2016 April Biomass Magazine

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Imports and Exports issue PLUS 1st Quarter Biomass Construction Update


MOBILIZING, GLOBALIZINGBioenergy Industry Sizes Up World Resources, MarketsApril 2016READ:Why California Biodiesel Imports are RisingPAGE 62 AND:Domestic Biogas Tech ProvidersOn Competition AbroadPAGE 52Upsides, Challenges of Pellet Commodi cationPAGE 34www.biomassmagazine.comPLUS:Foreign, Stateside Projects Make Headway in Q2 Biomass Construction UpdatePAGE 14+D]OHKXUVW*HRUJLD86$A S T E C: 2 2 ' 3 ( / / ( 7 3 / $ 1 7 60RGXODUGHVLJQZLWKUHSOLFDWHG73+UDWHGOLQHV2QHVRXUFHIRUHTXLSPHQWDQGFRQVWUXFWLRQ1RDGGRQHTXLSPHQWQHHGHGWRUHGXFH92&HPLVVLRQV4XLFNVHWXSDQGVWDUWXSZLWKJXDUDQWHHGSURGXFWLRQVXSSRUWSDUWVDQGVHUYLFH$Q\KDUGZRRGRUVRIWZRRGVSHFLHV$V$V$V$V$$ WHWHWWWHWHFFFFF ,,,,,QFQFQFQFLVLVLVLVVV DDD PPPHPHPHPHPEHEHEHHEHHHHUUUUU RIRIRIII WWWWWWKHKHKHKHKHKHH $$$$$$$$VWVWVWVVWVWHFHFHHFHH ,,,,QGQGQGQGQGGGXVXXVVWUWUWUWULHLHHHLHLHVVVVVV ,,,,,,QFQFQFQFQFQQQ IIIIIDPDPDPDPDD LOLOLOLOLOL \\\\\ RIRIRIRIIRI FFFFRPRPRRPPPSDSDSDDS QLQLQLQ HVHVHVDD ELELELELOOOOOO LRLRLRLRRQQQ GRGRGRGRGRROOOODUDU SSSSHUHUUHUHH \\\\\HDHDHDH UUUU FRFRUSUSSSRURUDWDWDWDWDD LRLRLRLRQQQ KHKHKHKHHDGDGDGDGDD TXTXXXXXDUDUD WHWHWHWHHUHUHUHUHHHGGGG LQLQLQLQQQ &&&&&&KDKDKDKKDKDKDKKDWWWWWWWWWDQDQDQQDQQQRRRRRRRRRRRRR JDJDDJJJDJ 71711717171 868686868688 $$$$$$$$$$FINAL PELLET MILL MAG BKCOV.indd 1 4/25/14 11:40 AMAPRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 3INSIDEAPRIL 2016 | VOLUME 10 | ISSUE 4Subscriptions Biomass Magazine is free of charge to everyone with the exception of a shipping and handling charge of $49.95 for anyone outside the United States. To subscribe, visit www.BiomassMagazine.com or you can send your mailing address and payment (checks made out to BBI International) to Biomass Magazine Subscriptions, 308 Second Ave. N., Suite 304, Grand Forks, ND 58203. You can also fax a subscription form to 701-746-5367. Back Issues & Reprints Select back issues are available for $3.95 each, plus shipping. Article reprints are also available for a fee. For more information, contact us at 701-746-8385 or service@bbiinternational.com. Advertising Biomass Magazine provides a specifi c topic delivered to a highly targeted audience. We are committed to editorial excellence and high-quality print production. To fi nd out more about Biomass Magazine advertising opportunities, please contact us at 701-746-8385 or service@bbiinternational.com. Letters to the Editor We welcome letters to the editor. Send to Biomass Magazine Letters to the Managing Editor, 308 2nd Ave. N., Suite 304, Grand Forks, ND 58203 or email to asimet@bbiinternational.com. Please include your name, address and phone number. Letters may be edited for clarity and/or space. POWER 24 NEWS25 COLUMNBiomass Powers Momentum in MaineBy Bob Cleaves26 FEATUREStaving Off a SunsetLow natural gas prices, expiration of power purchase agreements (PPA) and price guarantees of continuing PPA, are a few of the factors weighing heavily on Californias biomass power industry.By Bruce Dorminey06 EDITORS NOTEA Delicate BalanceBy Tim Portz08 BUSINESS BRIEFS 14 BIOMASS CONSTRUCTION UPDATE24ON THE COVER:Coillte, Ireland's semistateforestry organization, harvests material that will be hauled to and processed at one of its biomass hubs.PHOTO: COILLTEPELLETS32 NEWS33 COLUMNRoadmap For Pellet Stoves During Cheap Oil, GasBy John Ackerly34 FEATUREThe Upside of Commodity StatusWhile trade volumes of wood pellets pale in comparison to corn, wheat or coal, there are clear benefi ts in trade instruments common in larger commodity markets.By Tim PortzFUEL YOUR SUCCESS WITH VERMEER. Vermeer has the products and expertise to assist you throughout the entire biomass supply chain n from field to facility. And its all backed by service and support from your local Vermeer dealer. VISIT VERMEER.COM TO LEARN MORE.Vermeer, the Vermeer logo and Equipped to Do More are trademarks of Vermeer Manufacturing Company in the U.S. and/or other countries. 2016 Vermeer Corporation. All Rights Reserved.VISIT US AT THE INTERNATIONAL BIOMASS CONFERENCE, BOOTH #719Field_to_Facility_Final.indd 1 3/1/16 1:44 PMAPRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 5 BIOGAS50 NEWS51 COLUMNFuture Remains Bright for Biogas EnergyBy Amanda Bilek52 FEATUREGrowing the Local Home BaseStateside biogas technology suppliers are seeing success in the U.S., despite the experience their European counterparts possess.By Katie FletcherADVANCED BIOFUELS & CHEMICALS 60 NEWS61 COLUMNLeveling the Playing Field For US Biodiesel ProducersBy Anne Steckel62 FEATUREImporting to Meet California DemandSeveral factors are leading to a substantial uptick in imports of advanced biofuels into Californiaspecifically biomass-based diesel.By Ron KotrbaAPRIL 2016 | VOLUME 10 | ISSUE 4THERMAL42 NEWS43 COLUMNStay of Clean Power Plan: Opportunity for Biomass Industry?By Joel Stronberg44 CONTRIBUTIONWoody Biomass in the Inland NorthwestForest restoration projects in the Inland Northwest region could become a major supply of woody biomass for bioenergy, but economically only with the right support and incentives. By David Jackson46 CONTRIBUTIONDelivering Renewable Energy From Irish ForestsIrelands well-established forest industry has much to offer to the countrys emerging bioenergy market.By Des OTooleINSIDEADVERTISER INDEXBiomass Magazine: (USPS No. 5336) April 2016, Vol. 10, Issue 4. Biomass Magazine is published monthly by BBI International. Principal Office: 308 Second Ave. N., Suite 304, Grand Forks, ND 58203. Periodicals Postage Paid at Grand Forks, North Dakota and additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Biomass Magazine/Subscriptions, 308 Second Ave. N., Suite 304, Grand Forks, North Dakota 58203.COPYRIGHT 2016 by BBI InternationalTMPlease recycle this magazine and remove inserts or samples before recycling2016 National Advanced Biofuels Conference & Expo 63Advanced Cyclone Systems 21AGCO Corporation 10American Pulverizer Co. 18Andritz Feed & Biofuel A/S 66ASGCO 7ASTEC Bulk Handling Solutions 65Astec, Inc. 2Biotec Energy 28Biotec Energy 36BRUKS Rockwood 47Columbia Specialty Company, Inc 29CPM Global Biomass Group 49CPM Wolverine Proctor, LLC 54Detroit Stoker Company 56EBM Manufacturing 64Elliott Group 13GRYPHON Environmental, LLC 45Hermann Sewerin GmbH 58Hurst Boiler & Welding Co. Inc 48IEP Technologies 30-31International Bioenergy Conference & Exhibition Society 11Iowa Economic Development Authority 22Iowa Northern Railway Co. 37Julio Berkes 19KEITH Manufacturing Company 57Laidig Systems, Inc 17MonitorTech Corporation 70Morbank, Inc 23Orthman Conveying Systems 16PHG Energy 72ProcessBarron 8Rawlings Waste Wood Recovery Systems 42Scientific Dust Collectors 24Sigma Thermal, Inc 38SUMA America, Inc 50SWANA Solid Waste Association of North America 67Swedish Exergy AB 68TerraSource Global (Jeffrey Rader) 9Tramco, Inc 20United Sorghum Checkoff Program 39Uzelac Industries 15Varco Pruden Buildings 60Vecoplan LLC 32Vermeer Corporation 4West Salem Machinery Co. 55Williams Crusher 12Yargus Manufacturing, Inc. 696 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016A Delicate Balance At press time, registrants from 25 countries were signed up for this years International Bio-mass Conference & Expo. Last year, recognizing that as the companion issue for the event, our coverage in the April issue of Biomass Magazine should examine the global nature of the industry, so we fixed our editorial gaze on import and ex-port stories. This year, we returned to that same theme, and have found that the biomass market is very much global, both in the nature of its opportunities and its participants.This quarters Biomass Construction Update, on page 14, is a rich illustration of the global nature of this business. A careful examination of the 22 projects featured in the update make it clear that foreign marketplaces ultimately lead to installed production capacity stateside. Projects not generating energy products for foreign markets still leverage a global knowledge base, deploying technologies developed outside of the U.S. The impact of a growing industrial wood pellet market is easy to see in projects like Colombo Energy in South Carolina, Blue Sky Biomass in Georgia, and Highland Pellets in Arkansas. In other projects, tech-nologies and expertise are tapped instead of markets. A German engineering and construction has been hired to build a biomass power plant in Hawaii. An Italian firm is the technology provider and constructor for two North American biogas plants, a relationship that Katie Fletcher highlights in her page-52 biogas feature Growing the Local Home Base.Underpinning, and often complicating, all of this is policy. This issues sto-ries make it clear that while foreign policies, as well as state policies such as those explored in Senior Editor Ron Kotrbas page-62 story, Importing to Meet Cali-fornia Demand, successfully generate real opportunities for domestic producers, they also bring increased foreign interest and competition. Kotrbas story makes it clear that Californias Low Carbon Fuel Standard has led to a dramatic increase in the states biodiesel consumption. In just four years, it has grown 20-fold, and the states inclusion rate, once nominal, now rivals Minnesota and Illinois at just less than 10 percent. Still, biodiesel producers in the U.S. often find themselves outside of this rapidly-growing marketplace, watching foreign producers from Argentina and Singapore capture a sizeable portion of that states market. The dynamics Kotrba outlines in his story are playing out across this industry in every segment. Meanwhile, governments continue to wrestle with policies that deliver the environmental benefits for which they were devised, while also keep-ing an eye on domestic economic development and maintaining a favorable trade balance. TIM PORTZVICE PRESIDENT OF CONTENT & EXECUTIVE EDITORtportz@bbiinternational.comEDITORS NOTEEDITORIALPRESIDENT & EDITOR IN CHIEFTom Bryan tbryan@bbiinternational.comVICE PRESIDENT OF CONTENT & EXECUTIVE EDITORTim Portz tportz@bbiinternational.comMANAGING EDITOR Anna Simet asimet@bbiinternational.comSENIOR EDITOR Ron Kotrba rkotrba@bbiinternational.comNEWS EDITORErin Voegele evoegele@bbiinternational.comASSOCIATE EDITORKatie Fletcher kfletcher@bbiinternational.comCOPY EDITOR Jan Tellmann jtellmann@bbiinternational.comARTART DIRECTOR Jaci Satterlund jsatterlund@bbiinternational.comGRAPHIC DESIGNERRaquel Boushee rboushee@bbiinternational.comPUBLISHING & SALESCHAIRMANMike Bryan mbryan@bbiinternational.comCEOJoe Bryan jbryan@bbiinternational.comVICE PRESIDENT OF OPERATIONSMatthew Spoor mspoor@bbiinternational.comSALES & MARKETING DIRECTORJohn Nelson jnelson@bbiinternational.comBUSINESS DEVELOPMENT DIRECTOR Howard Brockhouse hbrockhouse@bbiinternational.comSENIOR ACCOUNT MANAGERChip Shereck cshereck@bbiinternational.com ACCOUNT MANAGERJeff Hogan jhogan@bbiinternational.comCIRCULATION MANAGER Jessica Beaudry jbeaudry@bbiinternational.comMARKETING & ADVERTISING MANAGERMarla DeFoe mdefoe@bbiinternational.comEDITORIAL BOARD MEMBERSStacy Cook, Koda EnergyBen Anderson, University of IowaJustin Price, Evergreen EngineeringAdam Sherman, Biomass Energy Resource CenterAPRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 7 INDUSTRY EVENTSInternational Fuel Ethanol Workshop & ExpoJUNE 20-23, 2016Wisconsin CenterMilwaukee, WisconsinThis 6th annual national event, produced by BBI International, will feature the world of advanced bio-fuels and biobased chemicalstechnology scale-up, project finance, policy, national markets and morewith a core focus on the industrial, petroleum and agribusiness alliances defining the national ad-vanced biofuels industry, plus a networking junction for all biomass industries.866-746-8385 | www.fuelethanolworkshop.comNational Advanced Biofuels Conference & ExpoJUNE 20-23, 2016Wisconsin CenterMilwaukee, WisconsinThe 6th annual National Advanced Biofuels Confer-ence & Expo will take place June 20-23, 2016, at the Wisconsin Center in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Pro-duced by BBI International, this national event will feature the world of advanced biofuels and biobased chemicalstechnology scale-up, project finance, policy, national markets and morewith a core focus on the industrial, petroleum and agribusiness allianc-es defining the national advanced biofuels industry and networking junction for all biomass industries.866-746-8385 | www.advancedbiofuelsconference.comInternational Biomass Conference & ExpoAPRIL 10-12, 2017Minneapolis Convention CenterMinneapolis, MinnesotaOrganized by BBI International and produced by Bio-mass Magazine, this event brings current and future producers of bioenergy and biobased products to-gether with waste generators, energy crop growers, municipal leaders, utility executives, technology pro-viders, equipment manufacturers, project develop-ers, investors and policy makers. Its a true one-stop shopthe worlds premier educational and network-ing junction for all biomass industries.866-746-8385 | www.biomassconference.comBiomass Magazine Webinar Series: Best Practices in Biomass Facility Dust Explosion Prevention and ProtectionAPRIL 7, 2016Sponsored by IEP TechnologiesDust explosions can present serious risk within a biomass facility. Ignition of a dust cloud in process equipment can destroy the primary vessel, propa-gate to interconnected equipment and the plant, causing secondary explosions with devastating re-sults. Fortunately, there are proven ways to address this threat. This webinar, a follow-up to IEPs informa-tion-packed effort from last year features three new experts. This free webinar is a cant-miss offering for operations teams looking to keep abreast of the lat-est advancements in these vital aspects of safe plant operations.866-746-83835 | www.biomassmagazine.com/pages/webinarPEOPLE, PRODUCTS & PARTNERSHIPSBusiness BriefsFUEL | AIR | GAS | ASH processbarron.com/biomass205-663-5330FUEL | AIR | GAS | ASHBIOMASS to ENERGYProcessBarron is there every step of the way.Come see us at Booth #1121Clariant honored for its sunliquid technologyClariant was honored for its innovative sunliquid technology for the production of cellulosic ethanol from agricultural residues as part of the 2015 German Innovation Prize for Climate and Environment. The biotech-nological process was awarded first place in the process innovations category. Velocys appoints CEOVelocys plc has appointed David Pum-mell as CEO. Pummell has more than 30 years of energy and oil industry experience. Prior to joining Velocys, he served as CEO of ACAL Energy Ltd. Pummell also previously served as CEO of MAPS Technology Ltd., where he successfully commercialized the technology prior to its acquisition by GE. He also served as CEO of Ceres Power Group plc, a developer of fuel cell micro combined-heat-and-power (CHP) products for the domestic stationary power sector.Hamer, Fischbein Americas to merge operationsHamer and Fischbein Americas have announced plans to merge operations. The Hamer-Fischbein union combines almost 200 years of industrial bag closing and automated packaging experience. The company will con-tinue to focus on its core businesses, including bag filling, bag closing, automated bagging and robotic palletizing. Doppstadt appoints Ecoverse exclusive distributor Doppstadt has appointed Ecoverse In-dustries exclusive distributor for all Dopp-stadt sales and rentals in California, Oregon, Washington, Arizona, Idaho, Montana and Hawaii. Ecoverse has worked alongside Doppstadt in the North American market for more than 13 years and has strong experience with Doppstadt products and their applica-tion across the market. In addition to supply-ing new machines, Ecoverse will also provide service, parts and full after-market support for all new and existing Doppstadt custom-ers, including technician and field training to support the complete Doppstadt product range. RusForest begins operations at Russian pellet millRusForestAB has announced the first sales from its 30,000-ton-per-year pellet mill in Magistralny, Russia. Following successful test runs in November, the company commenced production and delivery of wood pellets to its European trading partner in December. Stora Enso to add pellet production capacity at Sweden site Stora Enso has announced plans to invest 16 million ($14.13 million) to integrate pellet BUSINESS BRIEFS+DQGOLQJD:RUOGRI0DWHULDOV7KHEUDQGVFRPSULVLQJ7HUUD6RXUFH*OREDO*XQGODFK&UXVKHUV-HIIUH\5DGHUDQG3HQQV\OYDQLD&UXVKHUDUHZKROO\RZQHGVXEVLGLDULHVRI+LOOHQEUDQG,QF1PEOPLE, PRODUCTS & PARTNERSHIPSBusiness Briefs&01&5%LRPDVV$GSDWKVLQGG 30Rentech appoints CFORentech Inc. has ap-pointed Jeffrey R. Spain chief financial officer (CFO) of Rentech and the general partner of Rentech Nitrogen Part-ners L.P. Spain will be responsible for overseeing the finance and accounting functions for both companies. He replaces Dan J. Cohrs. Before being appoint-ed CFO, Spain served as senior vice president of finance, accounting and administration for Rentechs wood fibre group. He has held vari-ous senior financial and accounting roles at Rentech since 2011, and most recently played a critical role in the financial turnaround of Fulghum Fibres. Spains experience spans over 20 years and includes investment bank-ing and operations management and chief financial officer roles. His past employers in-clude Credit Suisse First Boston, LeadPoint Inc., eNutrition Inc. and Kimberly-Clark Corp. Director of LBNL appointed The University