Why Did the Bourbons Fail (3)

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  • 7/29/2019 Why Did the Bourbons Fail (3)

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    Why did the Bourbons fail?

    Louis XVIII 1815-1824Charles X 1824-18301830 REVOLUTION

    What went wrong?

    Playing the BLAME gameits what A level historians do!

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    Because the Bourbon Restoration lasted just15 years was the collapse inevitable?

    The YESargument Associated with an unpopular peace and

    unpopular allied occupation. Louis XVIII seen as weak and a British puppet. Believed in his divine right natural

    successor to ancien regime

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    Tombs of Bourbons at St.Denis Basilica

    Where the Kings of France aretraditionally buried.These graves are theonly ones withbodies in since the

    rest were emptiedin the aftermath of the revolution

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    Was the collapse inevitable?The NO argument

    France had considerable economic and social potential. Land was very productive and populated by a skilled peasantry

    more numerous than anywhere in Europe apart from Russia. Industries were diverse and profitable even if not experiencing

    an Industrial Revolution like Britain.

    Many Revolutionary tensions had been removed peasantryfree and fearful of losing their gains (feared revolution more thansupported it).

    Bourgeoisie (notably in Paris) enjoyed a meritocracy no longerprevented from advancement would support any regime that

    maintained the status quo. Religious revival underway especially in the countryside where

    the catholic Church had been stripped of its land and power.The NO argument would appear to be stronger!

    In which case the causes of the 1830 revolution lie 1815-30 notbefore

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    Do we have to blame the BourbonKings for the revolution of 1830?

    Maybe... However, events happen that are outside of their control

    Economic depression across Europe from 1826 resulted in Banks collapsing Rich strapped for cash and investment High unemployment Poor harvests led to food prices rising as wages fell

    Hunger leads to REVOLUTION! The situation was particularly bad in Paris thousands had

    migrated to the city and were now hungry Situation echoed across Europe but only France has a

    revolution why?Are they habitual revolutionaries OR are the Bourbons to blame?

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    Louis XVIII - success or failure?The general consensus is that Louis XVIII despite all his limitationsmanaged to avoid making major errors.However, his younger brother and successor, Charles X, kept thethrone for only 6 years because he committed a series of quite majorblunders.His major priority was not to go on his travels again? What does this

    mean?Louis XVIIIs reign started inauspiciously due to his fleeing fromNapoleon. After the 2 nd Restoration he

    supported capable ministers (Decazes)

    ensured that government finances were managed efficientlywar indemnity paid off by 1818 & foreign troops withdrawnquiet prosperity followed France was seen as being

    prosperous by early 1820speople were generally happy with/apathetic towards the

    regime

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    Foreign Policy Louis XVIIIs armies invaded Spain in 1823 in

    order to free the King, Ferdinand VII, from thecontrol of the liberal politicians who had forced

    him to adopt a constitution. French armies were victorious in weeks

    Napoleon had struggled for years and afiled tocontrol Spain!

    Little enthusiasm or resistance to war peoplefailed to get patriotic or upset that their Kingwas intervening to protect an autocratic ruler.

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    His greatest success? Managing the Ultras

    He convinced the bourgeoisie that the Charterwould remain a working reality.

    He restrained the Ultras who wanted toundermine the Charter and even wanted toremove it they believed in the divine right of Kings, wanted the restoration of the landsconfiscated from the Church and the aristocracyin the 1790s and the destruction of the NationalAssembly which they saw as an affront to thedignity of the King.

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    Why did things change?

    Helping his pregnant wife into

    a carriage while attending ashow at the Paris Opera, theduc de Berry, CharlesFerdinand, was stabbed todeath by a madman.

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    Ultras backlash Assassination blamed unfairly on liberal revolutionaries. Assassinated the one male member of the royal family who could

    produce a male heir baby born posthumously Henri, Duc deBordeaux.

    Ultras fuelled a panic amongst ruling classes led by the heirCharles, comte dArtois Louis XVIII too old, too weak and tootired to resist.

    Ultras dominated the Chamber of Deputies and took control of the government

    1822-7 the comte de Villele became the chief minister Spain invaded

    Church given powers over the education system Plans made to compensate all of the nobles who had fled \france and

    lost land during the aftermath of the Revolution

    Louis XVIII died in 1824 succeeded by Charles X who was

    effectively already in control