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Writer’s Craft Notebooks Analyzing Author’s Craft to Enhance My Craft. presented by Catherine D’Aoust July 3 , 2014. Ongoing grammar question:. To teach grammar or not to teach grammar?. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Grammar Instruction Gradual Release through Anchor Activities

Writers Craft NotebooksAnalyzing Authors Craft to Enhance My Craft

presented by Catherine DAoust July 3, 2014

1

Ongoing grammar question:To teach grammar or not to teach grammar?

This journal derived from a desire to answer this question.3* Teachers today do not question if grammar should be taught because the standards require grammar instruction.CCSS Language Standards!!!

For more than 2000 years, people used these categories to describe the rules of any language studied (usually greek and roman languages)Does the research support teaching grammar traditionally? - NO! in view of the widespread agreement of research studies basedupon many types of students and teachers, the conclusion can be statedin strong and unqualified terms: the teaching of formal grammar has anegligible or, because it usually displaces some instruction andpractice in actual composition, even a harmful effect on the improvement of writing. R.Braddock, R. Lloyd-Jones, L. Schoer Research in Written Composition, NCTE, 1963

, Inquiring Minds want to knowWe know from research that there is no support for teaching grammar traditionally in isolation.5Those findings that report no correlation between the formal teaching of grammar and writing ability conclude only that grammar should not be taught in isolation,as an end in itself. They do not conclude that it should not be taught at allUnfortunately, the result of theresearch has been to drive grammar instruction out of the composition classroom, rather than into it, where itbelongs. Martha KollnRhetorical Grammar: Grammatical Choices, Rhetorical Effects, 1991But we need more research because as Kolln points out, the research does not show that grammar should not be taught at all.6Grammar Instructionin Meaningful, Productive Contexts opposed to Grammar Instruction in Isolation, often with drill and kill worksheets(sometimes called traditional grammar instruction)

In fact, we know that students need grammatical knowledge to address the needs of an audience AND we know that instruction should be done so that the magic of transfer can occur: Thus we seek meaningful productive contexts.7What is instruction in meaningful contexts?

This instruction is incorporated into reading and writing instruction in the classroom; grammar instruction becomes a natural part of Analyzing Authors Craft and learning style while applying it to students own writing.

Instruction is context-based and utilizes both didactic and constructivist pedagogical strategies: - Sometimes students just need directly to be taught rules and how the English language works. - They need continuous opportunities to apply what they have learned to their own writing.

Grammar InstructionShould NOT beGrammar Instruction is oftenRapid Release

Grammar instruction often suffers from Rapid Release where the writer is introduced to new information and asked immediately to apply the concept or knowledge independently. Usually resulting in failure and misunderstanding. And possibly a dislike for grammar which is why books are written tiled Grammar Sucks.10In some classrooms TEACHER RESPONSIBILITYSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYFocus LessonI do itIndependentYou do it aloneFisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

11This is the Rapid Release classroom.TEACHER RESPONSIBILITYSTUDENT RESPONSIBILITYFocus LessonGuided InstructionI do itWe do itYou do it togetherCollaborativeIndependentYou do it aloneA Model for Success for All Students Fisher, D., & Frey, N. (2008). Better learning through structured teaching: A framework for the gradual release of responsibility. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

12We want grammar instruction to release students to independent practice graduallyGradual Release ProcessFocused, directed instruction with modelsGuided, interactive first experiencesCollaborative practice for correction and further learningIndependent practice for attainment in meaningful contextsGrammar Instruction is often Declarative Knowledge only

highly abstract, without real applicationinstead of

Procedural Knowledge

where students use new knowledge in real, meaning- ful contexts where they practice and improveAdditionally, the transfer possibility is clouded by the fact that instruction is highly abstract.14The goal of grammar instruction is to improve writing and speakingGrammar is often taught as if the goal was to acquire linguistic understanding of the English language.We sometimes forget the goal of grammar instruction.15 CCSS excerpt on Language Standards Note on range and content of student language use:

