Xu Minggang Soil organic carbon sequestration and crop production

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The Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS) and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) jointly hosted the International Conference on Climate Change and Food Security (ICCCFS) November 6-8, 2011 in Beijing, China. This conference provided a forum for leading international scientists and young researchers to present their latest research findings, exchange their research ideas, and share their experiences in the field of climate change and food security. The event included technical sessions, poster sessions, and social events. The conference results and recommendations were presented at the global climate talks in Durban, South Africa during an official side event on December 1.


  • 1. Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration and Crop Production Minggang XU Wenju Zhang, Yilai Lou, Hui Li(Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, CAAS, China)
  • 2. Contribution from Basic Soil Fertility Soilproductivity Effects of Management: Fertilization, irrigation, ...
  • 3. CropProductivity:SoilfertilityinteractionwithefficiencyofWater andfertilizers Increasingefficiencyof waterandfertilizers Crop yield IncreasingSoilfertility
  • 4. Soil Fertility Contribution to Grain Yield in China: 52% For rice, wheat and maize in average 90Tang and Huang, 2009
  • 5. Soil Fertility Contribution to Grain Yield in China: 52% Lower 20% than that of USA Why??? Yield WF SoilFertility W F 90Tang and Huang, 2009
  • 6. Lower Soil Fertility in ChinaLow SOMIn China, SOM in 26% of arable soil is less than 1% ,which is only 30-50% of European Soils.Requirement:Techniques to increase soil fertility, SOC CinnamonRegion Brown earths Chernozems soils China 11.5 1% 3%Europe >3% >2% 8%
  • 7. OutlineSOC, soil fertility, and crop productionLong-term experiments in cropland of China
  • 8. Part OneSOC, soil fertility and crop production
  • 9. Soil fertility, SOC pool, and food security Climate change food security SOC Crop production Environment Soil fertility -friendly
  • 10. Three questionsRelationship soil fertility, Soil Organic Carbon(SOC) and crop productionCritical SOC for high crop productionPrinciple and technology for increasing SOC
  • 11. Question Relationship of SOC, soil fertility and crop production
  • 12. What is soil fertility?Soil fertility-An important characteristic of soilqualityThe ability to supply the essentialnutrients and water for plant growth
  • 13. SOM or SOC is the basis and core ofthe soil fertility! The improvement of SOC and soilfertility is fundamental of ensuringfood security! SOC pool Soil fertility Soil productivity
  • 14. SOM increase with crop yield for four soil types in China SOM SOM Fluvo-aquic soil Lime concretion black soilSOM SOM Gray fluvo-aquic soil Whitish soil
  • 15. SOC, crop yield and yield sustainability in cropland of China Wuchang Nanchang Jinxian wheat rice cornYield Suining rice Wuchang rice Nanchang rice Jinxian corn SOC SOC increase by 10% Suining Wuchang Wuchang wheat74% Nanchang Nanchang rice: 42% Jinxian Jinxian corn110% SOC
  • 16. Statistical resultsThere is a close correlation between the average grain yield innormal years and SOC content in cropland in the major grain-producing areas In upland area in north China, the SOC content of 1 g/kg isequivalent to the grain productivity of 0.3 -0.5t/ha In paddy area in south China, the SOC content of 1 g/kg isequivalent to the grain productivity of 0.4-0.6 t/ha. On average, with the increase of 1 g/kg of SOC content, theincrease of grain yield stability ranges from 10% to 20%.
