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  • International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR), Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2015


    ISSN: 2278 7798 All Rights Reserved 2015 IJSETR

    Water Quality Monitoring And Controlling In Irrigation

    Using Zigbee Technology

    G.Lakshmi Prasanna1, S.Rajendra Prasad

    2, Dr. C.D Naidu

    3 , D. Ramesh Reddy


    Abstract: Irrigated agriculture is dependent on an adequate water supply of usable quality. Water used for irrigation can vary

    greatly in quality depending upon type and quality of dissolved

    salts. Salts are present in irrigation water in relatively small but

    significant amounts. The problems that result very both and kind,

    degree and modified by soil, climate and crop. The aim this paper

    is to monitor the quality of water and control the water in

    irrigation field. Here in this project we are monitoring the

    conductivity of the water. Controlling is done by using moisture

    sensor. If the moisture decreases , automatically the motor will be

    ON and if the moisture reaches to its threshold level then the

    motor will be automatically OFF. This data will be collected from

    every node and sends to central station using zigbee technology.

    Keywords: Moisture Sensor, conductivity sensor, Zigbee Technology, Raspberry Pi.


    ZigBee has been developed to meet the growing

    demand for capable wireless networking between numerous

    low-power devices. In industry ZigBee is being used for next

    generation automated manufacturing, with small transmitters in

    every device on the floor, allowing for communication

    between devices to a central computer. This new level of

    communication permits finely-tuned remote monitoring and

    manipulation. Arduino is used as it is user friendly and is a low

    cost device which is used at nodes so the overall expenditure

    on nodes will decrease. Raspberry pi is used at the control

    station since the memory storage is high when compared to


    Zigbee technology is used to transmit the data which

    comes from the node to central station. This technology has

    many applications in various fields and which is prominently

    used now. Data rate is high when compared to other

    technologies. This project is to develop a system where water quality is being monitored and distributed equally using

    wireless network and is developed to monitor sensor values at

    different nodes and transmits data to the central station when

    the sensor values are deviated from their respective threshold



    To resolve the problem of the manual analytical

    method adopted in water quality detection with bad real-time

    character, this paper introduces a remote water quality

    measuring and monitoring system. It has used wireless sensor

    network based on the ZigBee to realize the water quality

    parameter remote probing and the real-time monitoring

    function. Observation of the current or historical water quality

    status can be done easily by the user, and it provides a

    reasonable basis which has a simple architecture. According to

    the test results, this system can run stable and its operation is

    convenient [1].

    Historically, wireless networks have mainly addressed

    military applications. However, in recent years, man

    applications came into existence, such as managing inventory,

    monitoring product quality and monitoring disaster zones.

    Various technical issues such as power consumption, radio

    propagation, delay, routing protocols, sensors etc. need to be

    considered according to the applications. In this paper, we

    propose a application which is particularly used for wireless

    networks, specifically a water equitable distribution and

    monitoring system. We propose a possible communication

    system for the water equitable distribution and monitoring the

    quality, and describe our channel measurement approach [2].

    But the main aim of our proposed system is to design

    an easy and efficient method with low-cost and low- power.



    The system is used to develop an application which is

    based on water quality monitoring and equitable distribution in

    irrigation fields, this data is transmitted using zigbee

    technology. Fig.1 shows the block diagram of the system.

    This project aims to identify the deviation in the

    sensor levels and transmits the data to the central station

    through a wireless network. It proposes a novel, scalable,

    intelligent and incremental architecture which is adaptive to the environmental parameters, quality perception that incorporates

    intelligence for monitoring the quality of water and generates

    alerts in terms of mails/ messages/ alarms as per the user


    As this project operates in a remote places the power

    consumption, size, data security and delay in the transmissions

    plays a major role in developing the application. A node is

    formed with the Atmega328 micro controller to process the

    sensor information, and a zigbee module to transmit the sensor

    information to the central station. The Atmega328 controller is

    best suitable for this application, as it operates with the low


  • International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR), Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2015


    ISSN: 2278 7798 All Rights Reserved 2015 IJSETR

    supply voltages of 3.3v and its low cost. Raspberry pi

    (BCM2835 processor) is used at the central station since it has

    significant memory to store the data and log the data


    Fig1: Block diagram of the system

    A. Micro Controller (Atmega328)

    The Arduino Uno is a microcontroller board based on

    the ATmega328. This controller is used at nodes which has 14

    digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM

    outputs), 6 analog inputs, a USB connection, 16 MHz crystal

    oscillator, an ICSP header, a power jack, and a reset button


    Fig2: Arduino board


    There are 14 digital I/O pins and 6 analog pins.

    Operating Voltage: 5V

    Flash memory is of 32KB, SRAM is of 2KB, EEPROM is of 1KB and it has clock speed of 16MHz

    This controller supports UART, SPI, I2C communications.

    Features of this board helps for easy use and also

    which makes to use in this project.

    B. Moisture Sensor

    This is a simple sensor which can be used to detect

    soil moisture when the moisture of the deficit the plant will be

    watered, so that the plants in your garden without people to


    Fig3: Moisture sensor

    Module Output is high when the soil moisture deficit, or the output is low.

    Operating voltage:3.3V~5V

    C. Conductivity Sensor

    It measures Conductivity, Practical salinity units, Total dissolved solids, specific gravity of sea water.

    This sensor takes Temperature dependent or temperature independent readings.

    Full E.C. range from 0.07 s/cm to 500,000+ s/cm

    Here in this project we have used i2c communication for the conductivity sensor [4].

    Fig4: Conductivity probe

  • International Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research (IJSETR), Volume 4, Issue 1, January 2015


    ISSN: 2278 7798 All Rights Reserved 2015 IJSETR

    D. Xbee Pro S2b

    Xbee pro s2b is a zigbee module which is used to

    transmit the data. The data rate of the module is 2.4GHz. It can

    transmit the data up to 1500m range [5].

    Fig5: Xbee pr s2b

    E. Raspberry Pi Board

    Raspberry pi board is used at the central station.

    Model B is used in this project, BCM2835 which contains an

    ARM1176JZ-F processor running at 700MHz, 256MB of

    RAM, and a GPU named Video Core IV [6][7],[8].

    Fig6 : Raspberry pi board

    F. Relay

    Relays are used where it is necessary to control a

    circuit by a low-power signal or where several circuits must be

    controlled by one signal. Here relay is used as we cannot drive

    the DC motor with voltage supplied by the microcontroller.

    G. Motor

    An D.C motor is used to pump the water for the crop

    when the moisture level of the plant is less than the threshold

    level, and OFF when the moisture level is less than the

    threshold level.


    Moisture sensor and conductivity sensor are

    connected to arduino board which in turn is connected to xbee

    pro s2b module. The data from the sensors is taken from the

    board and send to central station using zigbee technology.

    Moisture level and conductivity of water will be

    continuously transmitting the data to central station. Here we

    are using raspberry pi board at central station. When the

    moisture level of the water is below the threshold level

    decreases motor will ON, when it increases the motor will be



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