of California Board of Re-gents has approved Mi-chael Witherell, vice chan-cellor for research at UC Santa Barbara, as direc-tor of Lawrence Berke-ley National Laboratory. Witherell is a leading physicist with a highly distinguished career in teaching, research and managing complex organizations. He has re-ceived numerous honors and recognitions for his scientific contributions and achievements. He is the former director of the Fermi Na-tional Accelerator Laboratory in northern Illi-nois and currently holds the presidential chair in Physics at UC Santa Barbara.BioAmber earns certifications for Sarnia plantBioAmber Inc. has announced that its Sarnia, Ontario, production plant, jointly owned with Mitsui & Co., has received ISO 9001, ISO 14001, OHSAS 18001 and FSSC 22000 certifications. These certifications were granted by accredited certification bod-ies following audits of the Sarnia plant during the fourth quarter of 2015. By achieving these certifications, BioAmber has demonstrated its commitment to enhancing customer satis-faction through the implementation of an in-tegrated management system. BioAmber has put in place processes that ensure continual improvement and conformity to customer, statutory and regulatory requirements. Metabolix relocates headquarters Metabolix Inc. has signed a 10.5-year lease agreement for 30,000 square feet of state-of-the-art laboratory and office space in Woburn, Massachusetts. Metabolix expects to take occupancy of the space as its corporate headquarters in June as it exits space in Cam-bridge, Massachusetts. Metabolix also plans to exit office space it currently occupies in Lowell, Massachusetts, in May 2017 and to consolidate its biopolymers sales, marketing and adminis-trative offices and biopolymers research and development laboratories in the Woburn facil-ity. The new laboratory facilities will include a Spain WitherellAPRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 11 &01&5%LRPDVV$GSDWKVLQGG 30Contact us for more information: Event Manager, Cam McAlpine cam#bioenergyconference.org +1.250.961.6611Join us in Prince George, Canada for the 7th International Bioenergy Conference and Exhibition.Over the three days of the conference, held at the centre of one of the largest biomass fibre baskets in the world, there will be many opportunities to learn more about the industry in British Columbia as well as the latest global trends in fibre supply, sustainability, products, technology, policies and other drivers of the future bioeconomy.PARTNERSHIPS FOR INNOVATIONDRIVING SUCCESS IN BIOENERGY15 - 17 JUNE 2016 PRINCE GEORGE, BC, CANADAREGISTER NOW bioenergyconference.orgmicrobial fermentation lab and an expanded biopolymers applications development lab. Pending the spinout of its Yield10 crop sci-ence program, Metabolix will also relocate its Massachusetts-based crop science laboratory and personnel to the facility in Woburn. Dale honored for work in biological engineeringThe American Insti-tute for Medical and Bio-logical Engineering has announced the induction of Bruce Dale, Michigan State University professor of chemical engineering and materials science, to its College of Fellows. Dale was nominated, reviewed and elected by peers and members of the College of Fellows for outstanding contributions in the biological engineering of transforming plant biomass to food and fuel to achieve a sustainable bioeconomy. The College of Fellows is composed of the top 2 percent of medical and biological engineers in the country. AIMBEs mission is to recognize excellence in, and advocate for, the fields of medical and bio-logical engineering in order to advance society. SBP appoints CEOThe Sustainable Biomass Partnership has ap-pointed Carsten Huljus as CEO. Huljus is ex-perienced in forest management and chain of custody certification schemes. As CEO, he will be responsible for the leadership and manage-ment of SBP, including engagement with its many stakeholders, such as biomass supply chain actors, policy makers and environmental NGOs. The current executive director, Peter Wilson, will take up the new post of standards director with Simon Armstrong continuing as technical director. Biogas expert recognized Abraham Engeda, a professor of mechanical engineering at Michigan State University, is one of 10 professors world-wide to earn the Fulbright Global Flex Award. He will use the award to support two years of pow-er-generation research in remote parts of China and Ethiopia. The Fulbright Global Flex Schol-ars Award is funded by the U.S. Department of State. It helps U.S. academic and professional experts engage in regional or transregional re-search and teaching through visits to multiple countries. Engeda is an expert in turbomachin-ery, including power plant cooling, experimen-tal thermofluids, turbomachinery flow analysis and design, gas turbine and biogas. He is a fel-low of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and a recipient of the ASME Fluid Machinery Award. Floreat Group launches company specializing in biomassFloreat Group has committed $50 million to the U.K. biomass sector and launched FCM Bioenergy Ltd., trading as Vesta, an energy supply company specializing in providing low-cost, long-term green energy contracts using biomass to the manufacturing, agriculture and care home sectors. The venture will be funded through a mixture of equity and debt, all fund-ed privately by the group. DaleEngedaQ Customer: Palm oil plantation, Southeast Asia.Q Challenge: Operate a critical stand-alone CHP system in a remote location.Q Result: A ruggged Elliott steam turbine generator package delivers reliable, cost-effective electricity and process steam. They turned to Elliottfor leadership and proven expertise.The customer turned to Elliott for more than 80 years of steam turbine experience. Tens of thousands of rugged, easy to maintain Elliott YR steam turbines are installed and operating throughout the world. Who will you turn to? C O M P R E S S O R S Q T U R B I N E S Q G L O B A L S E R V I C E www.elliott-turbo.comThe world turns to Elliott.14 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016Fort St. James Green Energy LPLocation Fort St. James, British Columbia, CanadaEngineer/builder DalkiaPrimary fuel Forest and sawmill waste, pine beetle killBoiler type Double drum FSE Energy boilerNameplate capacity 40 MWCombined heat and power NoGovernment incentives NoneIPP or utility IPPGroundbreaking date 2013Start-up date 2016Toward the end of February, Fort St. James was is roughly 75 percent complete and on track to become operational by July.In the U.S., unusual weather wreaked havoc on several plants under construction through the winter. While the El Nio has brought mild conditions to much of the country, it has and continues to bring above-average rainfall and flooding to many locations, and consequently has slowed progress a bit at some facilities. A handful of plants aiming for startup earlier in the year have seen slight delays, but many are now readying to do so, with a fair number of plants already achieving operational status. For example, in Charlotte, North Carolina, and Johnston, Rhode Island, Blue Sphere is readying to turn on its combined-heat-and-power biogas plants, after battling record rainfall and muddy site conditions. Chip Energys pellet manufacturing plant in Goodfield, Illinois, reported a windy Old Man Winter that was unkind to construction workers needing to work 80 feet in the air. Setbacks are being gained upon, however, and a July startup is planned.Also planning a July startup is Veolia North America and Fengate Capital Managements 40-MW Fort St. James Green Energy Project in British Columbia, with its twin in Merritt following shortly thereafter. Projects graduating to completion in this quarters Biomass Construction Update include the district heating plant at University of Maine, Farmington, which is now providing the campus with thermal energy, and Green Energy Teams power plant in Kauai, Hawaii, which, after experiencing some technical issues with the facilitys turbine, has been fired up and is expected to be sending power to the grid by April.Many are bidding an enthusiastic adios to El Nio, which is weakening and expected to diminish by late spring or early summer. Its end could make way for an interesting fall/winter construction season, however, as researchers believe there is a good chance that La NiaEl Nios opposite, usually characterized above-average precipitation and below-average temperatures to Canada, the U.S. Midwest and Pacific Northwest regions, as well a strong hurricane season in the Atlantic regionwilll pay a visit to North America.If you have a project you would like profiled in the Biomass Construction Update, email asimet@bbiinternational.com.Biomass CONSTRUCTION UPDATEHello Spring, Adios El Nio By Anna SimetFORT ST. JAMES GREEN ENERGY PROJECTPHOTO: FENGATE CAPITAL MANAGEMENTTEMPLEBOROUGH BIOMASS PLANTPHOTO: TEMPLEBOROUGH BIOMASS PLANTTempleborough Biomass PlantLocation Rotherham, South Yorkshire, England.Engineer/builder Interserve Construction Ltd., Babcock & Wilcox VlundPrimary fuel Commercial and municipal wood wasteBoiler type Babcock & Wilcox Vlund multifuel boilerNameplate capacity 41 MWCombined heat and power YesGovernment incentives NoneIPP or utility IPPGroundbreaking date Q2 2015Start-up date August 2017The plant is rising above ground level as the power plant equipment, boiler, turbine, generator and gas wood fuel store are built. Power will be sold to GDF Suez Energy UK via a 15-year power purchase agreement. The facility is on course for an opening in late summer 2017.APRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 15 Biomass Power Pellets Biogas Thermal Advanced Biofuel CONSTRUCTION UPDATEThe Right Choice In Drying for over 30 Years.Uzelac Industries is a leading manufacturer of Rotary Drying Systems, with systems operating internationally. Our systems are employed to convert many dierent products into marketable by-products in many dierent industries. Biomass Biosolids Meat Processing FertilizerWood Pellets Municipal Sludge Cattle & Hog Blood Ammonium SulfateWood Chips Industrial Sludge Meat and Bone Sulfate of PotassiumWood Shavings DAF Solids Feather Meal Salts Agricultural Poultry Manure Egg Shells PotashOur systems convert these products into: FUEL, FEED SUPPLEMENTS AND FERTILIZER Uzelac Industries Systems are Engineered for Eciency - Designed for Longevitywww.uzelacind.comUzelac Industries6901 Industrial Loop,Greendale, WI USA 53129p: 414-529-0240 | f: 414-529-0362Green Energy Team LLCLocation Koloa, Kauai, HawaiiEngineer/builder Standardkessel Baumgarte Group (SKG)Primary fuel Eucalyptus and albiziaBoiler type Pusher-type grate with natural circulation steam generatorNameplate capacity 7.5 MWCombined heat and power YesGovernment incentives N/AIPP or utility IPPGroundbreaking date January 2013Start-up date Q4 2015After completing an unforseen turbine repair, the boiler was lit and steam is being produced. The plant is on track to be sending power to the grid by April.Constellation Energy, Albany Green EnergyLocation Albany, GeorgiaEngineer/builder DCO Energy LLCPrimary fuel Forest residue, pecan shells, peanut hullsBoiler type Valmet circulating fluidized bed boilerNameplate capacity 50 MWCombined heat and power YesGovernment incentives $250 million in bonds issued by Albany Dougherty Payroll Development AuthorityIPP or utility UtilityGroundbreaking date 2014Start-up date June 2017Boiler building steel erection continues and reached its highest elevation in February. Major equip-ment deliveries have commenced including the boiler steam drum and truck tippers. Fuel handling system construction also commenced in February.DUBLIN WASTE-TO-ENERGY LTDPHOTO: P.J. HEGARTY & SONSDublin Waste-to-Energy Ltd.Location Poolbeg, Dublin, IrelandEngineer/builder Covanta Energy Corp.Primary fuel Municipal solid wasteBoiler type NANameplate capacity 58 MWCombined heat and power NoGovernment incentives Irelands renewable feed-in tariff IPP or utility IPPGroundbreaking date Q4 2014Start-up date 2017The project is over 50 percent complete and on schedule to begin start-up operations in early 2017. About 60 percent of the plant's waste capacity has been contracted. Covanta is in the process of staffing the facility.16 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016Biomass Power Pellets Biogas Thermal Advanced BiofuelBlue Sky Biomass Georgia LLCLocation Adel, GeorgiaDesign/builder Blue Sky BiomassExport port TBDExport location EuropePellet grade Industrial premium pelletsAnnual capacity 540,000 metric tonsFeedstock Sawmill residualsGroundbreaking date 2014Start-up date 2016Four presses are installed with remaining eight presses to arrive in April. The plant is four to five months from completion. BLUE SKY BIOMASS GEORGIA LLCPHOTO: BLUE SKY BIOMASSOrthman Conveying Systems is experienced in handling all of your bulk materials.We specialize in heavy duty construction as a standard to reduce maintenance and extend the life of all equipment. Orthman will design and manufacture complete systems using either standard or special parts to meet the customers exact needs.877-664-2687 | Lexington, NE 573-443-2144 | Columbia, MO www.or thman.comMerritt Green Energy ProjectLocation Merritt, British Columbia, CanadaEngineer/builder DalkiaPrimary fuel Forest and sawmill waste, pine beetle killBoiler type Double drum FSE Energy boilerNameplate capacity 40 MWCombined heat and power NoGovernment incentives NoneIPP or utility N/AGroundbreaking date 2014Start-up date 2016Toward the end of February, the plant was roughly 80 percent complete. Construction around the boiler is ongoing, conveyors are nearing finish, the steam turbine building is complete. Equipment is on-site and piping and electrical connections are soon to be made. Colombo Energy Inc.-Greenwood Location Greenwood County, South CarolinaDesign/builder PortucelExport port N/AExport location EuropePellet grade Industrial premium pelletsAnnual capacity 460,000 metric tonsFeedstock Forest wasteGroundbreaking date March 2015Start-up date Summer 2016As part of its responsibilities in the project, Prodesa will supply the complete milling, pelleting and cooling lines, including five hammer mills, 15 pellet mills, and five vertical coolers. APRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 17 CONSTRUCTION UPDATEChip Energy Inc.Location Goodfield, IllinoisDesign/builder Chip EnergyExport port N/AExport location N/APellet grade Pellets, briquettes and logsCapacity 36,500 metric tonsFeedstock Waste wood, energy crops, agricultural residueGroundbreaking date 2013Start-up date TBDAfter a few setbacks during installation of the fabric roofing, piping was ordered and scheduled for installation in mid-March. Coupled with a tough winter, start-up has been pushed to midsummer, with production expected in July, and full operations in Q3./DLGLJVWXUQNH\VWRUDJHDQGUHFODLPV\VWHPVRIIHUVXSHULRUPDWHULDOKDQGOLQJSHUIRUPDQFHDQGGHSHQGDELOLW\LQWKHKDUVKHVWHQYLURQPHQWV/DLGLJVV\VWHPVDUHHQJLQHHUHGWRSURYLGHFRPSOHWHO\DXWRPDWHGQHDUWRWDOFOHDQRXWZKLOHPDLQWDLQLQJUVWLQUVWRXW),)2PDWHULDOGLVWULEXWLRQ)8//Biomass Power Pellets Biogas Thermal Advanced BiofuelBlue Sphere - Waste To Energy Power Plant CharlotteLocation Charlotte, North CarolinaEngineer/builder AUSTEP/T. Ortega GainesSubstrate(s) Organic/food wasteDigester type Conical tank utilizing AUSTEP's Cruise Control SystemGas cleaning technology AUSTEP biogas washing system/wet scrubberBiogas production capacity N/ABiogas end use ElectricityPower capacity 5.2 MWGroundbreaking date March 2015Start-up date Spring 2016After minor weather-related setbacks, the plant will begin operations in early spring. Power is being sold to Duke Energy via a 15-year PPA.Blue Sphere - Waste To Energy Power Plant JohnstonLocation Johnston, Rhode IslandEngineer/builder AUSTEP/T. Ortega GainesSubstrate(s) Organic/food wasteDigester type Conical tank utilizing AUSTEP's Cruise Control SystemGas cleaning technology AUSTEP biogas washing system/wet scrubberBiogas production capacity N/ABiogas end use ElectricityPower capacity 3.2 MWGroundbreaking date March 2015Start-up date Spring 2016The facility is on schedule for an early spring startup. Power will be sold to National Grid via a 15-year PPA.BLUE SPHERE - CHARLOTTEPHOTO: AERO PHOTOSBLUE SPHERE - JOHNSTONPHOTO: CREATIVE CHICA PHOTOGRAPHYAPRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 19 CONSTRUCTION UPDATEEnergy solutionsIndustrial application and Power plantswww.berkes.com.uy Biomass, industrial residues and wastes solutions 40 years of experience with Gasification Tailor-made solutions Turnkey projects 10-100 MW with world class partnersWeyerhaeuser, Tacuarembo CHP Plant, 90 t/h, 80 barg, 480 C Biomass GasificationthRoeslein Alternative Energy of Missouri LLCLocation Northern MissouriEngineer/builder Roeslein Alternative Energy LLCSubstrate(s) Hog manureDigester type/technology Lagoon style, floating impermeable coverGas cleaning technology Molecular sieve/PSABiogas production capacity 2 million-plus Btu/yearBiogas end use CNG and LNGPower capacity N/AGroundbreaking date May 2014Start-up date First pipeline injections in June 2016Phase II construction started in November and is ongoing. Commissioning and startup are sched-uled for May.LA Sanitation, Hyperion Treatment Plant Cogeneration ProjectLocation Playa del Rey, CaliforniaEngineer/builder Constellation Energy Resources LLCSubstrate(s) Municipal sewageDigester type/technology Egg-shapedGas cleaning