world history renaissance through the russian revolution ghsgt review 1

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World History Renaissance through the Russian Revolution GHSGT Review 1 The Renaissance Culture, philosophies, art and architectural influences of Ancient Greece & Rome were reborn into European societies Knights from the crusades and traders brought spices, silk and written documents from Muslim and Byzantine libraries Wealthy Italian merchants came to influence the politics and development of arts in northern Italian towns 2 3 The Medici family Cosimo de Medici was the wealthiest European at the time (family banks) In 1434, he used his money to influence the ruling council and essentially became dictator of the city of Florence for 30 years His son, Lorenzo the magnificent continued to rule Florence 4 Humanism Scholars start studying Greek and Roman philosophers and apply the classical ideas to Renaissance society Focused on human potential and achievement They did not try to make the classical ideas agree with the teachings of the Church Encouraged the study of history, literature and philosophy 5 Donatello Carved sculptures that had natural postures and facial expressions 6 Leonardo da Vinci Painter, sculptor, artist, inventor, scientist A true Renaissance Man The Mona Lisa The Last Supper His notebook contained sketches from detailed scientific observations and ideas of his inventions 7 8 9 Raphael Used perspective in his paintings The Madonna and child The School of Athens 10 Michelangelo Painter, sculptor, architect and poet Dome of St. Peters Basilica Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel Statue of David 11 Renaissance Writers Petrarch--Father of Humanities Giovanni BoccaccioDecameron used humor to illustrate peoples personality (flaws) MachiavelliThe Prince A political leader should not be concerned with what is morally right, instead what is politically effective Be as strong as a lion and as shrewd as a fox 12 Northern Renaissance Monarchs of Northern Europe become patrons of the arts The Northern Renaissance movement in art and literature develops unique characteristics Did not want to replicate the perfect classical beauty of the Italian renaissance Realism and social reform 13 Christian humanism Believed the Church had failed to inspire people to live a Christian life Goal: Reform society Promoted education of men and women Erasmus Wrote the Praise of Folly Poked fun at most everyone in society He believed all people should study the Bible to improve society 14 Thomas Moore Wrote Utopia His version of a better society An imaginary land where there was no greed, corruption, or war 15 The Printing Press 1440 Johann Gutenberg develops a method to be able to print books quickly and inexpensively The Bible was the 1 st book to be printed this way Books became more easily accessible to common people 16 Martin Luther starts the Protestant Reformation 1521, German Monk, Martin Luther posted the 95 thesis (Complaints) on the door of a Catholic Church in Germany He protested the selling of indulgences He believed that salvation could only be achieved through faith in God (not good deeds) He also thought people should interpret the Bible for themselves His actions started the Protestant Reformation 17 Influential People of the Protestant Reformation Martin Luther John Calvin King Henry VIII Queen Elizabeth I 18 John Calvin Believed in the idea of predestination God knew from the beginning of time who would be saved (only a few elect people) People interpret the Bible for themselves He believed the ideal government was a theocracy (ruled by the religious leaders) His teaching become the basis for a new religion: Calvinism 19 English Reformation King Henry VIII wanted the Catholic Church to grant him a divorce so he could marry and hopefully have a son The Pope refused, so the King formed a reform parliament to pass laws to end the Popes power in England The Act of Supremacy in 1534 recognized the King as the Head of the Church of England 20 Queen Elizabeth I Henry VIII died, and the nations switches back and forth from Protestant to Catholic and his children become the monarch In 1558, Elizabeth, Henrys protestant daughter became Queen The queen has parliament set up the Church of England (Anglican) as the only legal church of the nation 21 Counter Reformation Catholic leaders responded to the Protestant Reformation by reforming the Catholic Church JesuitCatholic missionaries dedicated to education and converting Christians to Catholicism Council of Trent Churchs interpretation of the Bible was final Christians needed good works and faith for salvation Indulgences were acceptable expressions of faith 22 The Age of Exploration European rulers began to pay for explorations to find a sea route to Asia so they could get spices cheaper. Portugal was the first country that sent explorers to search for the sea route to Asia. Sailors used tools such as the astrolabe to navigate using the stars 23 Portugal leads the way Bartholomew Dias sails around the western coast of Africa, reaching the southern tip (Africa's Cape of Good Hope) Vasco da Gama and his crew became the first to sail around Africa and through the Indian Ocean to India. 