  • 17. SOC trend under different fertilization in Paddy field 25 25 CK NPK NPKS Jiangxi 23 20 21 15 19 10 CK NPKSOC g/kg 17 5 50F+50M 30F+70M Hunan 70F+30M 15 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 20 22 CK NPK CK NPK 21 NPKM NPKM NPK+M1 1.5(NPK)+M1 18 20 19 16 18 14 17 16 12 Sichuan 15 Zhejiang 10 14 1990 1995 2000 2005 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 Year (a)
  • 18. Change trend: Yield VS. SOC (1) Non-fertilization SOC change rate Region Land use Crop yield change t/ha/yr Northeast upland decreased -0.11 to-0.27 Northwest upland decreased -0.17 to -0.42Huanghuaihai upland decreased -0.10 to 0.10South China upland decreased maintained 75% of sites paddies maintained -0.28 to 0.26
  • 19. (2) Chemical fertilization Yield increased SOC changed Region Land use (%) (t ha-1 yr-1) Wheat:48 Northeast upland maintained Corn:58 Wheat:95 Northwest upland -0.19 to -0.23 Corn:72 Wheat:168Huanghuaihai upland 0.07 to 0.4 Corn:78 Wheat: 120South China upland 0.05 to 0.13 Corn:491 paddies Rice:54 0.03 to 0.16
  • 20. (3) With manure and straw Yield increased SOC changed Region Land use (%) (t ha-1 yr-1) Wheat:66 Northeast upland 0.77-1.03 Corn:77 Wheat:268 Northwest upland 0.09-1.29 Corn:109 Wheat:309Huanghuaihai upland 0.4-0.7 Corn:141 Wheat:278South China upland 0.6-1.0 Corn:1326 paddies Rice:75 0.15-0.88
  • 21. Major conclusions from the long-term experiments SOC content can be significantly accumulatedunder the long-term manure application aloneor combined with fertilizer The increase in SOC content can improve soilfertility and thus enhance crop yield; Manure application is an useful option forincreasing soil fertility, ensuring food securityand promoting agricultural sustainability.
  • 22. Question Critical SOC level for high crop production (A case study in Black soil)
  • 23. Long-term experiment siteThe selected long-term field experimentlocated in Gongzhuling city, Jilin province,started in 1980Cropping systemrainfed continuous cornSoil typeblack soil
  • 24. Experimental designSplit-plot design: three main-treatments (manure)and eight sub-treatments (fertilizers) Main- Sub-treatment (Chemical fertilizer)treatment(Manure) M0 CK N P K NP NK PK NPK M2 CK N P K NP NK PK NPK M4 CK N P K NP NK PK NPKApplication rateManure Chemical fertilizerM0 0 m3/ha (no manure) Pure N -- 150 kg/haM2 --30 m3/ha P2O5 -- 75 kg/haM4 --60 m3/ha K2O -- 75 kg/ha
  • 25. After 29 years in 2009, Still big differences for chemical fertilizers in Mo Plot
  • 26. After 29 years in 2009, However, no When and significant differences for Why? chemical fertilizers in M2 and M4 Plots
  • 27. Dynamic of yield increment due to fertilizer under different manure rates M0 M2 M4
  • 28. SOC dynamic under different manure rates
  • 29. Relationship between yield increment due to fertilizer and SOC SOC=17.6g/kg y1 = -30.14x + 543.64 R2 = 0.3745** SOM=30.3g/kg y2 = -1.6295x + 43.034 R2 = 0.1596**
  • 30. Major Conclusions for this part1) When the SOM content reached to 30 g/kgthe chemical fertilizer can be completely replaced with the manure for achieving the expected high yield!2) The results obtained from 160-yr Roth experimental station show that proper chemical fertilizer application can maintain high yield. However, our results indicate that manure alone can also produce the equivalent high yield when the soil fertility is high enough.3) This is very important for Organic Agriculture or Organic Framing and agricultural sustainable development!