technology Moisture Rx and Regenerative Mixed-Bed MediaBiogas production capacity Electricity and steamBiogas end use N/APower capacity 25 MWGroundbreaking date November 2015Start-up date 2016Design is 100 percent complete. Major equipment deliveries are in progress and construction is progressing toward a mechanical completion date midsummer 2016.Surrey Organic Biofuel Facility, Greenlane BiogasLocation Surrey, British ColumbiaEngineer/builder Orgaworld CanadaSubstrate(s) 115,000 metric tons of organic waste annuallyDigester type/technology Orgaworlds Biocel, dry ADGas cleaning technology Greenlane water scrubbing biogas upgrading technologyBiogas production capacity N/ABiogas end use RNG, heatPower capacity N/AGroundbreaking date Q1 2015Start-up date Early 2017The facility is under construction and will process organic waste from the citys curbside collection program, and commercial waste from the region. Biogas will be upgraded to produce renewable natural gas that will fuel the citys fleet of natural gas waste collection and operations service vehicle, as well as fuel the city-owned district energy system to heat and cool public and privately owned buildings.Skrbk Power Station, Dong EnergyLocation Fredericia, DenmarkEngineer/builder B&W VollundPrimary fuel Wood chipsBoiler type B&W Vollund fluidized bedNameplate thermal capacity 280 MWthHeat enduse District heat and electricityGovernment incentives/grants N/AGroundbreaking date September 2014Start-up date Early 2017At press time, approximately 150 workers were on-site. That number will increase to nearly 500 this quarter.20 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016Biomass Power Pellets Biogas Thermal Advanced Biofuel1020 E. 19th St. Wichita, KS 67214 USA316.264.4604tramcoinc.com The Worlds Most Complete Line of Mill Duty Conveyorse DOE'S SAVANNAH RIVER SITEPHOTO: DOE, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE DOE's Savannah River Site Biomass Heating PlantLocation Aiken, South CarolinaEngineer/builder Ameresco Inc.Primary fuel Forest residueBoiler type Fluidized bedNameplate thermal capacity N/AHeat enduse District heatGovernment incentives/grants N/AGroundbreaking date May 2015Start-up date Spring 2016The relocated package boiler is online, and the new biomass boiler will be online late spring. University of Maine at Farmington, Biomass Heat PlantLocation Farmington, MaineEngineer/builder Trane U.S. Inc.Primary fuel Wood chipsBoiler type Messersmith Nameplate thermal capacity 35,400 MMBtuHeat enduse District heatGovernment incentives/grants N/AGroundbreaking date May 2015Start-up date January 2016The plant is now supplying heat to the campus. A public ribbon-cutting ceremony was planned March 13.East Kansas Agri-Energy LLC - Renewable Diesel FacilityLocation Garnett, KansasDesign/builder WB ServicesProcess technology Capable of both enzymatic and chemical processingBiofuel/biochemical product(s) Renewable dieselFeedstock Distillers corn oilProduction capacity 3 MMgyType of RINs N/ACoproducts NaphthaGroundbreaking date 2014Start-up date N/AProjectCompleteCONSTRUCTION UPDATECentral MN Renewables LLCLocation Little Falls, MinnesotaDesign/builder WeitzProcess technology Advanced fermentation processBiofuel/biochemical product(s) n-butanol, acetoneFeedstock CornProduction capacity 21 MMgyType of RINs N/ACoproducts N/AGroundbreaking date Q4 2015Start-up date Q3 2016The former ethanol plant requires some additional equipment and building infrastructure, including slightly different distillation equipment, but is utilizing some existing assets. Construction is in full swing and the plant is on track to become operational during the third quarter this year.ENVIA Energy Oklahoma City LLCLocation Oklahoma City, OklahomaDesign/builder Ventech Engineers International LLCProcess technology Velocys Fischer-Tropsch reactorBiofuel/biochemical product(s) Diesel, synthetic waxes and naphthaFeedstock Landfill gas and natural gasProduction capacity TBAType of RINs D7, D3Coproducts TBAGroundbreaking date May 2015Start-up date Mid-2016Manufacture of the FT reactors and initial catalyst charge for the plant is complete. Fabrication of the modular process units is essentially complete and the first modules are being prepared for delivery to the site. ENVIAPHOTO: VELOCYS INC.CENTRAL MN RENEWABLES LLCPHOTO: GREEN BIOLOGICSWHEN WE SEE A DISCOVERY, WE SHARE IT.:\YL^LYLPU]LZ[PUNPU[OLQVIZVM[VTVYYV ^>LQ\Z[^HU[[OLT[VKH `;OH[Z^O`^L]LILLU^VYRPUNZVJSVZLS`^P[OK`UHTPJ[LJOUVSVN`JVTWHUPLZ[VIYPUN[OLT[V0V^H6\YYLZLHYJOPUZ[P[\[PVUZZOHYLKPZJV]LYPLZ^P[OSVJHSIPVZJPLUJLJVTWHUPLZSSPUN[OLPYWPWLSPULZ^P[OIYLHR[OYV\NOWYVK\J[Z0V^HIYPUNZ[VNL[OLYI\ZPULZZSLHKLYZ[VIVVZ[PUUV]H[PVUHUKWVZP[PVU\ZMVYZ\JJLZZPU[OLNSVIHSLJVUVT `=PZP[PV^HLJVUVTPJKL]LSVWTLU[JVT(UKUKV\[^O`PUUV]H[PVUZLLZ0V^HHZ[OLSHUKVMVWWVY[\UP[ `%LRPDVVB,('$%LR[LQGG 30CHIP STRONG. MORBARK STRONG!Morbark Strong. Its more than a slogan; its a way of life for us. Its our commitment to you that our heavy-duty equipment is built to withstand the rigors of even your toughest jobs.All Morbark equipment is aggressive, productive and engineered to give you the power and features you need to maximize output, minimize downtime and enhance yourprofitability.We custom-build your whole tree drum chipper to meet your exact specifications. Our dealers will partner with you to determine your needs for now and in the future.Our commitment to you extends beyond the sale with our ever-expanding dealer network, unmatched service and support teams, as well as expertise in helping you recognize and capitalize on potential business opportunities.In short, our commitment to you is Morbark Strong!Find your local authorized Morbark dealer at www.morbark.com/find-a-dealerTrack Options Cab & Loader Option MicroChipper Configuration Option Range of Sizes AvailableVisit us at the International Biomass Conference and Expo, Booth #1112Morbark Chip Strong-8-5x10-875_IBC Booth.indd 1 3/7/2016 3:32:29 PM24 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016The Federal Energy Regulatory Commis-sion Office of Energy Projects recently released its energy infrastructure update for December, reporting the U.S. added 312 MW of biomass capacity last year, up from 270 MW in 2014. The number of biomass units, however, de-creased from 92 in 2014 to 30 in 2015.According to the report, 487 new genera-tion units were placed in service across the U.S. last year, with a combined capacity of 17,272 MW. In 2014, the 741 new generation units were placed into service, with a combined ca-pacity of 19,425 MW.Of the renewable energy technologies, wind led with 71 units with a combined capacity of 8,186 MW, followed by 282 solar units with a combined capacity of 2,598 MW. The U.S. also added 22 hydro units last year with a combined capacity of 154 MW, 2 geothermal steam units with a combined capacity of 48 MW. No waste heat units were added last year, but 17 units categorized as other were added, with a com-bined capacity of less than 1 MW.As of the close of 2015, the U.S. had 16.68 GW of biomass capacity, accounting for ap-proximately 1.43 percent of total U.S. capacity. Of the nonhydro renewables, only wind had a higher percentage of capacity.PowerNewsIn February, the U.S. Supreme Court granted a request to delay enforcement of the U.S. EPAs Clean Power Plan until legal chal-lenges are resolved. More than two dozen states and a vari-ety of industry groups have filed legal chal-lenges against the program. Oral arguments are currently scheduled to be held June 2 with the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Colombia. White House Press Secretary Josh Earnest issued a statement on the Supreme Courts decision Feb. 9. We disagree with the Supreme Courts decision to stay the Clean Power Plan while litigation proceeds, he said in the statement. Even while the litigation proceeds, EPA has indicated it will work with states that choose to continue plan development and will prepare the tools those states will need, he continued. At the same time, the admin-istration will continue to take aggressive steps to make forward progress to reduce carbon emissions.The U.S. EPA plans to hold a workshop on the role of biomass in the Clean Power Plan April 7. 312 MW of biomass capacity added in 2015 Supreme Court delays enforcement of EPAs Clean Power PlanNew generation in service2015 2014No. of units Installed capacity (MW) No. of units Installed capacity (MW)Coal 1 3 3 166Natural gas 51 5,952 82 9,162Oil 11 19 19 96Water 22 154 19 237Wind 71 8,186 71 5,319Biomass 30 312 92 270Geothermal steam 2 48 7 36Solar 282 2,598 426 3,776Waste heat 0 0 4 75Other 17 0 8 22Total 487 17,272 741 19,425SOURCE: FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION The Real Dirt on DustScientic Dust Collectors oers a FREE second edition publication on dust collection titled A Scientic Review of Dust Collection Second Edition. This second edition, 120 page manual, contains new sections on explosion vents and system design and reviews the history, theory and application of all types of dust collection equipment. Request your FREE copy at www.scienticdustcollectors.com or call 708-597-7090APRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 25 In the first few months of 2016, Maine lawmakers and the media have shown that when the (wood) chips are down, they will rally to do everything in their power to keep plants open. Biomass currently provides 25 per-cent of Maines total power, not just renewable electric-ity, and it is encouraging to see that many Mainers want to keep it that way. On Jan. 1, Massachusetts put into effect new regu-lations that require any biomass facility selling power on the New England grid to meet an arbitrary 50 percent efficiency standard to qualify for Massachusetts renew-able energy credits (RECs). This disqualifies any stand-alone biomass facility without a steam host, a category into which falls the entire New England biomass fleet operating today. As a result, two Maine facilities have announced impending closure by the end of March, if the policy is not reversed. The hope is that Massachusetts will reconsider its requirement, allowing the Maine facilities to remain online. This will not happen overnight, however. In the meantime, Maine lawmakers are looking at creative measures to help fill in the gapssupporting not only biomass, but also the loggers and other rural workers who benefit from the existence of a strong biomass market. Maine media and lawmakers have been fully sup-portive of biomass, going on the record for an unam-biguous defense of our industry and its many benefits. Maine Gov. Paul LePage, in this years State of the State letter, recognized the economic role of biomass in Maine, and later held a briefing with Maine loggers and biomass power providers to hear about the current challenges and pledge the continued help of his staff in finding a solution Some of the media stories of the past month have included: A Portland Press Herald story that explored the link between biomass and the states forestry economy, with several quotes from loggers and sawmill executives on the important role biomass plays for their businesses. Several Maine newspapers ran lengthy editorials on the need to reconsider state policies that are endan-gering Maine biomass. On the need to prevent potential job loss, the editorial said, To help avoid that outcome, Maine should pursue policies favorable to biomass, even if that means marginally pushing up energy rates with above-market contracts. Any rate increase would be more than offset by the economic benefits of a home-grown energy supply that also means so much to forest products industry. Sen. Angus King, I-Maine, interviewed me for a nearly 15-minute segment on WGANs Inside Maine, during which we discussed the biomass industry and the policy solutions that could help keep plants open. A Portland Press Herald op-ed by Patrick Strauch further drove home the environmental benefits of bio-mass, and the adverse effects of state policies that make it more difficult to use biomass as a fuel for generating power. He also recognized King and Sen. Susan Collins, R-Maine, for their carbon neutrality amendment to the Senate energy bill. Its not yet clear what policy solutions will result from this wave of strong biomass support being vocal-ized in Maine. But we know that many Maine legisla-tors are aware of the issue and are working to find a solution. The biomass industry is highly appreciative of these efforts.Author: Bob CleavesPresident, Biomass Power Associationbob@usabiomass.orgwww.usabiomass.org Biomass Powers Momentum in MainePOWERBY BOB CLEAVES26 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016STAYING ALIVE: Rio Bravo Fresno is one of only a couple dozen biomass power plants that are still operating in California, which at its peak hosted more than 60 facilities.PHOTO: RICK SPURLOCK APRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 27 While Californias biomass power industry continues its struggle for survival, fuel suppliers are left without a home for mounting materials. BY BRUCE DORMINEYFrom its very inception, California has fostered the entrepreneurial spiritfrom the 1849 Gold Rush right through to present-day Sili-con Valley. The Golden State has tradi-tionally been a hotbed of innovation, and that remains true today, particularly when it comes to renewable energy generation. But three decades after California led the country in creating one of the worlds most viable biomass industries, the states sector is literally fighting for its long-term survival. A confluence of low natural gas prices, expiring power purchase agreements (PPAs), expiration of price guarantees on continuing PPAs, and cheap and plentiful solar alternatives have deeply cut into the states biomass-to-energy production. In many ways, during his second term ending in 1983, current California Gov. Jer-ry Brown was the architect and inspiration behind the states once-burgeoning bio-mass industry. At one time, the state saw more than 60 plants incorporating a mix of ag waste, forest product waste and residues, as well as urban construction and demoli-tion (C&D) waste. Today, Brown is under pressure from both biomass plant operators and fuel sup-pliers who are increasingly looking to lead-ership from Sacramento for a way out of what may shape up to be biomasss worst year ever in California. Past Biomass GloryAt its peak in the early 1990s, the Cali-fornia biomass energy industry produced almost 4.5 billion kilowatt-hours (KWh) per year of electricity, according to the na-tional renewable energy laboratory. There are currently 23 California biomass plants operating with a collective capacity of 550 MW, says Gregg Morris, a Berkeley-based bioenergy consultant. Seven or eight plants are idle but refurbishable.Thus, he says, there is probably 150 MW of capacity that could come back on-line if the facilities were to secure PPAs. Six biomass plants have shut down in the past two years. Covantas Mendota bio-mass plant is just the latest casualty, clos-ing in December. Morris says two or three are facing closure if they dont get a new contract this year. He expects another half dozen to close next year. Long-term PPAs are expiring at the same time that we are seeing historically low natural gas prices, says Carrie Annand, Off a SunsetStaving POWER28 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016vice president of external affairs at the Bio-mass Power Association in Washington, D.C. She says that is causing uncertainty for all California biomass producers.Biomass currently only provides Cali-fornia with less than six percent of its re-newable energy; compared to an all-time high of more than 15 percent. The indus-try uses some five to six million tons total per year of biomass total. In a normal year, we would have 100 percent of our fuel supply already contract-ed, says Rick Spurlock, plant manager of Rio Bravo Fresno, a 25-MW plant owned by IHI Power Services Corp. But we dont have an energy price agreement past July 31. Thus, Spurlock says they are not go-ing to contract fuel without an energy price agreement in place, a decision that boils down to economics. If the biomass plants go off the fixed rate, that means the price per KWh will drop by five to six cents, says Lynch. They can buy wind and solar for five to six cents. Thus, its no surprise that Covantas five California biomass plants have all been shut down. Current power purchase prices are not sufficient to cover operations and fuel and the company has been unable to secure PPAs to continue operations, says James Regan, spokesman for Covanta in Morristown, New Jersey. We will continue to evaluate their future, but [only] getting a PPA at the right price will enable us to oper-ate, Regan says. FOGGY FUTURE: Rio Bravo Fresno, a 25-MW plant operating in central California, normally has all of its annual fuel supply contracted at this time of year, but thats not the case right now, as the near-term fate of the facility is unclear.PHOTO: RICK SPURLOCK APRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 29 (562) 634-6425 | WWW.COLUMBIASPECIALTY.COM2) 634-6425 | WWW.COLUMBIASW.COLU BIAS62) 634-6425 | WWW.COLUMBIASPECIALTY.COWWW.CO| W2) MWWWCALL US TODAY, WE WILL HELP YOUTURN YOUR IDEAS INTO FINISHED PRODUCTSTODAY, WE WILL HELP YOUCALL US TODAY, WE WILL HELP YOUTODAY, WTODODAY, WE UP YLP YOUHE OTO OOCUSTOM MANUFACTURINGSPECIALIZING IN WELDING AND MACHINING OF HIGHTEMPERATURE, CORROSION RESISTANT ALLOYS.ALIZING IN WELDING AND MACHINING OF HIGIN