To be college and career ready in language, students must have firm control over the conventions of standard English. At the same time, they must come to appreciate that language is as at least as much a matter of craft as of rules and be able to choose words, syntax, and punctuation to express themselves and achieve particular functions and rhetorical effects. They must also have extensive vocabularies, built through reading and study, enabling them to comprehend complex texts and engage in purposeful writing about and conversations around content. They need to become skilled in determining or clarifying the meaning of words and phrases they encounter, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies to aid them. They must learn to see an individual word as part of a network of other wordswords, for example, that have similar denotations but different connotations. The inclusion of Language standards in their own strand should not be taken as an indication that skills related to conventions, effective language use, and vocabulary are unimportant to reading, writing, speaking, and listening; indeed, they are inseparable from such contexts.Grammar ResearchWriting as a decision-making activityCommon Core College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for LanguageConventions of Standard EnglishDemonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.Explain to students: California has recently adopted new Common Core Standards for English Language Arts and they have identified 10 anchor standards for all grade levels, 6-12. Two of those standards involve being able to understand and interpret theme. In October, I asked you to write an essay about theme in a nonfiction article about ( an earthquake in Haiti/a man who sacrified his life to save victims of a plane crash.) It was a challenging task, I know. Next month, were going to get those essays back with comments from graduate students at UCI about how to make them better. But first were going to learn more about theme.18Common Core College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for LanguageKnowledge of Language3. Apply knowledge of language to understand how language functions in different contexts, to make effective choices for meaning or style, and to comprehend more fully when reading or listening.Explain to students: California has recently adopted new Common Core Standards for English Language Arts and they have identified 10 anchor standards for all grade levels, 6-12. Two of those standards involve being able to understand and interpret theme. In October, I asked you to write an essay about theme in a nonfiction article about ( an earthquake in Haiti/a man who sacrified his life to save victims of a plane crash.) It was a challenging task, I know. Next month, were going to get those essays back with comments from graduate students at UCI about how to make them better. But first were going to learn more about theme.19Common Core College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for LanguageVocabulary acquisition and Use4.Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate

5.Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.6.Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in gathering vocabulary knowledge when considering a word or phrase important to comprehension or expression.Explain to students: California has recently adopted new Common Core Standards for English Language Arts and they have identified 10 anchor standards for all grade levels, 6-12. Two of those standards involve being able to understand and interpret theme. In October, I asked you to write an essay about theme in a nonfiction article about ( an earthquake in Haiti/a man who sacrified his life to save victims of a plane crash.) It was a challenging task, I know. Next month, were going to get those essays back with comments from graduate students at UCI about how to make them better. But first were going to learn more about theme.20

Constance WeaverHarry NodenJeff Anderson

2005

19991979These researchers have been talking about and emphasizing these contexts for years.21Grammar Research saysConstance Weaver (2007) explains, Grammar taught in isolation from writing does not produce significant improvements in writing. It is both more motivating and more practical to teach selected aspects of grammar in conjunction with the writing process. (pg.8)

It is better to teach a few things repeatedly and well than a lot of grammatical terms that have little or no practical relevance to writing.

Improving Your Sentences with Brush Strokes

Artists Palette Step 15: Brushstrokes for Sentence VarietyThis month, we will be practicing having students learn Harry Nodens brushstrokes for sentence variety, first with pictures of animals and then with literature (i.e. The Horned Toad.) Next month, we will repeat this practice with pictures of natural disasters and with literary nonfiction.

23Harry Noden from Image Grammar Traditionally, the study of grammar has dealt only with words, phrases, and clauses. However, when I began to see grammar as a process of creating art, it seemed unnatural even impossible not to view grammar as a continuous spectrum in a whole work. As I explored this view with my students, the connection seemed to bring grammar into a meaningful relationship with stories, novels, screenplays, poems, reports, and songs the ultimate products of the writers art.

Im a writer, not an artistright?The writer is an artist, painting images of life with specific and identifiable brush strokes, images as realistic as Wyeth and as abstract as Picasso.

Writing is not constructed merely from experiences, information, characters or plots, but from fundamental artistic elements of grammar.

-Harry Noden,Image Grammar

Table of Contents: Image Grammar

What are brush strokes?Comparison of writing to painting - Use of a palette of words and combination of wordsVariety of strokes sentence structuresChoices determined by artists purpose and audienceDrafting and adding color/shading

What brush strokes?A writers brush strokes are their repertoire of sentence structures combine with their word choices. Students can begin with these five basic brush strokes:Action verbs Adjectives out of orderAppositivesParticiple used as adjectivese) Absolutes

Professional authors use these tools to create masterpieces Shifting the weight of the line to his left shoulder and kneeling carefully, he washed his hand in the ocean and held it there, submerged, for more than a minute, watching the blood trail away and the steady movement of the water against his hand as the boat moved.-Ernest HemingwayOld Man and the Sea

Dazed and disoriented, I looked up from the bright red blood pulsing out of my arminto the fevered eyes of the six suddenly ravenous vampires.-Stephanie MeyerNew MoonBrush Stroke ProcessImitation WritingChoose a brush strokeShow a pictureModel the brush strokeShow a 2nd picture (GRR)Student(s) practiceStudents use brush stroke in their writing

30Adjectives Out of OrderThe leopard hung on the tree branch.

The leopard, hungry and vigilant, hung on the tree branch.31You try using adjectives out of order.

Gorilla:Peering at the onlookers, the gorilla passed hour after hour in his depressing cage.Painting with Participles33Show them a model with a picture of an animal.

Gorilla:Peering at the onlookers, slumping forward, staring dejectedly, the gorilla passed hour after hour in his depressing cage.Painting with Participles34Show them a model with a picture of an animal.

Gorilla:Bored by his surroundings, the gorilla passed hour after hour in his depressing cage.Painting with Participles35Show them a model with a picture of an animal.Killer Whale:Now you try:Painting with Participles

36Then, have them practice with a picture of another animal.Example [Note the lack of sentence variation]

Final words from Harry Noden:The writer is an artist, painting images of life with specific and identifiable brush strokes.