24 25 Christopher Columbus When Portugal refused to finance Christopher Columbus' idea to sail west to find the shortcut to the Indies, Columbus convinced Spain's King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to finance it. On October 12, 1492, Christopher Columbus and his crew reached the island of Hispaniola. Although Columbus believed he had reached Asia, he had actually discovered the entire continent of North America and claimed it for Spain. 26 Columbian exchange Columbus voyage to the New World introduced new items to the Spanish Columbus took some of those items back to Europe (The Old World) Columbus also introduced items from the Old World to the New World Diseases were also traded between the two hemispheres 27 28 Spain quickly colonized North & South America Ponce de Leon discovered Florida (St. Augustine) Hernando Cortes crushed the Aztec empire in Mexico and claimed it for Spain. Francisco Pizarro conquered the Incan Empire in South America. Other explorers such as Francisco Coronado and Hernando de Soto claimed other portions of North America for Spain. Vasco Nunez de Balboa even claimed the entire Pacific Ocean for Spain. 29 France & England Meanwhile, France began to explore North America. Explorations by Samuel de Champlain and Jacques Cartier resulted in French claims of much of Canada and the north Atlantic coast. English sea dog Sir Francis Drake to plunder Spanish settlements and steal gold from Spanish sea vessels. In 1588, the British Army defeated the Spanish Armada. Allowing Britain to start colonies in the New World 30 Triangular Trade The Spanish quickly realize that using the Native Americans for forced labor is not effective The Dutch start importing slaves from Africa The trade of slaves, sugar, rum, etc is called the triangular trade The worst part of the journey for African slaves was called the Middle Passage 31 32 Scientific Revolution Beginning in the mid 1500s, it was a new way to think about the world using observation It also meant being willing to question what most people accepted as being true Copernicusdeveloped a scientifically- based Heliocentric theory The SUN was the center of the universe (Helio-sun, Helio-Hot) 33 Galileo-uses a telescope to observe the planetshelped to prove Copernicus theories Keplerlaws of planetary motion Planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits (ovals) Newtonlaw of universal gravitation same forces govern motions on earth and in the universe 34 35 Enlightenment Stressed reason and the power of a person to solve problems mid 1700s Lockesocial contract theorypeople have the right to overthrow an abusive government that tries to take away peoples natural rights Rousseaua legitimate government gets its power from the consent of the governed (people give government its power) 36 Revolutions England (1689) William and Mary become the protestant monarch of England in a bloodless revolution Glorious Revolution England becomes a constitutional monarchythe monarchs power is limited by the English Bill of Rights and by Parliament American Revolution (1776) (More to come) 37 French Revolution (1789)the people of France overthrow the King and Queen in a violent revolution to set up a democratic government Revolution in Haiti (1791)African slaves living in the French colony of Haiti revolt led by Toussaint LOverture Latin America ( )colonies fight for their independence from Spain 38 Napoleon Uses his fame as a military leader to take control of the French government (Coup d'tat) He becomes the Emperor of France 39 He conquers most of Europe and made it part of his empire Napoleons fall from power He is finally defeated by the British at the Battle of Waterloo He is exiled (twice) 40 Europes reaction to Napoleonic Wars Congress of Vienna tries to restore a balance of power and give areas that Napoleon had conquered back to their rightful rulers Countries of Europe start to feel strong pridenationalism People see democracy as the best way to create fairness and equality 41 Causes of World War I ( ) 1. nationalism (especially in the Balkans) 2. alliances 3. building up military 4. imperialism (colonies) Austrian arch-duke Franz Ferdinand is assassinated by a Serbian nationalist (teenager) This starts the Great War 42 43 What war was like Trench warfare border between France and Germany Machine guns, tanks, poison gas, barbed wire 44 Versailles Treaty Organized by Italy (Orlando), France (Clemenceau), England (Georges) & USA (Wilson) Wilsons 14 Points (part of the Treaty) no secret treaties & reduce militaries colonies should eventually be able to govern themselves(Mandate system, self determination) League of Nations 45 Russian revolution The absolute leader of Russia is Czar Nicholas II The peasants of Russia were not treated well and revolt In 1917, the czar is overthrown by the Bolsheviks A violent civil war erupts