WELDING AND MACHINING OF HIGHCIALIZING IN WELDING AND ALIZZING IN WELDING AND ACHINING OF HIGHACMAMACAAAZZIZZIZZZ NGINZ G ACHINING OF HHIGC HCZZZZZ NZ NGH OIH GC ACIALC AERATURE CORROSION RESISTANT ALORROSION RESISTANT ALLOYSMPERATURE CORROSION RERATURE CORROSION R SISTANT ALLOYSREEE STANT ALLOOYSTT N LDISTRIBUTOR AND FABRICATOR OF CARBON, STAINLESS AND ALLOY PIPING MATERIALSClock is Ticking The California legislature can appro-priate greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction funds, says Kelly Covello, president of the Almond Hullers & Processors Associa-tion in Ripon. But the utilities still need to sign contracts, the California Public Utility Commission needs to approve them and a mechanism to get the funds passed through to the utility needs to be created, she says. Finally, to benefit ag and almond grow-ers, the contracts and funds need to flow to the plants that are located in or near the valley to take ag biomass material, Covello says. The AHPA has developed a coalition of biomass producers, forestry profession-als, urban waste collectors, agricultural enti-ties and city sanitation district advocates to develop a strategy to address the immediate crisis and build a model for a sustainable biomass industry, according to Covello, but chipping rates have already increased from $350 per acre to over $1200 per acre. Ulti-mately, we will not know until the governor signs the state budget in June if PPAs will be signed and what the details will be, she says.Unfortunately, that may be too late for many operators. If we are unable to reach agreement on an extension to our fixed en-ergy price, the plant would most likely shut-down this summer, says Spurlock. Cur-rent SRAC (short-run avoided cost) pricing would not even cover the cost of the plants fuel. That means this summer, prices Spur-lock would be offered for the plants power could drop to as low as 3 cents per KWh. If that happens, we would no longer be able to supply wood to the Rio Bravo plant at the equivalent of 3 cents per KWh, says Harley Phillips, tipping manager with Wil-son Ag in Californias Central Valley.Phillips says the only alternative would be to raise the price for taking out orchard residues to the point where it would not be economically feasible for the growers. If all of this happens, were going to have to develop something else to do with this wood, he says. Were trying to see how much can be incorporated back into the ground in the orchard where it came from. Disposal of Mounting BiomassFurther north in Chico, Tim Lynch of Agra Marketing Group, an ag waste fuel supplier, also says if nothing changes soon, his company will be in dire straits this summer. If these biomass plants cant get fair, 5- to 10-year terms on price per KWh, Lynch says, it could result in an environ-mental disaster. Theres so many millions of tons of this material, its got no place to go, says Lynch. Does this mean that the growers will go back to open burning? South of Sacra-mento, in the San Joaquin Valley, one of the worst air districts in the U.S., burning permits are again being issued. When they start this open burning again, the farmers are going to get blamed, says Lynch.The effects of Californias four-year drought and subsequent bark beetle infesta-tion on much of the states forests, could provide a helpful reprieve from such low rates. The U.S. Forest Service estimates that more than 22 million trees have already died. And as Gov. Jerry Brown has noted, state and federal agencies are actively sur-veying the most hazardous forest zones in California as a target of removing such dead wood.Biomass fuel suppliers and biomass plant operators are pinning their hopes on passage of draft resolution E-4770 put forth by the California Public Utility Com-POWERIt depends on a number of critical factors. How explosible is the material you are processing? Are your process vessels indoors? How are the upstream and downstream processes configured? What ignition sources could be present? Our engineers start by understanding your process, reviewing your DHA and testing process materials if necessary. Then we apply the right solution including a combination of suppression, isolation and venting systems. Why risk an industrial explosion that could threaten your workers or shut down valuable processes. Count on IEP Technologies to provide the right solution. Just like we have done successfully for hundreds of industrial companies around the world.Lets develop a solution for youCall the IEP engineering experts with the most experience in explosion protection at 1-855-793-8407 or visit IEPTechnologies.com.P R O T E C T I N G T H E W O R L D S P R O C E S S E S A G A I N S T E X P L O S I O NHOW DO YOU STOP AN INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSION IN ITS TRACKS?,(3([SORVLRQ5LVN$G%LR[LQGG 30TRAGEDY TO TRIUMPH: The effects of Californias four-year drought and subsequent bark beetle infestation on much of the states forests, coupled with the governments focus on removing the material and getting it to bioenergy facilities could prove helpful to the industry.PHOTO: CAL FIREIt depends on a number of critical factors. How explosible is the material you are processing? Are your process vessels indoors? How are the upstream and downstream processes configured? What ignition sources could be present? Our engineers start by understanding your process, reviewing your DHA and testing process materials if necessary. Then we apply the right solution including a combination of suppression, isolation and venting systems. Why risk an industrial explosion that could threaten your workers or shut down valuable processes. Count on IEP Technologies to provide the right solution. Just like we have done successfully for hundreds of industrial companies around the world.Lets develop a solution for youCall the IEP engineering experts with the most experience in explosion protection at 1-855-793-8407 or visit IEPTechnologies.com.P R O T E C T I N G T H E W O R L D S P R O C E S S E S A G A I N S T E X P L O S I O NHOW DO YOU STOP AN INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSION IN ITS TRACKS?,(3([SORVLRQ5LVN$G%LR[LQGG 30mission. The PUC failed to initially pass a resolution that would require three of these utilities to get some 80 percent of their bio-mass fuel from forest residues under threat from drought and bark beetle infestation. These new, short-term emergency PPAs would only be contracted for five years. Although there may be some changes in its final wording, at press time, Morris felt confident that the PUC would pass some version of its existing resolution on March 17. In part, the PUC resolution orders the utilities to hold a solicitation to contract 50 MW worth of biomass power. He says San Diego Gas and Electric will get 5 to 10 MW, and Pacific Gas and Electric and Southern California Edison will split the rest of that that allotment.Morris says the overarching goal is to keep the biomass industry operating. That means taking as much material out of those dead trees as the forest service, Cal Fire and any private landowners can produce. As Kim Carr, an assistant deputy director of the California department of forestry and fire protection (Cal Fire) explains, Cal Fire and the states office of emergency services have been designated by the governor to create a task force of stakeholders to co-ordinate emergency protective actions and monitor ongoing conditions on this epi-demic.As part of the CPUC resolution, Carr says, the utilities are to offer auctions that allow for higher power prices for existing and new facilities that use biomass from areas designated for purposes of the emer-gency proclamation, as high hazard zones.Rio Bravo Fresno in Fresno County is ideally located to receive fuel from three of the six county areas affected by southern Si-erra tree mortality, Spurlock says. He notes that major highways run east from the city of Fresno into the mountainous areas of Madera, Fresno and Tulare County, adding that Rio Bravo Fresno is also negotiating a short-term contract with a southern Sierra biomass fuel supplier. Biomasss Future in CaliforniaThe endgame for the current crisis re-mains murky, but Annand hopes to eventu-ally see federal support in the form of tax credits for at least some of these biomass facilities. But, she says its unlikely to come until well after this falls presidential elec-tions. Congress and state lawmakers will need to be reminded that biomass provides much in the way of waste disposal, she adds, and thats not something that wind and solar can offer. Unfortunately, biomass is not the cheapest renewable out there, Morris points out. So the question remains: How can the biomass industry best be compensated for these extra services? In the end, if Californias biomass in-dustry is to continue, it will need the hall-marks of the states well-earned reputation for innovation to make it so. Exactly what form such innovation will ultimately take is anyones guess. But, in the long-term, it may take new more efficient technology to lower plant operating costs. In the short-term, survival will likely come in the form of state and federal tax credits and incentives. If California can weather the current storm, what it learns would likely have follow-on benefits that will ripple across the U.S. biomass industry as a whole. Author: Bruce DormineyScience journalist/authorbrucedorminey@gmail.comTwitter:@bdormineyPOWER32 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016PelletNewsThe North American Wood Fiber Review has reported North American pellet exports increased for the second consecutive three-month period during the third quarter of last year, increasing 15 percent when compared to the sec-ond quarter and reaching a record high of more than 1.6 million tons. Growth is poised to continue as the U.S. South con-tinues to be in expansion mode, with ad-ditional capacity being added last fall. According to the review, newly oper-ating pellet plants in the Gulf Coast re-gion made their first shipments to Europe during the third quarter. German Pellets facility in Louisiana, Drax Biomasss two new plants in Louisiana and Mississippi, and Zilkha Biomass Energy in Alabama all continued their ramp-up of opera-tions. Primarily due to these new facilities, North American Wood Fiber Review re-ported exports from the Gulf ports rose by 54 percent from the previous quarter to reach over 550,000 tons in the third quarter of 2015.In comparison, quarterly shipments of pellets from Canada remained prac-tically unchanged during the first three quarters of the year. Vermont-based Kingdom Pellet plans to build a pellet mill at the site of a former paper mill in the states North-east Kingdom. The project was recently approved for tax incentives through the Vermont Employment Growth Incentive program, a job stimulus program run by the Vermont Economic Progress Coun-cil.The company is leasing space at the site of the former Gilman paper mill and will make use of some existing assets, ac-cording to project partner Tabitha Bowl-ing. Bowling described the size of the plant as community scale. We will pull in material at sustainable levels, she said. The plan is for a 30,000-ton, super pre-mium-grade softwood pellet mill.A construction date has not yet been set, as the company is in the midst of fi-nancing the project. Vermont Wood Pellet Co., a 16,000-ton-per-year mill in North Clarendon, Vermont, is a partner in the proposed project.US South continues to ramp up pellet exportsProposed pellet project awarded tax incentives %LRPDVV0DJD]LQHSDJHLVODQG&YHFRSODQOOFFRP%LRPDVV3URFHVVLQJ6\VWHPV3HOOHWL]LQJ&+3&HOOXORVLF(WKDQRO 5HFHLYLQJ 6L]LQJ &RQYH\LQJ 6FUHHQLQJ 6HSDUDWLQJ 6WRUDJH&DOOIRUDIUHHEURFKXUHQ3 2015 pellet exports from Gulf ports increased 54%Q3 2015 North American exports reached a record 1.6 million tonsCanadian exports to Japan and South Korea nearly doubled from Q2 to Q3 2015 APRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 33From April 6-8, scores of state, federal, academic and industry representatives will gather at the U.S. DOEs Brookhaven National Lab for the Pellet Stove Design Chal-lenge. This competition seeks to identify and spread afford-able strategies for making pellet stoves cleaner and more effi cient. But, the competition also serves as a high-level gathering of experts to talk about the future of pellet stoves.The future of residential pellet heating is in fl ux, not only because of rock bottom oil and gas prices, but also be-cause more affordable heat pumps and other technologies are entering the market. However, we think the residential pellet stove market can withstand this downturn and come out even stronger. Heres why:First, an increasing number of incentives and change out programs are giving larger rebates for pellet stoves than for wood stoves. This trend will create baseline sales to sta-bilize the industry. Its becoming common knowledge that a pellet stove tested at 2.5 grams per hour will burn far cleaner during its lifetime than a wood stove tested at 2.5 grams per hour.Second, pellet stoves are often used to heat just the core of a house. They offer homeowners substantial savings over an oil or propane boiler designed to heat the whole house. Third, the price point of many pellet stoves is within reach of millions of Americans. One of the bestselling pellet stoves is a Virginia-made Englander stove that costs $1,200 and is occasionally marked down to under $1,000. Its below average in effi ciency, but for the price, it would take a decade for a higher-effi ciency, $4,000 stove to achieve the same savings.Fourth, more families are buying pellet stoves not based solely on cost savings, but because of the growing trend to-ward renewable technology and the notion that supporting multinational oil and gas companies is not benefi cial for the planet, and it simply feels good to cut the cord with them. Heat local. Eat local. Keep the profi ts and jobs local.These four factors will help the pellet stove industry weather low gas and oil prices, but stronger and long-term growth of the residential pellet stove industry will take more deliberate action on the part of the industry. It will require stove manufacturers and their trade associations to be more assertive, transparent and consumer friendly. The industry has already taken the crucial step of es-tablishing a pellet certifi cation program that helps consum-ers identify consistently good quality pellets, and increasingly more pellet producers are signing up.Many stove manufacturers still have a long way to go in improving the effi ciency of their technologies. The legacy of pellet stoves being exempted from U.S. EPA standards through high air-to-fuel ratios left a stain on the industry. Moreover, the average pellet stove today has an effi ciency of about 70 percent, and some are still in the 50 percent range. We need to see more stoves with effi ciencies in the high 70s to build a renewable energy sector that can hold its own with heat pumps, solar thermal and geothermal.The biggest environmental advantage of pellet stoves is that they can be consistently far cleaner than wood stoves in the hands of consumers. Each gram of particulate matter in a neighborhoods air is important, and pellet stove manu-facturers should start meeting the 2020 EPA standard of 2 grams per hour as soon as possible. Regulators should start devising incentives to be under 1 gram per hour.All stove manufacturers should play by the same rules, disclosing actual effi ciency and Btu output numbers to con-sumers. Some companies still grossly exaggerate effi ciency and Btu output data, which may result in consumers pur-chasing a substandard product on the basis of false prom-ises. And companies could be legally liable for misleading consumers through false promises, as has happened with some automobile and other appliances manufacturers.Stove quality and durability are paramount. Too many consumers have had stoves break down and experienced trouble getting professional and affordable repairs. Some brands like Harman have excellent reputations for durability, but the tradeoff is higher cost. Buying a brand that has an experienced dealer and service capacity nearby is very impor-tant for pellet stoves because they need repairs and profes-sional annual cleanings, somewhat like cars. However, unlike cars, many pellet stove brands dont have the service network to support these maintenance needs, and this can result in a loss of consumer confi dence.All of these issues will be on the table at the Pellet Stove Design Challenge to be held at Brookhaven National Lab in April. We hope state and federal regulators attending will walk away with increased confi dence in this sector and recog-nize the potential of pellet stoves to affordably reduce fossil fuels in millions of U.S. households. The solar juggernaut is building steam every year, and technologies like pellet stoves and boilers that have huge promise could get pushed to the sidelines. Its up to us to ensure that doesnt happen. When oil and gas prices rise again, pellet stoves have potential to become a more mainstream technology in the U.S., just as they are in Europe.Author: John AckerlyPresident, Alliance for Green Heatjackerly@forgreenheat.org 301-204-9562Roadmap For Pellet Stoves During Cheap Oil, GasPELLETBY JOHN ACKERLY34 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016APRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 35As the global wood pellet market grows, so does