  • 31. Question Principle and quantitativetechnology for increasing SOC
  • 32. SOC change is determined by thebalance of the C input and output SOC usually shows a linear increase withC input when the SOC has no saturationlimitation
  • 33. SOC trend under different fertilization in Upland JiangsuSOC g/kg Xinjiang 25 CK NPK NPKM 1.5NPKM 20 M 15 Henan 10 5 Hunan 0 1990 1995 2000 2005 Year (a)
  • 34. Regression between SOC changed and C input in upland of ChinaSOC changed SOC0=9.49 SOC0=15.43 SOC0=13.05 SOC0=11.54 SOC0=6.5 SOC0=6.67 SOC0=8.58t/ha/yr C input t/ha/yr
  • 35. SOC Response to C Input Conversion coefficient of C inputSOC Changed C input tot/ha/yr maintain SOC C input t/ha/yr
  • 36. The relations are used to guidethe application of manure andstraw to improve soil fertility forsustainable agriculture
  • 37. C input to maintain SOC Manure/ straw needed to C input to maintaining SOC Initial SOC maintain (t/ha/yr) Site (g/kg) SOC ( t C/ha/yr) Fresh pig Rice manure strawQY 8.6 0.8 18 2.3SN 9.2 0.8 16 2.0WC 15.9 2.2 23 5.4NC 14.9 2.5 26 5.8WC 19.7 1.4 29 3.6
  • 38. C input to increase SOC by 10% C input to Manure/ straw needed to Initial Target increase increasing SOC by 10% Site SOC SOC SOC (t/ha/yr) (g/kg) (g/kg) by 10% Fresh pig ( t C/ha/yr) Rice straw manureQY 8.6 9.4 1.89 33.5 4.2SN 9.2 10.1 1.49 36 3.3WC 15.9 17.5 3.69 46 8.2NC 14.9 16.7 3.33 48 7.4WC 19.7 21.7 4.05 60 9
  • 39. Part TwoLong-Term Experiments (LTEs) in Cropland of China
  • 40. Importance of LTEs Long-term experiment: an importantresearch means of soil science Revealing the change in soil quality,guiding rational fertilization, andprotecting ecological environment andagricultural sustainable development
  • 41. LTEs In the WorldLonger than 100 years: around 20 sites The Longest One:Rothamsted, established in 1843,168-year history
  • 42. The classical experiments at RothamstedN, P, K,Manure Broadbalk Continuous Wheat Experiment First sown 1843
  • 43. LTEs In the World The 2nd Longest One: MorrowPlots, located in University ofIllinois at Chamigan-Urbana,established in 1876 135-year history, Foundation ofUSA Agri.
  • 44. Effects of Rotation and Fertilization on Crop Productivity and Soil Quality, National Historical Landmark20111111
  • 45. LTEs In China1.Chemical fertilizer experiment net: beganduring the 6th five-year plan and conductedabout in 19802.The Chinese National Soil and Fertilizer Long-Term Monitoring Net: set up during the 7th five-year plan and conducted in 1990
  • 46. National long-term fertilizer experiment net From 1980, about 80 long-term fertilizer experiments through 22provinces and 10 soil types in China, conducted to investigate theeffect, rate and ratio of N, P and K fertilizers
  • 47. CSFEN was established in 1990 There are 9 experimental sites in the network all over China Black soil Gray dessert soil Drab fluvo-aquic soil Fluvo-aquic soil Paddy soil Loess soil Purple soil Red soil China Long-termSoil Fertility Experiment Paddy soil Network (CSFEN)
  • 48. Ongoing LTEs in China started in 1980s60 sites, including10 soil classification10 rotation systems 90
  • 49. Collected data from long-term experiments in China (more than 20 yrs)
  • 50. Published a Book: Evolvement of soil fertility in China Cooperated by 50 researchers
  • 51. Major Publications-SCI PapersSoil organic carbon dynamics under long-term fertilizations in arable land ofnorthern China. Biogeosciences 2010, 7: 409-425 IF 3.5Soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and grain yields under long-term fertilizationsin the upland red soil of southern China. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst 2009.84:59-69 (IF 1.8Long-term effects of manure application on grain yield under different croppingsystems and ecological conditions in China. The Journal of AgriculturalScience . 2009, 147, 31-42. IF 1.3Trends in grain yield and soil organic carbon in a long-term fertilizationexperiment in the China Loess Plateau. J. Plant Nutr. Soil Sci. 2008,171:448-457.IF 1.6Crop Yield and Soil Responses to Long-Term Fertilization on a Red Soil inSouthern China. Pedosphere. 2009, 19 (2): 199 207. IF 0.81
  • 52. Thanks for attention!Welcome you to visitChina Long-termExperimentsDo Collaborations!


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