work redesign

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  • Jobs & the Design of Work

  • Hackman & Oldhams Job Characteristics ModelCore DimensionsPsychological StatesOutcomes Skill VarietyTask IdentityTask Signif.AutonomyFeedbackMeaningfulness of WorkResponsibilityfor outcomesKnowledge ofResultsHigh intrinsicmotivationHigh job per-ormanceHigh job satis-factionLow absenteeism & turnover

  • Moderating Variables for the Job Characteristics ModelGrowth need strengthjob is a vehicle for personal growth, sense of achievement, avenue for feeling successKnowledge and skillsSatisfaction with extrinsic aspects of work

  • Motivating Potential ScoreMPS=Skill Variety +Task Identity+Task Significance3XAutonomyXFeedback

  • Implementing Concepts for the Job Characteristics ModelCombine tasks: Effects skill variety, task identity, & task significanceGroup tasks into natural work units: Effects task significance and task identityGive workers contact with customers: Effects skill variety, autonomy, feedbackVertically load jobs: Effects autonomyOpen feedback channels: Effects feedback

  • Designing Jobs for TeamsTeam has to be an identifiable group, doing a specified piece of work, and be self-managingKey behaviors: Ask for ideas, give suggestions,. listen to others, share information, help othersManagers role: Make alterations needed for effective group performance, consult

  • Goals That MotivateSpecific GoalsDifficult GoalsGoal AcceptanceGoal Feedback

  • Why Goals MotivateMobilize energy in relation to goalFocus attention towards goals attainmentEncourages setting of action plans or strategies for goal attainmentEncourages persistence until goal is attained

  • Enhancing Goal AcceptanceParticipationRewardsSupportiveness

  • Incentives for IndividualsFor ExecutivesCompensation tied to achieving strategic goalsFor Lower Level EmployeesTied to performance: bonuses, commissions, piecework

  • Incentives for GroupsTeam incentivesProfit sharingGain sharingStock options

  • Redesign options

  • Job Enlargement - a method of job design that increases the number of activities in a job to overcome the boredom of overspecialized workJob Rotation - a variation of job enlargement in which workers are exposed to a variety of specialized jobs over timeCross-Training - a variation of job enlargement in which workers are trained in different specialized tasks or activities

  • Job Enrichment - designing or redesigning jobs by incorporating motivational factors into them

    Emphasis is on recognition, responsibility, and advancement opportunity

  • Emerging Issues in Design of WorkTelecommuting - employees work at home or in other locations geographically separate from their companys main locationAlternative work patternsJob Sharing - an alternative work pattern in which there is more than one person occupying a single jobFlextime - an alternative work pattern that enables employees to set their own daily work schedules

  • Example of flexitime

  • Emerging Issues in Design of WorkTechnology at workVirtual Office - a mobile platform of computer, telecommunication, and information technology and servicesTechnostress - the stress cause by new and advancing technologies in the workplaceTask Revision - the modification of incorrectly specified roles or jobsSkill development

  • The Distinguishing Feature of Job Design in the Future

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