the need for marketplace efficiencies enjoyed by the worlds largest commodities. BY TIM PORTZCOMMODITY STATUS COMMODITY The Upside of36 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016According to United Nations trade data, in 2015, 4.5 million tons of wood pellets were exported from the U.S., while Canada ex-ported 1.6 million tons. In the same year, the U.S. exported nearly 73 million tons of coal, while Canada exported over 30 mil-lion. Collectively, coal exports from North America outstrip pellet exports by a factor of 17. While not surprising, this disparity helps shed some light on the inherent dif-ferences and challenges the wood pellet in-dustry faces as it works to mature and drive the kind of trade efficiencies commonly en-joyed by larger commodities, such as coal, into its own marketplace.By the simplest of definitions, a com-modity is a fungible good. Put even more simply, one unit of a given commodity can be exchanged for another unit of the same commodity. This concept underpins and supports the movement of commodi-ties of all types around the world, including corn, wheat, wood pulp, coal, oil, natural gas, cotton and a multitude of other goods vital to the global economy. Buyers requir-ing these commodities can be assured that when they need them, ample supply will be available, provided they are willing to pay the market price. And producers, whether they be growers, miners or manufacturers, can invest capital and deploy resources with confidence that their materials and goods will find a waiting market. Whether or not wood pellets have achieved commodity sta-tus is a matter of ongoing debate, as are the characteristics that analysts point to when making that determination. Additionally, in-dustry experts differ on the necessity of the marketplace practices commonly associated with larger commodities, including broker-age houses and traders, or financial instru-ments like futures contracts.When people are talk about the com-moditization of wood pellets, their intent is clearly to make the market more liquid so that pellets may be traded more freely, says Gordon Murray, executive director of the Wood Pellet Association of Canada. I think that is the ultimate objective. This liquidity, from Murrays perspec-tive, is hampered by the existence of vary-ing grades of wood pellets commonly manufactured. For something to be a com-modity, you need to be able to substitute one batch for another, and they should be indistinguishable, provided they meet some basic requirements, he says. Murray points to industrial and residential wood pellets, and even the varying grades and classes within those two categories. For Todd Bush, a partner at CM Bio-mass, a pellet trading firm, this distinction is too simplistic. Wood pellets are fun-gible, he says. They are fungible just like oil is. There are different grades of oil that are traded. In fact, there are even different grades of light, crude oil traded. Some re-fineries might not be able to take one sub-grade of light sweet crude, but they may be able to take another. Bush says commodities of all types have this kind of quality stratification inher-ent in their product class. No commodity market is purely and completely 100 percent fungible, he says. That doesnt mean you cant exchange one unit for another with discounts driven by certain parameters.The Argument for Commodity StatusThe seasonality of pellet markets have always challenged the industry, certainly for producers playing in the residential heat market, the sector that gave rise to the in-dustry in the first place. In the heating mar-ket, consumers only need pellets during the fall and winter months, and as a result, buy-ing activity peaks in the months leading up to the heating season, plateaus during the seasonunless there is an unexpected and prolonged cold snapand in the months immediately following, it shuts down alto-gether. On-again, off-again markets bring with them on-again, off-again cash flow realities that challenge producers. Without steady cash flows, producers struggle to run plants efficiently, staff their operations and secure financing for plant improvements and expansion. Further, for the industry to PELLETSAPRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 37 PELLETSmeet demand once the heating market does ramp up, they must find a way to sustain operations for year-round production. Commodity traders, Bush says, go a long way in eliminating these challenges. You cant have the handful of consum-ers out there buying up all of the summer product and storing it until they need it, he says. They cant afford that kind of storage. Instead, traders like CM Biomass become a proxy of sorts, buying volumes from producers when others wont, and then reselling those volumes when retail-ers and distributors need them. Whether or not those traders make a profit hinges on their ability to earn enough of a mark-up to cover their storage, capital and overhead costs. Therefore, generating a profit is not a guarantee. Traders, unlike brokers, actu-ally take physical and financial possession of the products they trade, whereas brokers serve only as intermediaries. This distinc-tion requires traders to have a very strong cash position, and significantly increases their overall risk. Traders introduce year-round demand into the market when, if end user demand were the only demand in the marketplace, it simply wouldnt exist. This liquidity serves both buyers and sellers in that it enables producers to more efficiently build supply, and allows buyers to more ac-curately predict available supplies. In most cases, liquidity contributes to more stable, predictable commodity prices. Difference and ChallengesThere are aspects of the wood pel-let market that contribute to making true commodity status elusive. Many inside the industry point to the ongoing struggle to unify and harmonize the sustainabil-ity requirements to which pellet producers must comply as the largest impediment to greater marketplace efficiency. In nearly all instances, the buyers of industrial-grade wood pellets are doing so as a means of complying with a renewable energy or low-carbon mandate, and the regulators and citizens they report to want assurances that users of the funds being used to subsidize use of pellets are accomplishing sustain-ability goals. The result is a patchwork of certification schemes that have fragmented the global market into a number of much smaller markets, and created a situation in which a shipload of pellets cannot be traded freely between buyers. There are such varying requirements globally, even in Europe, and until there is some consensus there, this will continue to be a barrier for the efficient trading of wood pellets, says Murray. This is what the Sustainable Bio-mass Partnership was set up for, but so far U.S. Export Volumes and Values of Common Commodities (2015)Commodity Exports in Metric Tons Trade Value (US$)Soybeans 48,231,077 $18,963,406,489 Corn 44,654,593 $8,699,738,118Cotton - $5,880,723,593 Coal 72,761,756 $5,671,655,193Wheat 21,047,679 $5,577,498,970 Pork 1,506,778 $4,019,415,369 Beef 310,043 $2,652,291,637 Wood pellets 4,575,696 $682,667,592Iron ore 8,157,231 $653,667,592 Wood pulp 87,652 $40,630,045 Source: UN Comtrade database_LQIR#VLJPDWKHUPDOFRP9L9L[Y[YV[,T,TPZZPVUAPRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 39 sorghumcheckoff.com/ethanolvideoMaking efficiency our first priority to get us to profitability. Discovering better ways to run continuously at full capacity. Seeing the potential of a feedstock that can also produce a high-value livestock feed. Thats what fuels me.Learn how sorghum can fuel your ethanol operation at BioMass Magazine Due to the pub: 3-7-167.5" x 4.625" Todays date: March 1, 2016 12:10 PMAccount Service:USCP036413P113BVA Account Coordinator:Art Director:Production:Proofing:While Bush shares Murrays and the in-dustrys concerns about the number of cer-tification schemes out there, he differs with their conclusions, and suggests that while they do introduce challenges, and that mea-sures should be taken to harmonize them when possible, the number of programs is less problematic than the overall volumes and number of buyers looking for pellets certified inside of each of these programs. I still say that underlying all of these chal-lenges is the volume, Bush says. If the market were 10 times larger, youd have 10 times more volume in each category. But right now, it is still a fragmented market, mostly because there are so many specifica-tions and certifications out there that each end user requires. Its really just a volume issue; a volume of trades issue, not volume in tonnage.For now, the vast majority of pellets made by Murrays producers never even enter the spot market. Murray tells Biomass Magazine that its probable 90 percent of the volume that Canada exports is sold un-der long-term contracts. Pellet volumes pro-duced in the American Southeast are also largely sold to customers under long-term contracts, and while the value of the U.S. dollar and two consecutive warm winters in Europe has all but eliminated opportunities for U.S. producers within the sport market, those looking to move some discretionary volume are hungry for greater liquidity. While opinions on the way to get there vary, all participants in the wood pellet mar-ket, in any market, want the same thing: options. Options offer all parties leverage. More buyers and the freedom to sell prod-uct to those buyers, unencumbered by vary-ing sustainability requirements, gives pro-ducers options. In the same way, a healthy marketplace with adequate, uniform supply allows buyers to distribute their inbound purchases across many different suppliers, and hedge against price fluctuations or sup-ply interruptions caused by an unforeseen production outage at a single manufacturer, or weather interruptions. For the worlds biggest commodities, these conditions are taken for granted. A buyer suddenly in need of a 25,000 tons of corn would have no trouble securing it, and without question, would entertain offers from innumerable sellers. In some ways, this is a function of the size of the global mar-ket, but pellets must also answer questions different than those of corn customers. For this reason, there are additional layers of complexity introduced to the equation. The work to streamline these challenges is well underway, but for now, producers find themselves managing a fragmented market, and traders like Bush work to smooth out the rough edges. For Bush, the end game is clear. Our perfect pellet, he adds, is one that we can buy and then sell into any market.Author: Tim PortzExecutive Editor, Biomass Magazinetportz@bbiinternational.com701-738-4969PELLETS40 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016Georgias Randolph County has much to offer a pellet mill or renewable fuel plant developer.BY D. F. WALLISStemming back several years, the Eco-nomic Development Authority in southwest Georgias Randolph Coun-ty has striven to identify the economic strengths of the area and industries that could take advantage of them. Given the countys rich history of farming and timber harvesting, these activities have been the focus of the EDAs ef-forts. Armed with a good understanding of the large timber basket and an excellent undevel-oped site, the EDA has been working to attract companies engaged in producing wood fuel pellets and liquid transportation fuels.The benefits to the community could be significant, in both added tax base and addi-tional employment. Total direct investment has potential to reach $400 million to $500 million, and the manufacturing facilities would each employ 60 to 80 people. However, the greatest benefit to the region would be logging crews reaching into the hundreds, with thousands of direct and indirect jobs created. Added to all of this is expansion of the business community, supporting both the manufacturing operations and expanded population.Opportunity here is great. And perhaps the most pressing questionhow much excess growth is available of the regions most abun-dant natural resource (trees), is availablehas already been answered, via a study completed by the Georgia Forestry Commission. Gauging ResourcesIn 2012, The Georgia Forestry Commis-sion completed a study, the results of which were very encouraging, showing the annual timberland growth over removal is 4.7 mil-lion tons. From a landowner perspective, this means that timber prices are down. However, from the emerging biomass-to-energy industry perspective, it represents a very large raw mate-rial base that can be used to produce wood fuel pellets and liquid transportation fuels such as gasoline and diesel.The EDA has an undeveloped site that ap-pears ideal for both a pellet mill and a renewable fuels facility. The property is located just north of Cuthbert on the east side of U.S. Highway 27 where the railroad crosses the highway. The site and area infrastructure (railroad, highways, wastewater treatment plant, and high-pressure natural gas pipeline) can meet or be modified as needed to support any large-scale manufac-turing operation that utilizes trees and other biomass as raw material. Based on the very positive results of the Forestry Commission study and the availability Assessing Advantage in Randolph County CONTRIBUTION: The claims and statements made in this article belong exclusively to the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of Biomass Magazineor its advertisers. All questions pertaining to this article should be directed to the author(s).A view from across Phillip's Pond, a privately owned, 150-acre lake near Cuthbert, Georgia, shows a robust forestry plantation. APRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 41 PELLETof an excellent undeveloped industrial site, the EDA has been working to engage the interest of companies in the biomass conversion busi-ness. Community leadership has been working to understand what is needed to manage the impacted community infrastructure required to support these types of companies. A number of preliminary engineering studies have been done to assess the cost of providing natural gas, water for fire suppression, additional land, and roadway expansion to handle the large number of logging trucks that would deliver raw mate-rial daily. Because of this work, its now pos-sible to show the companies that not only are infrastructure and raw material available, but that the community is proactive and supportive of industrial growth in the area.The Georgia Forestry Commission study, Forest Resource Analysis for Cuthbert, Geor-gia, substantiated the viability of provid-ing wood as a raw material on a large scale. As aforementioned, it showed that excess of timber growth over removals is estimated at 4.7 million tons annually. This excess is large enough to support the raw material needs of both a pellet mill and a renewable fuels refinery, still leaving in excess of 2 million tons available annually. There is a good supply of softwood and hardwood within an economic radius of 60 miles for harvesting and delivering to the manu-facturing site. Of the 4.7 million tons, 3.1 mil-lion is softwood and 1.6 million is hardwood. It is also significant that over 95 percent of the timberland is privately owned, which ensures numerous timber purchasing sources. It was noted in the study that there is a good balance in age class for the pine, which would provide a balanced harvest profile in the future. Almost all of the pine growth is located on pine plan-tations, which is particularly important because European market demand for wood fuel pel-lets requires sourcing of wood from timberland meeting certain criteria, including tree planta-tions.Site and InfrastructureThe EDA currently owns 240 acres on five tracts of land on the east side of U.S. Highway 27 and south of the railroad track and right-of-way. This property was used many years ago as a wood yard. It has a driveway access onto U.S. Highway 27 with a median cut allowing for both north and south travel. U.S. Highway 82 is located three miles south of the property. Tim-ber harvesting will occur from all directions, and having these two highways available greatly facilitates truck deliveries. The site also has a well, a serviceable building and level terrain. Fortunately, the land surrounding the property is undeveloped timberland, and should the need arise, additional land may be available. The Genesse and Wyoming Railroad owns the track and right-of-way serving the site, and has an extensive track and rail switching capabil-ities on the west side of U.S. Highway 27. This is certainly one of the most valuable infrastruc-ture advantages available, especially to facilities that ship large tonnages of products. The rail-road has the ability to ship material anywhere, but is especially competitive in moving product to the Gulf Coast. This will become very im-portant once the port at Port St. Joe, Florida, is reopened, providing a viable export point for wood fuel pellets serving the European market.Southern Gas Co. has a high-pressure nat-ural gas main line that runs through Randolph County from north to south and is three miles from the manufacturing site. Natural gas would be needed by either a pellet mill or renewable fuels refinery. The demand will vary significant-ly, but a 4 inch pipeline from the high-pressure main to the site would be adequate. The city of Cuthbert, which receives its gas from Southern Gas, has a gas and water department that pro-vides