Work Redesign

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organisational behaviour

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<ul><li><p>Jobs &amp; the Design of Work </p></li><li><p>Hackman &amp; Oldhams Job Characteristics ModelCore DimensionsPsychological StatesOutcomes Skill VarietyTask IdentityTask Signif.AutonomyFeedbackMeaningfulness of WorkResponsibilityfor outcomesKnowledge ofResultsHigh intrinsicmotivationHigh job per-ormanceHigh job satis-factionLow absenteeism &amp; turnover</p></li><li><p>Moderating Variables for the Job Characteristics ModelGrowth need strengthjob is a vehicle for personal growth, sense of achievement, avenue for feeling successKnowledge and skillsSatisfaction with extrinsic aspects of work</p></li><li><p>Motivating Potential ScoreMPS=Skill Variety +Task Identity+Task Significance3XAutonomyXFeedback</p></li><li><p>Implementing Concepts for the Job Characteristics ModelCombine tasks: Effects skill variety, task identity, &amp; task significanceGroup tasks into natural work units: Effects task significance and task identityGive workers contact with customers: Effects skill variety, autonomy, feedbackVertically load jobs: Effects autonomyOpen feedback channels: Effects feedback</p></li><li><p>Designing Jobs for TeamsTeam has to be an identifiable group, doing a specified piece of work, and be self-managingKey behaviors: Ask for ideas, give suggestions,. listen to others, share information, help othersManagers role: Make alterations needed for effective group performance, consult</p></li><li><p>Goals That MotivateSpecific GoalsDifficult GoalsGoal AcceptanceGoal Feedback</p></li><li><p>Why Goals MotivateMobilize energy in relation to goalFocus attention towards goals attainmentEncourages setting of action plans or strategies for goal attainmentEncourages persistence until goal is attained</p></li><li><p>Enhancing Goal AcceptanceParticipationRewardsSupportiveness</p></li><li><p>Incentives for IndividualsFor ExecutivesCompensation tied to achieving strategic goalsFor Lower Level EmployeesTied to performance: bonuses, commissions, piecework</p></li><li><p>Incentives for GroupsTeam incentivesProfit sharingGain sharingStock options</p></li><li><p>Redesign options</p></li><li><p>Job Enlargement - a method of job design that increases the number of activities in a job to overcome the boredom of overspecialized workJob Rotation - a variation of job enlargement in which workers are exposed to a variety of specialized jobs over timeCross-Training - a variation of job enlargement in which workers are trained in different specialized tasks or activities </p></li><li><p> Job Enrichment - designing or redesigning jobs by incorporating motivational factors into them</p><p> Emphasis is on recognition, responsibility, and advancement opportunity </p></li><li><p>Emerging Issues in Design of WorkTelecommuting - employees work at home or in other locations geographically separate from their companys main locationAlternative work patternsJob Sharing - an alternative work pattern in which there is more than one person occupying a single jobFlextime - an alternative work pattern that enables employees to set their own daily work schedules</p></li><li><p>Example of flexitime</p></li><li><p>Emerging Issues in Design of WorkTechnology at workVirtual Office - a mobile platform of computer, telecommunication, and information technology and servicesTechnostress - the stress cause by new and advancing technologies in the workplaceTask Revision - the modification of incorrectly specified roles or jobsSkill development</p></li><li><p>The Distinguishing Feature of Job Design in the Future</p><p>*****</p></li></ul>