that has evolved to look like a similar poisonous species.This mud salamander mimics the toxic red eft. It is native to eastern Ohio.

  • Aposomatic colors

  • Aposomatic colors are the warning colors that toxic animals exhibit to inform predators that they are dangerous.

  • Aposomatic colors are the warning colors that toxic animals exhibit to inform predators that they are dangerous.Aposomatic colors are generally bright shades that stand out against the background.

  • Aposomatic colors are the warning colors that toxic animals exhibit to inform predators that they are dangerous.Aposomatic colors are generally bright shades that stand out against the background.Examples:red

  • Aposomatic colors are the warning colors that toxic animals exhibit to inform predators that they are dangerous.Aposomatic colors are generally bright shades that stand out against the background.Examples:yellow

  • Aposomatic colors are the warning colors that toxic animals exhibit to inform predators that they are dangerous.Aposomatic colors are generally bright shades that stand out against the background.Examples:blue

  • Aposomatic colors are the warning colors that toxic animals exhibit to inform predators that they are dangerous.Aposomatic colors are generally bright shades that stand out against the background.Examples:yellow on black

  • Cryptic coloration

  • Cryptic coloration allows animals to hide in their habitat.

  • Cryptic coloration allows animals to hide in their habitat.

  • Cryptic coloration allows animals to hide in their habitat.

  • Cryptic coloration allows animals to hide in their habitat.

  • Cryptic coloration allows animals to hide in their habitat.

  • Counter shading

  • Counter shading is a type of cryptic coloration. Frogs that set at the surface on algae mats are often green dorsally.

  • Counter shading is a type of cryptic coloration. Frogs that set at the surface on algae mats are often green dorsally.The same frogs body is white on the underside.

  • Counter shading is a type of cryptic coloration. Frogs that set at the surface on algae mats are often green dorsally.The same frogs body is white on the underside. When it swims into open water, predators looking up at its belly from below will not be able to see it against the bright light of the sky.

  • A few amphibians have sufficiently sharp teeth that they will bite as a means of defense.

  • Other means of defense

  • Other means of defense Hiding

  • Other means of defense Hiding most small salamanders simply stay hidden beneath logs or rocks.

  • Other means of defense Hiding most small salamanders simply stay hidden beneath logs or rocks. Escape

  • Other means of defense Hiding most small salamanders simply stay hidden beneath logs or rocks. Escape many amphibians, especially frogs simply leap away from danger.

  • Other means of defense Hiding most small salamanders simply stay hidden beneath logs or rocks. Escape many amphibians, especially frogs simply leap away from danger. Urination

  • Other means of defense Hiding most small salamanders simply stay hidden beneath logs or rocks. Escape many amphibians, especially frogs simply leap away from danger. Urination some amphibians, most notably toads, empty their bladder when they are in the grasp of a predator.

  • Other means of defense Hiding most small salamanders simply stay hidden beneath logs or rocks. Escape many amphibians, especially frogs simply leap away from danger. Urination some amphibians, most notably toads, empty their bladder when they are in the grasp of a predator. Distress call

  • Other means of defense Hiding most small salamanders simply stay hidden beneath logs or rocks. Escape many amphibians, especially frogs simply leap away from danger. Urination some amphibians, most notably toads, empty their bladder when they are in the grasp of a predator. Distress call when captured by or escaping from a predator, most frogs/toads emit a distict call that is recognized by their own species as a warning.

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