operation and maintenance services for the citys gas distribution system. Discussions with the mayor have indicated that they could serve a similar role for the pipeline that will serve the site. Preliminary engineering work has been done to develop a scope of work neces-sary to route a 4 inch pipeline from the high-pressure main line to the manufacturing site. A sufficient supply of water for an exten-sive fire suppression system will be the most important and most expensive part of meeting the water demand at the manufacturing site. Fire suppression will be needed for the timber receiving and processing areas and the process-ing equipment areas. Because of the large area involved, a fire would require a large instanta-neous flow of water. The city of Cuthberts current water distribution system can serve an important part of meeting this demand and a number of options have been evaluated. At this point, the scope of demand is not developed well enough to do an engineering evaluation. However, there is a design basis to build on since an engineering analysis was done to assess firewater needs if only a pellet mill was being built. Focusing On Pellets Georgia has greatly benefited from the Eu-ropean market demand for wood fuel pellets. Currently, there are a number of pellet mills operating and being built to meet this demand. The success of the pellet mill business is not only dependent upon a large, readily avail-able raw material supply, but the cost of mov-ing the product from point of manufacture to customer. To be competitive with other U.S. companies selling wood fuel pellets into the European market, the cost of the rail shipment to a port is an important factor. While the supply of raw material is more than adequate, the distance from Randolph County to an operating port is long. Currently, Savannah is viewed as the most viable port for exporting pellets from Randolph County to Europe. This has been a sticking point in mov-ing forward with building a pellet mill to date. However, the potential exists for the reopening of the port at Port St. Joe, Florida, which is 100 miles closer to Randolph County than Savan-nah. With this change, the logistics costs of serving Europe could be competitive with an export point on the east coast of Georgia.Two notable project risks are the cost of the products sold and strength of market de-mand. As discussed, rail shipment costs to the port are a major factor in siting a pellet mill. Unfortunately, the location of Randolph Coun-ty is unfavorable in this regard, but it is expected that opening Port St. Joe will mitigate this cost concern.The other market risk is European compa-nies demand for pellets as a renewable energy source to replace fossil fuels such as coal. The European Union passed a renewable fuel initia-tive that calls for 20 percent of the energy used to be from renewable fuel sources by 2020. The U.S. is well-positioned to meet this demand, es-pecially the Southeast, but a negative impact of changing the legislation for fuel mix in Europe could mitigate pellet demand. Risks are a part of any project, however, and they must be identified early on and moni-tored to ensure success. In the case of Ran-dolph County and its potential to host a pellet mill or biofuel plant, much of that has already been done.Author: D.F. WallisChamber Board MemberRandolph County Economic Development Authority855-782-6312rcchamber@hotmail.com42 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016ThermalNewsReports recently published by the U.K. Department of Energy and Climate Change demonstrate more than 80 percent of appli-cants to the renewable heat incentive (RHI) are satisfied with their new systems. These government financial incentives promote the use of renewable heat through technologies, such as biomass boilers, both for domestic and non-domestic uses. The government-col-lected data shows the RHI has had a positive influence in the renewable heat technology market, helping the U.K. decarbonize heat, while reducing costs. Between May 2014 and April 2015, 25,568 successful applications were received by the domestic RHI scheme from owner-oc-cupiers, 33 percent of those were new appli-cations. Applicants were asked what triggered their decision to install a new heating system and the most common reason was the avail-ability of a grant or other funding, with 52 percent of applicants who installed biomass systems indicating this was important. Hurst Boiler Inc. announced the commis-sioning of its third poultry litter-fueled boiler in January. While we have been carefully evaluating the potential to use litter in our boilers in the U.S. market, one of our solid fuel boilers in Guate-mala began running almost 3 years ago on 100 percent litter simply because it was the most cost-effective and reliable fuel. Since then, two more systems have been installed and are providing steam to poultry facilities using only chicken lit-ter, said Tommy Hurst of Hurst Boiler.Litter has posed a challenge for many boiler systems due to its high ash content and ash char-acteristics. According to Charlie Coffee, solid fuel boiler sales for Hurst Boiler, We are well aware of the many challenges and problems of litter as a fuel, which is why we spent an inordinate amount of time and resources making sure that we had measures in place to ensure success in the U.S. market.Prestage AgEnergy of Clinton, North Car-olina, is completing a 1600 HP Hurst boiler in-stallation. From fuel receiving through emissions, the 1600 HP is the first Hurst Boiler system in the U.S. designed and engineered specifically to be fueled by poultry litter. This cogeneration fa-cility is scheduled to be commissioned midyear and will support Prestage Farms turkey opera-tions.Reports evaluate RHI programs Hurst commissions poultry litter-fueled boilerGreat Britain domestic RHI statistics (April 2014 to December 2015)Applications Accreditations Number % of total Number % of totalAir source heat pump 21,659 45% 19,921 64%Ground source heat pump 6,954 14% 6,522 14%Biomass systems 11,832 24% 11,223 25%Solar thermal 8,160 17% 7,445 17%Total 48,605 100% 45,111 100%SOURCE: U.K. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY & CLIMATE CHANGE Biomass Recovery SystemsToll Free 1-866-ROCWEAR (762-9327)W W W . W A S T E W O O D H O G S . C O M Biomass and CoGeneration Pulp, Paper, and Pellet Plants Compost and Mulch Operations Waste to Energy Plants Sawmills Vertical & Horizontal Models AvailableCustom Biomass Recovery Systems- Sales - Parts - ServiceAPRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 43The recent decision by the U.S. Supreme Court to stay the implementation of the U.S. EPAs Clean Power Plan caught nearly everyone off guard. The decision was unprec-edented, in that it was the fi rst time that the high court over-ruled a decision of a lower court to stay a regulation. The legal challenge to the CPP was brought by 27 states, the coal industry and a number of utilities. Eighteen states submitted briefs in support of the CPP, and fi ve chose to remain on the sidelines. The one-page ruling is not a deci-sion on the constitutionality of the plan, but on the authority of the EPA to go forward with its implementation, before a decision of the case by the lower court. The lower court de-cision is expected in June. That decisionwhether support-ing or striking the CPPwill undoubtedly be appealed by the losing side. Once the lower court and the appeals courts make their rulings, the case will most probably fi nd its way back to the Supreme Court for a fi nal decision on the merits. In this case, it is unlikely that justice will be swift, as it may well take several years before a fi nal ruling is issued by the high court. Why SCOTUS chose to take the unprece-dented action it did is a matter of speculation. It is logical to assume that the majority felt the challenge to the regulation has a fair chance of ultimately succeeding, however, and that implementation of the CPP by EPA in advance of a fi nal legal decision would cause irreparable harm to the plaintiff coal companies, utilities and states. In this instance, the harm is that if the EPA is permitted to go forward with imple-mentation, it would be nearly impossible to undo the action. According to Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Com-missioner Tony Clark, the court was trying to avoid a situation like the one it faced with the mercury ruleby the time the court ruled, the rule had been in effect for years. SCOTUS decision to scrap the near-term implementa-tion of the CPP strikes at the heart of the President Obamas efforts to make climate activism a signifi cant part of his leg-acy. It does not, however, serve as a death knell for clean en-ergy alternatives. According to a ClimateWire poll, 20 states are pressing on with discussions about how to meet carbon emissions limits for power plans, 18 have stopped planning and nine are weighing whether to stop or slow down plan-ning. For the biomass industry, it may offer an opportunity otherwise lost, had the EPA been allowed to go forward with its implementation efforts. Despite the economic, environmental, and societal benefi ts that would accompany increased deployment of sustainable biomass technologies, neither state nor federal decision makers have accorded our technologies the re-spect and attention they deserve. The decision to stay the CPP as written affords the biomass industryboth heat and poweradditional time to demonstrate to state and federal decision makers, as well as key stakeholders, the value propo-sition of supporting the deployment of sustainable biomass resources. The states and the federal government must come to understand that diversity of technologies is the preferred path to a cleaner environment. Diversity is key to a healthy ecosystem. Too great a reliance on solar and wind limits the opportunities that come with the support of multiple tech-nological approaches to a healthy environment and econo-my. Biomass offers benefi ts not otherwise available from reliance upon solar and wind. Sustainable biomass provides opportunities for sus-tained rural economic development, reduces the occurrence and severity of forest fi res, lends itself equally to distributed generation, and does not suffer from the problem of inter-mittency and the need for expensive storage technologies. Well-managed forests are carbon benefi cial. Although the burning of coal is the biggest culprit when it comes to carbon emissions, the fact is that coal will continued to be burned here and abroad for some time to come. When cofi red with sustainable biomass, it emits less carbon than if it were burned alone. As Shakespeare wrote, The problem is not in our stars, but in ourselves. If biomass is to garner the support it de-serves in state energy plans, then it is up to the industryboth heat and powerto use the time afforded by the recent SCOTUS decision to double, triple and quadruple its efforts to engage local decision makers and key stakeholders in a dialogue that lays out the path to an expanded market for sustainable biomass. Author: Joel StronbergConsultant, renewable energy and climate changethejbsgroup78@gmail.com703.485.7301Stay of Clean Power Plan: Opportunity for Biomass Industry? BY JOEL STRONBERGTHERMAL44 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016BY DAVID JACKSON AND PATRICK WILSONFor well over 100 years, relatively dry forests on national forest lands in Idaho and Montana have undergone pronounced change. Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa var scopulorum Engelm) and western larch (Larix occidentalis), depen-dent on frequent, low- to moderate-intensity surface fire, have been replaced gradually by more shade-tolerant tree species such as grand fir (Abies grandis) and western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla). Physiologic stresses triggered by one set of species preempting another have created forest conditions favored by insects and disease. Widespread outbreaks have impaired forest health, leaving 2.3 million hectares of na-tional forest land in Idaho and Montana in need of forest restoration, according to the USDA.Managing invasive insects and disease re-quires prevention and suppression, but a one-size-fits-all strategy is misguided. Instead, what may have potential is an option tailored to indi-vidual forest types and site conditions, whereby a single action is used to achieve multiple ob-jectives: specifically, active forest management to improve ecosystem functionality, lower fire risks, and generate woody biomass for innova-tive purposes.Active forest management is a silvicultural approach used to reduce stand densities, in-crease tree diameters and improve forests resis-tance to drought and fire. Particularly useful in dry forests such as those of the Inland North-west, active forest management can help rees-tablish forest composition, old forest structures and critical habitat. In so doing, large amounts of woody biomass are often created but under-utilized. Organized to address this issue was the Bioenergy Alliance Network of the Rockies, which is funded with a USDA National Insti-tute of Food and Agriculture grant. Launched in 2013, BANR is one of seven coordinated agricultural projects funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institute of Food and Agriculture. The NIFA Bioeconomy-Bioenergy-Bioproduct Program sponsors research and development on national energy security, and encourages private invest-ment in the emerging bioeconomy sectors of biofuels, biopower and other biobased prod-ucts. NIFA pursues its vision through partner-ships with federal agencies, private industry and academia.BANR is a multidisciplinary research con-sortium represented by the U.S. Forest Service, the renewable fuels industry, and land-grant universities in the Inland Northwest region. Its objectives are to investigate the social, econom-ic, and environmental implications of using woody biomass to produce renewable biofuels and other biobased products, and provide the scientific underpinnings necessary to support a regional bioenergy industry.Because down and dead woody biomass is vital to most biotic processes in forest eco-systems, the scientific community is divided on using it to produce bioenergy. Only in re-cent decades have the ecologic contributions of woody biomass to wildlife habitat, nutrient cycling and carbon storage become better un-derstood. Biomass supplies are plentiful, but concerns are that a thriving bioenergy market could result in overuse detrimental to soil nutri-ents and site productivity, especially in the arid, Inland Northwest where biomass reduction oc-curs endemically.PHOTO: NATIONAL AGRICULTURE IMAGERY PROGRAMWoody Biomass, Forest Operations in the Inland Northwest CONTRIBUTION: The claims and statements made in this article belong exclusively to the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of Biomass Magazineor its advertisers. All questions pertaining to this article should be directed to the author(s).APRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 45 THERMALProponents claim that using woody bio-mass as a bioenergy feedstock will reduce de-pendence on fossil fuels, the effects of climate change and wildfire. Skeptics dismiss the no-tion as unreliable and outdated. Social oppo-sition to biomass utilization has complicated forest management in the western U.S., where federal landownership is high. However, use of the material to produce thermal energy at relatively small scales has gained popularity among educational institutions.In 1993, the University of Idaho convert-ed its heating system from natural gas to steam. Wood chips and hog fuel sourced within a 30-mile radius of the Moscow, Idaho, campus are used to feed a biomass-fired boiler that heats more than 60 campus buildings, saving the university $1.5 million per year compared to natural gas. However, as scale increases, so do costs, especially those involving transportation.An operation in Wisconsin that converted from coal to woody biomass in 2008 recently closed due to a combination of decreased val-ue of renewable energy and increasing trans-portation costs. Biomass sources in the Inland Northwest are often located far from facili-ties that convert wood into energy. Increased bioenergy demand could dilute transportation cost per unit volume; if not, change is unex-pected.This does not mean woody biomass can-not be produced cost-effectively by forest op-erations. The U.S. Forest Service identified 5.7 million hectares of national forest land in 12 western states as capable of paying for them-selves. Over two-thirds of these lands are in California, Idaho and Montana, and more than 50 percent of the woody biomass harvested would come from trees equal to or greater than 7 inches in diameter at chest height.In 2012, the Mountain Pine Beetle Re-sponse Project on the Black Hills National Forest in western South Dakota and north-eastern Wyoming began demonstrating woody biomass can be harvested at or above its break-even price across large landscapes. Utilizing active forest management techniques, 50,000 hectares will be thinned to reduce stand den-sities and improve forests resilience to insect infestations, primarily the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) linked to forest mortality on 9.3 million hectares of national forest land since 2000.1 Supporting the PBR Project are several million dollars provided by state and county governments and nongovern-mental organizations.Many scientists agree bioenergy de-rived from woody biomass can be produced sustainably without risking our existing en-ergy system. Improvements in manufacturing technologies could further strengthen woody biomasss market competitiveness, helping it establish a niche among other forms of raw material used for renewable energy. However, biomass supplies, typically disaggregated an uncertain, must be guaranteed if businesses are to invest. Forest restoration projects on national forest lands in Idaho and Montana are capable of yielding enormous volumes of woody biomass, but it is unclear in a climate of shrinking federal budgets whether the finan-cial and human resources needed to undertake such projects will be available.Any new form of energy production sys-tem that lacks the elaborate networks of its predecessor will operate initially at a disadvan-tage.2 Before the new system can become com-petitive, disadvantages must be overcome and duplicate infrastructure created. Successful de-velopment of bioenergy from woody biomass will not be an exception as 20 years or longer will be required to recover capital costs alone.3According to the U.S. DOE, 2 percent of energy consumed in 2010 supplied by wood and wood-derived fuels will have risen to 9 percent by 2030, more than quadrupling wood fuels usage. On the other hand, the U.S. EIA estimates the country has recoverable reserves of at least 36 billion barrels of petroleum, 338 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and enough coal to last for centuries. Given the current ready availability and price of fossil fuels, large-scale expansion of bioenergy from woody bio-mass is infeasible economically.If forest restoration projects in the Inland Northwest region were to become major sup-pliers of woody biomass for bioenergy, gov-ernment subsidies in the form of tax credits, loan guarantees or other types of financial aid will be essential. Otherwise, the cost to harvest, collect, and transport the material could make its recovery from forest operations more ex-pensive than the resulting bioenergy benefit.Authors: David JacksonPhD, University of Idaho College of Natural Resourcesdjackson@uidaho.eduPatrick Impero WilsonPhD, University of Idaho College of Natural Resourcespwilson@uidaho.edu1USDA Forest Service. 