12.1 what causes air pollution 12.2 air, noise and light pollution 12.3 acid precipitation

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CH. 12 AIR12.1 What causes air pollution 12.2 Air, Noise and Light Pollution12.3 Acid PrecipitationKEY TERMSAir PollutionPrimary PollutantSecondary PollutantSmogTemperature Inversion12.1 OBJECTIVESName five primary air pollutants, and give sources for each.Name the two major sources of air pollution in urban areas.Describe the way in which smog forms.Explain the way in which a thermal inversion traps air pollution.WHAT CAUSES AIR POLLUTIONMexico Citys air is one of the most polluted in the world.Clean air consists of Nitrogen(78%), Oxygen(21%), Carbon Dioxide(.03%), Argon, and Water Vapor.Harmful substances that build up in the air is air pollution, and are caused by both humans and natural sources.PRIMARY POLLUTANTSA Primary pollutant is a pollutant that is put directly into the air by human activity. Like soot from smoke.

PRIMARY POLLUTANTS

6SECONDARY POLLUTANTSA secondary pollutant form when a primary pollutant comes into contact with other primary pollutants or with naturally occurring substances such as water vapor.One such example is ground-level ozone that forms when emissions fro vehicles and natural sources react with UV rays from the sun and mix with oxygen in the atmosphere.SECONDARY POLLUTANTS

SECONDARY POLLUTANTS

HISTORY OF AIR POLLUTIONSeneca, a Roman philosopher and writer, around the time of Christ, complained about the foul air in Rome.In 1273, Englands King Edward I ordered that burning sea-coal was illegal.Almost one-third of our air pollution comes from gasoline burned by vehicles.In 1998 Americans drove over 2.6 trillion milesVEHICLE POLLUTION

HISTORY OF AIR POLLUTIONIn 1970/1990 U. S. gave The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the authority to regulate vehicle emissions in the U. S.The EPA states that lead pollution has been reduced by 90% and that cars and trucks burn fuel 35% more efficiently and with 95% fewer emissions of pollutants than 30 years ago.ZEVZero-Emission Vehicles are vehicles that have no tailpipe emissions, no emissions from gasoline, and no emission-control systems that deteriorate over time.By 2016, 16% of all vehicles in California are required to be ZEV. These are also being adopted in the New England States.ZEV

INDUSTRIAL AIR POLLUTIONPower plants that generate our electricity burn fossil fuels that release huge quantities of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxide (NO) into the air.Power plants produce at least two-thirds of all SO2 and more than 30% of all NOs.(VOCs) Volatile organic compounds are formed by chemicals used in dry cleaning, oil refineries, furniture refinishers, chemical manufacturing plants and automobile repair shops.INDUSTRIAL AIR POLLUTION

VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

REGULATING INDUSTRYScrubbers are machines that move gases through a spray of water that dissolves many pollutants, such as ammonia.Electrostatic precipitators are machines used in cement factories and coal burning power plants that remove dust from smoke stacks.Smog is when air pollution hangs over urban areas and reduces visibility. Smog results from chemical reactions that involve sunlight, air, automobile exhaust, and ozone.ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS

SMOG

TEMPERATURE INVERSIONSCirculating air in our atmosphere usually keeps air pollution from reaching dangerous levels.A temperature inversion is when a body of warm air traps a body of cold air beneath it, also trapping the pollutants in. Los Angeles is a common place for this to occur as it is surrounded on three sides by mountains. INVERSIONS

1948- Donorahttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IKDpNTNm1Cc1952- London https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vkx-2mT1-q4https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6qMmpnxj_CQ

12.2 KEY TERMS/OBJECTIVESSick-building syndrome *Asbestos *DecibelDescribe three possible short term effects & long term effects of air pollution and human health.Explain what causes indoor air pollution and how it can be prevented.Describe three human health problems caused by noise pollution. Describe solutions to energy waste caused by light pollution.AIR,NOISE,&LIGHT POLLUTIONAir pollution can cause serious health problems. The short term effects include: nausea; irritation to the eyes, nose and throat; tightness in chest; coughing; and upper respiratory infections like bronchitis and pneumonia.Long-term effects include emphysema, lung cancer, and heart disease.HEALTH PROBLEMS

HEALTH PROBLEMS

INDOOR AIR POLLUTIONQuality of air indoors is sometimes worse than air outdoors.Sick-Building Syndrome are buildings with very poor air quality.

RADON GAS/ASBESTOSRadon gas is colorless, tasteless, odorless, & radioactive. Caused by uranium decaying. It can destroy genetic material in cells of lungs and cause lung cancer.Asbestos is used as an insulation material. Its fibers can cut and scar the lungs and cause cancer.RADON GAS/ASBESTOS

NOISE/LIGHT POLLUTIONNoise is a pollutant that affects human health. It can cause loss of hearing, high blood pressure, stress, loss of sleep and lower productivity. (DB)-Decibels is a unit that measures the intensity of sound. 120 DB causes pain and eventually deafness.Light pollution diminishes our environment.Lights should be directed downwards, lights can be put on timers, and lights should only be used when needed.NOISE POLLUTION

12.3 KEY TERMS/OBJECTIVESAcid precipitation *pH *Acid shockExplain the cause of acid precipitation.Explain how acid precipitation affects plants, soils, and aquatic ecosystems.Describe three ways that acid precipitation affects humans.Describe ways that countries are working together to solve the problem of acid precipitation.ACID PRECIPITATIONAcid precipitation is rain, sleet or snow that has high concentrations of acids. Caused by the oxides of sulfur and nitrogen when fossil fuels are burned.Acidic water kills living things. Many lakes in the Adirondack Mt.s in N.Y. have no life.pH (power of hydrogen)-is a number that measures how acidic or basic a substance is. No.s 1-6 (Acidic), 7 (neutral), 8-12 (basic).ACID PRECIPITATION

ACID PRECIP./SOIL/PLANTSAcidification can cause a drop in pH of soil and water. Lowered pH levels cause more nutrients to dissolve & wash away.Lower pH also causes aluminum and other materials to be released.Lower pH also causes SO2 in water vapor to clog openings in plants.PLANTS & ACID RAIN

ACID RAIN/AQUATICSLower pH in water can kill plants, fish & animals. It also causes aluminum to leach out of soil and into the water. The Al Accumulates in the gills of fish and they suffocate.Acid shock is a rapid rise of acidic water due to snow melt and rain in the spring causing many deaths of fish and amphibians.Fish & amphibians produce fewer eggs and some are abnormal. Some countries are adding limestone to raise the pH in lakes.ACID RAIN/AQUATICS

ACID RAIN/HUMANSAluminum and mercury can be released into the environment by lowering the pH. These metals find their way into crops, water and fish. These toxins poison us.This causes more respiratory illnesses. Loss of trees, fish and therefore jobs.Acid rain can also dissolve the calcium carbonate in common building materials, such as concrete & limestone. (Perrys Monument).ACID RAIN/HUMANS

INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT/COOPERATIONSome acid rain is produced in one area and falls in another. Half of the acid precipitation in Canada comes from Ohio, Indiana, Penn., Illinois, Missouri, West Virginia, and Tennessee.In 1991 the U. S. and Canada signed an Air Quality Agreement. They both agreed to reduce acidic emissions.INTERNATIONAL ACID RAIN

VideosThe Right to Breath (20 mins) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B1M894GH4q4GASP for clean air (20 mins) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_nfGJCPd0Mc

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