Writing is not constructed merely from experiences, information, characters, and plots, but from fundamental artistic elements of grammar.

My ConcernsHow do we ensure transfer?Where is accountability in grammar instruction?What does practice look like?How do we add the meta-lens?

Thus the Authors Craft Notebook was born!

Components of Authors Craft JournalOngoing journal used as an opening writing activity, a writers workshop journal, an anchor writing journal, or even a homework journal.Builds on student memories ( small r research)Utilizes all CCSS genresProvides models of grammatical structures and punctuation usage; requires student imitation writing in real contextsProvides a place for students to practice and explicitly integrate new learningsHolds students accountableFosters transfer to other writingAnchor Journal ContentJournal CoverNumbered blueprintI remember poemTable of ContentsStudent writing with annotationsAcknowledgment section

Begins on page 1 or the back side of the cover with a blueprint of a students home/ dwelling. Students number places in and out side the blueprint.43I Remember PoemI remember when2. 4. 5. 6. The flip slide of the page or the opposite side of the journal cover is the I Remember poem/44I Remember PoemI remember when1. I came home from school and saw my baby sister for the first time.2. playing ghosts in the dark hallway with pillowslistening through the hallway furnace to my parents parties4. 5. 6. Table of Contents1. Ghosts in the Hall2. Adult Parties

Students WriteStudents choose their topics from their I Remember Poem.

Analyzing Authors CraftHow the Notebook title was named!

After carefully selecting a text from which students can learn from the craft of the author, the teacher illustrates a grammar principle.48Sample Excerpt from Of Mice and Men

For example, here is an excerpt from OF MICE AND MEN49A tall man stood in the doorway. He held a crushed Stetson hat under his arm while he combed his long, black, damp hair straight back. Like the others, he wore blue jeans and a short denim jacket. When he had finished combining his hair, he moved into the room and he moved with a majesty only achieved by royalty and master craftsmen. He was a jerk line skinner, the prince of the ranch, capable of driving ten, sixteen, even twenty mules with a single line to the leaders.

He might have been thirty-five or fifty. His ear heard more than was said to him, and his slow speech had overtones not of thought, but of understanding beyond thought. His hands, large and lean, were as delicate in their actions as those of a temple dancer.What grammatical structures could be taught from this passage.50A tall man stood in the doorway. He held a crushed Stetson hat under his arm while he combed his long, black, damp hair straight back. Like the others, he wore blue jeans and a short denim jacket. When he had finished combining his hair, he moved into the room and he moved with a majesty only achieved by royalty and master craftsmen. He was a jerk line skinner, the prince of the ranch, capable of driving ten, sixteen, even twenty mules with a single line to the leaders.

He might have been thirty-five or fifty. His ear heard more than was said to him, and his slow speech had overtones not of thought, but of understanding beyond thought. His hands, large and lean, were as delicate in their actions as those of a temple dancer.51Students CopyIn the acknowledgment section of their journals, students write

Subordinate Clause (comma use) J. STEINBECK

And then copy

He held a crushed Stetson hat under his arm while he combed his long, black, damp hair straight back.Modeling, Imitation, Group Practice, and ReleaseThe teacher and or the teacher and the class create another sentence using the same structure. All students copy this sentence, too, on the acknowledgment page.(could use Harry Nodin picture)

Subordinating Conjunctionsafter, although, as, because, before, how, if, once, since, than, that, though, till, until, when, where, whether, whileFrames

sub conj + clause (subj+ verb) + comma + clause.When he had finished combining his hair, he moved into the room.

clause (sub + verb) + sub conj + clause (sub + verb)He held a crushed Stetson hat under his arm while he combed his long, black, damp hair straight back.

Sample Acknowledgment PageAcknowledgement

Subordinate Clause J. Steinbeck OF MICE AND MEN

He held a crushed Stetson hat under his arm while he combed his long, black, damp hair straight back.

Although he dreamed of writing a novel, he laterrealized that first he needed something to say.

Students return to their Craft Notebooksto apply subordinate clauses.Students make notes in the margin of their Journals,acknowledging that they usedthis craft.

When they do, they write the name or number of the structure in the margin next to where they used it and highlight it.

In their Craft Notebooks, students also adda usage or function description.

Under subordinate clauses, a student would add, this craft establishes the relationships between what could be 2 different ideas or sentences.

Sample Acknowledgment PageAcknowledgement

Subordinate Clause J. Steinbeck OF MICE AND MEN

He held a crushed Stetson hat under his arm while he combed his long, black, damp hair straight back.

Although he dreamed of writing a novel, he laterrealized that first he needed something to say.

Function: establishes the relationships between what could be 2 different ideas or sentences.

1, The craft of other authors becomes the craft of our students.

2. Transfer begins intentionally and then becomes automatic.

3. Grammar instruction is fun with immediate application.

Authors Craft Notebook Outcomes