2013. Western bark beetle mitigation: FY 2012 accomplishment report. Washington, D.C. 10 p.2Nicholls, D.L., R.A. Monserud, and D.P. Dykstra. 2008. A synthesis of biomass utilization for bioenergy production in the western United States. USDA Forest Service, General Technical Report PNW-GTR-753, 48 p.3Ibid46 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016Irelands forestry sector, a major economic driver in the country, is poised for growth along with the bioenergy industry.BY DES O'TOOLEThe Irish forestry sector annually con-tributes 2.3 billion ($2.5 billion) to the countrys gross domestic product, and supports approximately 12,000 jobs, mainly in rural locations, according to the Irish Forestry and Forest Products Association. An-nual production of wood from Irish forests is estimated at 2.95 million cubic meters, with Coillte, the semi-state forestry organization, producing 2.43 million cubic meters, and the balance coming from the emerging private sec-tor forestry resource, and a small amount of imports. This annual production volume can be categorized into large saw log (1.81 million cubic meters), fencing (0.15 million cubic me-ters) and small-diameter pulpwood (0.99 mil-lion cubic meters). The markets for these products are the construction sector, packaging, fencing, wood-based panel board production, and most re-cently, the emerging biomass energy market. Today, supply and demand are largely in equi-librium, but it is expected that as the require-ment for biomass energy increases, a new market dynamic will be created. Demand for biomass for cofiring, biomass power genera-tion and both industrial heat and combined heat and power (CHP) are all expected to in-crease. This demand will be met by local saw-mill residues, pulpwood from our forest estate, and potentially, biomass imports.Today, pulpwood is primarily consumed by Irelands wood-based panel board manu-facturing sector, which produces in excess of 773,000 cubic meters of board products annu-ally. Medium density fibreboard (MDF) is pro-duced by Medite, oriented strand board (OSB) is produced by Smartply, and Masonite produc-es door skin panels. Of all wood-based panel board products, 86 percent is produced prod-ucts produced in ireland, 86 percent are ex-ported. Medite and Smartply are both Coillte-owned, and recently, Coillte commenced a 59 million reinvestment in SmartPlys facility in Belview, County Waterford. The investment will secure the plant as one of the regions most important export industries, and support a number of high-skilled research and develop-ment positions. The plant uses pulp harvested mainly in the southern part of the country, to manufacture innovative and sustainable wood panel products used by building companies in flooring, building frames, roofing, and many other applications. Overall, the forest products sector is buoy-ant and optimistic about the future growth of the market.Delivering Renewable Energy From Irish ForestsCONTRIBUTION: The claims and statements made in this article belong exclusively to the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of Biomass Magazineor its advertisers. All questions pertaining to this article should be directed to the author(s).SECURE SUPPLY: Coillte has a biomass processing hub in Drumkeen, County Donegal, Ireland. Pictured is the level of log storage required to ensuresufficient volumes of dry chip are available year-round to supply the local heat market.PHOTOS: COILLTE APRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 47 CHIP SHAPE: Biomass wood chips are produced at Coilltes biomass processing hub in Caher-siveen, County Kerry, in Ireland. THERMALIrelands Bioenergy SectorLarge-scale electricity generation in Ire-land is dominated by natural gas, accounting for 45 percent of total primary input, followed by coal, accounting for 22 percent of the fuel mix. In addition, Ireland has three peat-powered generation plants, one of which, Edenderry Power Ltd., has commenced cofir-ing with biomass. Local landowners have now started to show an interest in growing energy crops (e.g., willow) to supply the plant, but up-take has been slow.The Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland reports that fossil fuels account for 90 percent of all energy used in the country, and there remains an opportunity for local bio-mass to displace imports. Oil is the dominant fuel used for thermal applications, but in re-cent years, renewable heat as an alternative has faced significant challenges. For large thermal energy users, the project economics associated with new, capital-intensive biomass installa-tions has made investment decisions challeng-ing. Notwithstanding, there were a number of early adopters who now represent the pinnacle of high-quality biomass installations through-out the country. These industrial-scale biomass installations now reduce Irelands reliance on fossil fuel imports and reduce our greenhouse gas emissions, thereby improving domestic fuel security. In addition, they support many jobs across the local bioenergy supply chain. Despite these recent success stories, up-take has been slow, and with fossil fuel prices now at an all-time low, new projects are un-likely to proceed in the current environment. The Irish government white paper on energy policy set a target of 12 percent of thermal en-ergy to come from renewable energy sources by 2020. The renewable heat sector remains largely undeveloped, however, having grown slowly to 6.5 percent in 2014, mainly as a result of wood waste utilization in the timber pro-cessing sector. Based on its current heat from renewable energy sources (RES-H) trajectory, Irelands 2020 target will not be achieved (Fig-ure 1), and Ireland now faces potential EU fines. The Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland has estimated the cost to Ireland may be up to 150 million for each percentage point Ireland falls short of its overall com-bined RES target of 16 percent. Under the EU Tracking Roadmap pre-pared for the European Commission in 2014, it was noted that Ireland had no programs for the development of certain technologies such as biomass or high-efficiency CHP. One of the recommendations from that report was to in-troduce a reliable RES-H strategy with appro-priate support schemes. It stated that Ireland was deploying less biomass than planned and that previous support programs had expired. */2%$/%,20$66*5283Your Partner in Productivity&30%LRPDVV*URXSZZZFSPQHW&30(XURSH%9ZZZFSPHXURSHQO&OLHQW&30%LRPDVV3XEOLFDWLRQ%LRPDVV0DJD]LQH2UGHU/LQHQVHUWLRQ'DWH$SULO$G6L]HSJ&[&UHDWLYH%LR-5+DPPHU7KHUHVDVD\LQJWKDWJHWVWRVVHGDURXQGDORWKHUHWMXVWUXQV2XUKDPPHUPLOOVDQGSHOOHWPLOOVDUHQWWKHSUHWWLHVW%XWWKH\UHURFNVROLG$QGWKH\UXQ\HDUDIWHU\HDUDIWHU\HDU%XWWMXVWUXQVLVQWMXVWDERXWRXUSURGXFWVWVDERXWRXUFRPSDQ\ZKLFKOLWHUDOO\VSDQVFHQWXULHV$QGLWVDERXWRXURQJRLQJUHODWLRQVKLSVZLWKRXUFXVWRPHUVKRZZHOODOZD\VEHWKHUHIRU\RX*LYHXVDFDOODQGQGRXWMXVWKRZ&30FDQUXQIRU\RXIreland's dominant species is Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis), a fast- growing conifer and a native of the Pacific coast of North America. The species was introduced to Eu-rope in 1831 and was first planted in Ireland (Co. Wicklow) shortly afterwards. There are a limited number of hardwoods available and these feed smaller specialist industries such as furniture and joinery production.48 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016;@A;C=FLMJC=QAFAPRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 49 THERMALconcerned, thereby helping maintain compe-tiveness and securing local jobs. Coillte plan to establish new hubs as new demand for wood chip arises. Through these regional hubs, wood chips are supplied to clients in the pharmaceu-tical, textile, industrial and hotel sectors and include companies such as Glaxosmithkline, Astellas and Radisson SAS.Each regional biomass fuel supply hub operated by Coillte is typically comprised of a secure, 8-hectare log storage yard and cov-ered wood chip fuel storage sheds. In addition, a weighbridge and a quality testing laboratory are vital for operation. Each hub has a range of specialist chipping machinery and equipment capable of producing wood chip and access to a range of delivery vehicles for haulage. Coillte is committed to a strategy that matches renewable energy requirements with local biomass supply. Small-diameter pulp-wood is sourced through a local Coillte forestry team from both state and private sector sources within a region. These logs are sourced and de-livered on a preplanned basis, several months in advance. Logs are systematically stacked for open-air drying to the required moisture contents specific to each customers boiler re-quirements. The key to ensuring good quality wood chips at the correct moisture content at each hub is management of stock rotation and replenishment, as well as ensuring suitable air flow through the stacks, which are covered dur-ing the winter months. Each supply hub has its own specific characteristics, and seasonal varia-tions in log moisture need to be anticipated and controlled with great care. This can only be achieved through experience and by having a strong partnership with supply contractors. All wood chips are produced strictly in accordance with quality specifications set out in I.S. CEN/TS 14961:2005. Moisture con-tent samples are gathered in preapproved aluminium sampling trays for testing by the oven-dry method using preapproved and cali-brated moisture testing devices. Particle size is controlled during the chipping process by the provision of the correct size screens on the chipper feed. Regular testing is undertaken to assess the percentage of fines. The wood chip delivery vehicle fleet is comprised of a range of vehicles, from large walking floor trailers (carrying 20- to 24-metric-ton loads) to smaller tipping vehicles with side blowers (8- to 16-metric-ton loads) depending on a specific clients fuel handling and on-site storage infrastructure. The biomass loads that are delivered are checked for compliance with moisture content, particle size and percentage criteria. Each client is then invoiced per giga-joule of energy delivered.Author: Des OTooleBusiness Development Manager, Biomass CoillteDes.otoole@coillte.ie+353-1-8628491Ireland sources electricity primarily from dispatchable fossil-fuel based power plants with most elec-tricity coming from coal, oil, gas and peat generation plants. Gas is the dominant fuel in Ireland, with about 60 percent of the nations electricity generated from imported natural gas. Wind is the dominant renewable, with biomass currently being deployed at only one of the peat-burning power stations for cofiring. 50 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016BiogasNewsThe European Biogas Association pub-lished a statistical report on the European anaerobic digestion industry and markets, reporting record-high growth in the num-ber of plants and production in Europe.The report states that there were 17,240 biogas plants, with a total installed capacity of 8,293 MW, in Europe at the end of 2014. This is a remarkable number, es-pecially when realizing that it represents 18 percent growth, said Jan tambask, EBA president. In the case of certain countries, growth has soared. The U.K. doubled the number of its biogas plants in one year. The 17,240 biogas plants reported at the end of 2014 is up from 10,433 reported in 2010.The total amount of electricity pro-duced from biogas is estimated at 63.3 terawatt-hours, which corresponds to the annual consumption of 14.6 million Euro-pean households. Biogas upgrading is also growing, with 87 new biogas upgrading units commis-sioned in Europe in 2014, bringing the total to 367. On a combined basis, these upgrad-ing units can process an estimated 310,000 cubic meters of raw biogas per hour. Clean Energy Fuels Corp. recently an-nounced that sales of its renewable natural gas (RNG), known as Redeem, more than doubled in 2015, reaching 50 million gaso-line gallon equivalents (GGEs), up from 20 million GGEs in 2014. Redeem sales have expanded from clean energy public-access stations in Cali-fornia, to become the contracted fuel choice of customers like UPS, Republic Services, the City of Santa Monicas Big Blue Bus, the University of California San Diego and others. Sales of Redeem also have recently expanded into Oregon and Texas. The University of California, San Di-ego became the first university transit fleet to fuel with 100 percent RNG, fueling its fleet of 52 vehicles, including 19 transit buses with Redeem. UPS, already the larg-est user of Redeem, currently fuels close to 400 vehicles in California, and has an-nounced plans to take delivery for portions of its delivery vehicle fleet in Texas.EBA publishes updated biogas statistics Clean Energy Fuels doubles sales of RNG Top European countries for biogas productionCountry No. of plantsGermany 10,786Italy 1,491U.K. 813France 736Switzerland 633Czech Republic 554Austria 436Sweden 279Poland 277Netherlands 252SOURCE: EUROPEAN BIOGAS ASSOCIATIONAPRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 51 BIOGASThis is my last biogas column for Biomass Magazine. I am still committed to helping move biogas projects and policy forward, but Ill do so from a slightly different role in the future. I was recently promoted at the Great Plains Institute to government affairs and communications di-rector. In this position, I will be developing, directing and implementing state government affairs for GPI projects that have a state policy and regulatory component, and also directing GPIs communications strategy and opera-tion. I will be working across GPIs seven programmatic areas: energy efficiency, energy infrastructure, fossil en-ergy, international collaboration, renewable energy and fuels, sustainable communities and transportation. Bio-gas energy development touches several aspects of GPIs seven program areas and will remain a thread of my work as I transition into my new position. I began writing a biogas column for Biomass Mag-azine three years ago this month. The title of my first column, Bright Future for Biogas Energy Systems, is just as true today as it was back then. When I look back over the past three years, it is remarkable to reflect on the growth in the biogas sector. The evidence of this growth is prevalent in the transportation sector. When the renewable fuel standard (RFS) was expanded in 2007, biogas used as a transporta-tion fuel qualified as an advanced biofuel. It wasnt until 2013 that we saw the first notable amounts of biogas-based gallons reported for RFS compliance. Biogas projects across the U.S. produced 26 million gallons of biogas-based transportation fuel in 2013. The amount of biogas-based fuel doubled in 2014, and in 2015, over 126 million gallons of biogas fuel credits were produced. Partway through 2014, the U.S. EPA allowed biogas fuel to generate cellulosic fuel credits in addition to ad-vanced fuel credits, and the biogas market hasnt looked back. Biogas transportation fuel projects can now receive an attractive market premium through the RFS for the sale of their fuel, and the economic case becomes even more attractive when stacked with credit values under Californias Low Carbon Fuel Standard. The RFS is in ef-fect until 2022 and the LCFS until 2020, ensuring contin-ued market growth and access for the next several years. The scale and scope of biogas projects have also in-creased in the past three years. For several decades, we mostly saw biogas projects developed at livestock opera-tions, landfills or wastewater treatment facilities. Devel-opment is still occurring in those foundational sectors, while recent project development has expanded the num-ber of feedstocks (food waste, fats, oils, greases, crop residues) processed in partnership with local units of government or private businesses. We are looking more holistically at waste management ranging from individual residents to food manufacturers, and everything in be-tween, to identify the opportunities to transform organic waste into a clean energy resource. The potential for biogas energy systems to help sup-ply a reliable and consistent form of clean energy has also resulted in an unprecedented cooperation among federal agencies. The Biogas Opportunities Roadmap coordinated and supported by the EPA, U.S. DOE and USDA provides a solid framework for addressing near- and long-term policy and project barriers to increase bio-gas development. State and local governments have also devoted time and attention to determine how biogas energy systems can fit into clean energy development and address waste management challenges. Several jurisdictions have imple-mented policy or custom programs to divert organic material from landfill disposal and instead turn those organics into a higher-value product while capturing the nutrient value. At no other time in my career has the future for biogas energy development looked so bright and held so much promise. I look forward to continuing to help move biogas projects and policy forward, even if you wont be hearing from me regularly in my bimonthly column. It has been a pleasure to contribute to the biogas dialogue, and I express my sincere gratitude to Biomass Magazine for giving the forum to do so.Authors: Amanda BilekGovernment Affairs and Communications Director, Great Plains Institute612-278-7118abilek@gpisd.netFuture Remains Bright for Biogas Energy BY AMANDA BILEK 52 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016BIOGASIMPROVING INFRASTRUCTURE: Ohio-based quasar energy group entered into a long-term contract with the city of Wooster to retrofit, operate and monitor existing anaerobic digesters located at the Wooster Water Pollution Control Plant. PHOTO: QUASAR ENERGY GROUP APRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 53 GROWINGT H E L O C A LH O M E B A S EEven though Europe is home to tried-and-true biogas technology, North American plant developers dont necessarily look abroad. BY KATIE FLETCHERAt the end of 2014, the Eu-ropean Biogas Association reported Europe had 17,240 biogas plants, with a total installed capacity of 8,293 MW, in its 2015 statistical report on the European anaerobic digestion (AD) industry and markets. The number of biogas plants represented an 18 percent growth over 2013, and certain European countries boasted rocketing growth rates, such as the U.K., where the number of bio-gas plants doubled to 813 in just one year. The report quantifies the total amount of electricity produced from biogas at 63.3 terawatt-hours, which corresponds to the annual consump-tion of 14.6 million European house-holds. These stats alone demonstrate the European biogas industry is ma-ture. Near the end of 2014, the USDA, U.S. EPA and U.S. DOE reported the U.S. had more than 2,000 sites pro-ducing biogas in the 2014 Biogas Opportunities Roadmap. The road-map found that more than 11,000 additional biogas systems could be de-ployed in the U.S., producing enough energy to power more than 3 million American homes and reduce methane emissions equivalent to 4 to 54 mil-lion metric tons of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in 2030. The U.S. biogas industry is young, but has the potential to mature to Europes indus-try standard with the right support. Will the U.S. work to reach its poten-tial by sourcing technology providers and contractors here, with their boots already on the ground, or look toward their European counterparts who, due to the right market conditions, have successfully brought the biogas indus-try to where it is today? Resourceful Competitor European biogas expertise and technology have made their presence known in North America. Projects like Blue Sphere Corp.s under-construc-tion AD projects in Charlotte, Virgin-ia, and Johnston, Rhode Island, utilize the Italian company Austep S.p.A. as the projects technology provider and engineering, procurement and con-struction (EPC) contractor. Southern California-based CR&R, a recycling and waste collection company, de-cided to implement German-based Eisenmanns biogas technology for its multiphase biogas-to-fuel project in Perris, California. Project developers and technology providers in the U.S. 54 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016&RQYH\RU'U\HUIRUWKH%LRPDVV,QGXVWU\Wood Chips | Sawdust | Microchips Straw and Grass | Anaerobic Digestates Organic Waste | Forest Waste | Pellets Bark | Sewer Sludge ExtrudiatesU Unrivaled end-product uniformityU Low drying temperaturesU Environmentally friendly with low dust emissionsU Lower operating costsU Energy efficientU Rugged construction that minimizes cleaning and reduces maintenance costs&30:ROYHULQH3URFWRU//&*LEUDOWDU5RDG+RUVKDP3$U.S. 215-443-5200 lawc@cpmwolverineproctor.com]]]=UR\KXOTK6XUIZUXIUS&30:ROYHULQH3URFWRU/7'/DQJODQGV$YH.HOYLQ6RXWK%XVLQHVV3DUN(DVW.LOEULGH*ODVJRZ8.*APRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 55 move the machinery in a mixed digester, so there is less power to export or sell.VanOrnum adds that the markets are completely different in Europe. We have people who we work with who wont look at European systems, because they were devel-oped in a very different market, and in a lot of cases, they werent developed to handle the heavy-strength waste that we have here in the U.S. on large farms, she says. There are a lot of digesters in Europe, but that doesnt mean that only good digesters come out of Europe.CleanWorld joins the other U.S.-based biogas companies like DVO and quasar that provide technology to the market. So far, CleanWorld is solely working in California, with three commercial digesters in Davis, Natomas and Sacramento, but according to Ethan Hanohano, who works on feedstock procurement and business development for the company, they are looking to expand soon, when the appropriate project becomes avail-able. CleanWorld initially licensed the tech-nology from Professor Ruihong Zhang of University of California, Davis, Hanohano says. The goal was to create commercial-size anaerobic digesters. While anaerobic digestion has been relevant in Europe for a long time, CleanWorld's initial goal was to become the first high-solids anaerobic digestion technol-ogy company in the U.S.The companys technology is a three-stage proprietary digestion process, which allows di-gesters to accept feedstock with up to 50 per-cent solids content. Hanohano says although he believes there is quite a bit of technology in the market created outside of the U.S., being based in the states has its advantages. Being U.S.-based and using multiple U.S.-based piec-es of equipment allows CleanWorld to build digesters in record time, he says. This also means we have very quick turnaround on re-placeable parts.Overall, many stateside biogas technol-ogy providers pride themselves on sourcing domestically. We maintain our dedication to sourcing components in the U.S., Henry says. We continue to refine and enhance our sys-tems as we learn and grow.Whereas quasars and DVOs technology has a core presence in the agricultural sector, CleanWorld focuses on food waste. There seems to be quite a bit of competition for farm-based or dairy manure digesters, Hano-hano says. Food waste digesters, like the ones CleanWorld owns and operates, are rare. This is most likely due to the difficulty in locking down food waste contracts.North American renewable energy proj-ect developer Harvest Power, has also tapped into the food waste arena, and Ashwani Ku-mar, who helps oversee project development and engineering for Harvest Power, believes the AD technology itself is not a problem for the North American biogas sector, it is other project hurdles that have to be overcome. The challenge has always been preprocess-ing, which is fairly unique to every situation, its SOURCE SEPARATION: CleanWorlds project focus has been on processing food waste in California. The companys technology can accept high-solids materials (up to 50 percent) with high levels of contamination. PHOTO: CLEANWORLD 56 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016&DOO7ROO)UHH672.(5VDOHV#GHWURLWVWRNHUFRPZZZGHWURLWVWRNHUFRPalso digestate management, how you handle the gas, how you meet local regulations, he says. A lot of local expertise is neededlocal engineering, local project development expertiseso the limitation is not the technology. I think the limitation is the understanding and having the right project development skills, which is a big hindrance in the U.S. market. According to Kumar, today, the U.S. spends $218 billion1.3 percent of gross domestic producton growing, processing, trans-porting and disposing of food that is never eaten, most of which goes to a landfill. This is why Harvest Power began working toward a solution. The company has developed three energy gardens in Richmond, British Columbia; London, Ontario; and Orlando, Flor-ida, as well as a pipeline projects in California that will handle food waste scraps coming from northern part of the state. Kumar says Harvest Power is involved in technology evaluation for its projects, but selects an experienced general contractor who is responsible for its construction and making sure the system delivers the performance. The high-solids AD technology provider for the Richmond energy garden is German-based GICON. Other contractors theyve worked with have included foreign technology partners Global Water & En-gineering based in Belgium and Entech Renewable Energy Solutions out of Australia. Kumar says they mainly partner with North American construc-tion and engineering companies on their projects, and a majority of the components associated with their development are sourced do-mestically. An example Kumar provided is the companys project in California. He highlighted four key components to the project includ-ing preprocessing, the digester, digestate handling and gas handling. He said that of those four components, only the digester came from Germany and, even within the digester technology, much of the hardware was sourced from North America. I would say as North America has has adapted these technologies, the European content has reduced a lot, Kumar says. There is no core competence that cannot be replicated in North America.FOOD WASTE POTENTIAL: Harvest Powers energy garden in Orlando is unique in that the digestion technology handles food waste from the Disney property as well as biosolids from a wastewater treatment plant. The company sources a majority of its project components domestically. PHOTO: HARVEST POWER APRIL 2016 | BIOMASS MAGAZINE 57 5(&(,9(6725(0(7(5Roadmap to RealizationIts evident foreign-based biogas companies have found success in the North American biogas sector, and many abroad see further market opportunity here. European technology providers see Ameri-ca as a virgin market, Kumar says. What they dont understand is the challengesthe policy challenges, permitting challenges, the project financing challengesthat the U.S. faces, they are very different than the European ones. The biggest challenge Kumar perceives with food-based AD project development in the states is the project financing risk. What the financing community needs is inherently missing in these kinds of projects, he says. They dont have long-term feedstock and off-take contracts, the technology risk is high, as these are not repeatable and kind of unique in each case, and there is no infrastructure to support these projects. Kumar adds, These are challenges that do not exist in Europe because there is a lot of organic support that has mushroomed up around these projects. The government provides long-term power purchase agreement, and feedstock support for some of these projects to be financially viable. Another difference Kumar references between European biogas project development and North American is digestate handling. Ku-mar believes digestate waste fertilizer should be listed under the USDA National Organic Program in order to receive organic certification. Its a nutrient, but right now its not handled right, and digestate is a big challenge in North America, but its not a concern in Europe. Nearly every digester applies it on the land there, and here you have to treat it. Although Europe has support mechanisms that allowed the bio-gas market there to grow, the U.S. has made strides in the past few years to help move the industry forward. In June 2013, President Obama directed the administration to develop a strategy to reduce methane emissions and ultimately grow the biogas energy industry through his Climate Action Plan. Since then, the Biogas Opportunities Roadmap 58 BIOMASS MAGAZINE | APRIL 2016was created to build on progress made to date. It outlines voluntary ac-tions that can be taken to reduce methane emissions through the use of biogas systems and outlines strategies to overcome barriers limiting fur-ther expansion and development of a robust biogas industry in the U.S. The EPAs AgSTAR helps promote the use of biogas recovery sys-tems at livestock operations, and the EPAs Landfill Methane Outreach Program helps reduce methane emissions from landfills by encouraging the recovery and beneficial use of landfill gas as a renewable energy source. Starting in 2012, EPA Region 9 convened a state, federal and local working group to facilitate the proliferation of dairy digesters in California, which is the nations largest dairy producer. DVOs VanOr-num says she thinks its initiatives like this in certain areas of the country that will lead the way. New York City has their landfill diversion ban, we have states like California that are putting in really good incentives for anaerobic digesters, so I think there are going to be certain parts of the U.S. that are going to take off faster than others, and I believe theyll end up leading the way for the country, she says.Biogas not only manages waste, but can also improve profitability for operations through energy production, coproduct sales, nutrient re-covery and avoided energy costs. Opportunities like those highlighted in the roadmap leave those in the space hopeful for what the future could bring. I absolutely believe anaerobic digestion is here to stay, Hanohano says. New bills are being passed that have forced businesses to find a solution for their food waste. An infrastructure of AD facilities will need to be built in order to capture all of that waste.VanOrnum foresees not only DVOs U.S.-based projects picking up, but more work for the company abroad and in markets beyond agri-culture, like municipalities, landfill diversion and food processing waste. At the end of the day, digesters make sense, she says. They make economic sense. They make environmental sense. They make societal sense. I think as more and more people learn about them and the ben-efits they provide that demand will increase.Support is needed to drive development within the biogas sector ahead. Kumar with Harvest Power points out that the U.S.s three prom-inent sectors for AD technology require different kinds of support. Those that are farm-based will require government subsidy support, biosolid AD technology is paid by the taxpayer at locations like munici-pal wastewater treatment plants, and the third segmentwhich Kumar sees the most potential foris merchant plants, like Harvest, that inde-pendently develop ways to divert organics. I definitely see a strong will in having the right foundations here to move forward, Kumar says. I wouldnt be surprised if 10 years from now the U.S. would lead that mar-ket more than any other European technology or European country. Henry at quasar acknowledges that the digester industry in the U.S. is still relatively new compared to the developed industry the in Eu-rope, where Germany alone has more than 6,800 systems in operation. But to her, failure is not an option. Every project that puts a shovel in the ground needs to be well-planned, skillfully designed, responsi-bly financed and expertly operated, she says. When projects fail, the reputation of anaerobic digesters and the potential for the industry is brought into question.Author: Katie FletcherAssociate Editor, Biomass Magazine701-738-4920 kfletcher@bbiinternational.comBIOGAS//-XQH:LVFRQVLQ&HQWHU0LOZDXNHH:,632162572'$^d>W&/&^W%,20$66(1(5*Cleanly Convert WasteTo Renewable Energy615.471.9299 www.phgenergy.comCommunity-scale disposal solution for wood waste, tires and sludgeDelivers clean-burningfuel gas for electricalgeneration or thermal useExtends landfill life andreduces carbon footprintProven Gasification systems with over 50,000 commercial operating hours=PZP[V\Y>LIZP[L-PUKV\[TVYLHIV\[OV^^LZVS]LLU]PYVUTLU[HSHUKLULYN`WYVISLTZHUKOV^^LOH]L^VYRLK^P[OIV[OT\UPJPWHSP[PLZHUKPUK\Z[Y `*VU[HJ[\ZMVYHUPUP[PHSILULMP[HUHS`ZPZHUK[VKPZJ\ZZLULYN`HWWSPJH[PVUZHUKMLLKZ[VJRVW[PVUZ3+*%LRPDVV0DJ$G0LQGG 30